Special Issue "Optimization and Prediction of Water Quality Model Based on Artificial Intelligence"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "New Sensors, New Technologies and Machine Learning in Water Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 January 2023) | Viewed by 12181

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Jin Zhang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Yangtze Institute for Conservation and Development, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
Interests: integrated stormwater management; urban diffuse pollution
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Yun Bai
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. School of Management Science and Engineering, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing 400067, China 2. Centro de Electrónica, Optoelectronica e Telecomunicações, Universidade do Algarve, 8005139 Faro, Portugal
Interests: water resources management; forecasting with intelligent modelling; big data techniques and application
Prof. Dr. Pei Hua
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Environment, South China Normal University, University Town, Guangzhou 510006, China
Interests: drinking water quality; intelligent modeling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural water qualities such as lakes, streams, and estuaries are influenced by anthropogenic activities, and water deterioration and the need for further treatment is one of the direst and most worrisome issues. Accurate water quality prediction helps to implement early warning decision activities, which are usually considered a cost-effective and alternative water management measure. Traditional process-based models are the main tools for water pollution prediction, which could provide a coherent prediction of pollutant transport and distribution in time and space. However, it is difficult or less accurate to predict pollutants with traditional models due to the complex physical–chemical process-induced uncertainty of parameter values and the complexity of the simulation.

A recent big wave in machine learning has led to massive successes in different research matrices by leveraging large amounts of training data. Machine learning approaches have shown great abilities to extract featured information and identify the inherent correlations and patterns among complex datasets. However, the effectiveness, reliability, accuracy, as well as usability of machine learning algorithms in optimization and prediction of water quality are still largely unexplored.

Accordingly, the primary purpose of this Special Issue is to provide recent studies on novel machine learning approaches for tackling problems in water supply/distribution systems, river networks, water quality assessment, classical and emerging pollutant transportation, etc. Theoretical and practical advancements in physics-informed and/or theory-guided machine learning approaches are also welcomed.

Prof. Dr. Jin Zhang
Prof. Dr. Yun Bai
Prof. Dr. Pei Hua
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • deep learning tools
  • novel machine learning algorithms
  • intelligent forecasting
  • uncertainty quantification
  • neural networks
  • water supply/distribution systems
  • data-driven techniques
  • water quality model
  • predicting classical and emerging contaminants
  • low carbon–water quality-based forecasting and decision making

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Article
Novel Salinity Modeling Using Deep Learning for the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta of California
Water 2022, 14(22), 3628; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223628 - 11 Nov 2022
Viewed by 863
Abstract
Water resources management in estuarine environments for water supply and environmental protection typically requires estimates of salinity for various flow and operational conditions. This study develops and applies two novel deep learning (DL) models, a residual long short-term memory (Res-LSTM) network, and a [...] Read more.
Water resources management in estuarine environments for water supply and environmental protection typically requires estimates of salinity for various flow and operational conditions. This study develops and applies two novel deep learning (DL) models, a residual long short-term memory (Res-LSTM) network, and a residual gated recurrent unit (Res-GRU) model, in estimating the spatial and temporal variations of salinity. Four other machine learning (ML) models, previously developed and reported, consisting of multi-layer perceptron (MLP), residual network (ResNet), LSTM, and GRU are utilized as the baseline models to benchmark the performance of the two novel models. All six models are applied at 23 study locations in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta), the hub of California’s water supply system. Model input features include observed or calculated tidal stage (water level), flow and salinity at model upstream boundaries, salinity control gate operations, crop consumptive use, and pumping for the period of 2001–2019. Meanwhile, field observations of salinity at the study locations during the same period are also utilized for the development of the predictive use of the models. Results indicate that the proposed DL models generally outperform the baseline models in simulating and predicting salinity on both daily and hourly scales at the study locations. The absolute bias is generally less than 5%. The correlation coefficients and Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency values are close to 1. Particularly, Res-LSTM has slightly superior performance over Res-GRU. Moreover, the study investigates the overfitting issues of both the DL and baseline models. The investigation indicates that overfitting is not notable. Finally, the study compares the performance of Res-LSTM against that of an operational process-based salinity model. It is shown Res-LSTM outperforms the process-based model consistently across all study locations. Overall, the study demonstrates the feasibility of DL-based models in supplementing the existing operational models in providing accurate and real-time estimates of salinity to inform water management decision making. Full article
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Article
Micro-Climate Computed Machine and Deep Learning Models for Prediction of Surface Water Temperature Using Satellite Data in Mundan Water Reservoir
Water 2022, 14(18), 2935; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182935 - 19 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1042
Abstract
Water temperature is an important indicator of water quality for surface water resources because it impacts solubility of dissolved gases in water, affects metabolic rates of aquatic inhabitants, such as fish and harmful algal blooms (HABs), and determines the fate of water resident [...] Read more.
Water temperature is an important indicator of water quality for surface water resources because it impacts solubility of dissolved gases in water, affects metabolic rates of aquatic inhabitants, such as fish and harmful algal blooms (HABs), and determines the fate of water resident biogeochemical nutrients. Furthermore, global warming is causing a widespread rise in temperature levels in water sources on a global scale, threatening clean drinking water supplies. Therefore, it is key to increase the frequency of spatio-monitoring for surface water temperature (SWT). However, there is a lack of comprehensive SWT monitoring datasets because current methods for monitoring SWT are costly, time consuming, and not standardized. The research objective of this study was to estimate SWT using data from the Landsat-8 (L8) and Sentinel-3 (S3) satellites. To do this, we used machine learning techniques, such as Support Vector Regression (SVR), Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), simple neural network (ANN), and deep learning techniques (Long Short Term Memory, LSTM, and Convolutional Long Short Term Memory, 1D ConvLSTM). Using deep and machine learning techniques to regress satellite data to estimate SWT presents a number of challenges, including prediction uncertainty, over- or under-estimation of measured values, and significant variation in the final estimated data. The performance of the L8 ConvLSTM model was superior to all other methods (R2 of 0.93 RMSE of 0.16 °C, and bias of 0.01 °C). The factors that had a significant effect on the model’s accuracy performance were identified and quantified using a two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis. The results demonstrate that the main effects and interaction of the type of machine/deep learning (ML/DL) model and the type of satellite have statistically significant effects on the performances of the different models. The test statistics are as follows: (satellite type main effect p *** ≤ 0.05, Ftest = 15.4478), (type of ML/DL main effect p *** ≤ 0.05, Ftest = 17.4607) and (interaction, satellite type × type of ML/DL p ** ≤ 0.05, Ftest = 3.5325), respectively. The models were successfully deployed to enable satellite remote sensing monitoring of SWT for the reservoir, which will help to resolve the limitations of the conventional sampling and laboratory techniques. Full article
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Article
Designing Efficient and Sustainable Predictions of Water Quality Indexes at the Regional Scale Using Machine Learning Algorithms
Water 2022, 14(18), 2801; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182801 - 09 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
Water quality and scarcity are key topics considered by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), institutions, policymakers and stakeholders to guarantee human safety, but also vital to protect natural ecosystems. However, conventional approaches to deciding the suitability of water for drinking purposes are often [...] Read more.
Water quality and scarcity are key topics considered by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), institutions, policymakers and stakeholders to guarantee human safety, but also vital to protect natural ecosystems. However, conventional approaches to deciding the suitability of water for drinking purposes are often costly because multiple characteristics are required, notably in low-income countries. As a result, building right and trustworthy models is mandatory to correctly manage available groundwater resources. In this research, we propose to check multiple classification techniques such as Decision Trees (DT), K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Discriminants Analysis (DA), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Ensemble Trees (ET) to design the best strategy allowing the forecast a Water Quality Index (WQI). To achieve this goal, an extended dataset characterized by water samples collected in a total of twelve municipalities of the Wilaya of Naâma in Algeria was considered. Among them, 151 samples were examined as training samples, and 18 were used to test and confirm the prediction model. Later, data samples were classified based on the WQI into four states: excellent water quality, good water quality, poor water quality, and very poor or unsafe water. The main results revealed that the SVM classifier obtained the highest forecast accuracy, with 95.4% of prediction accuracy when the data are standardized and 88.9% for the accuracy of the test samples. The results confirmed that the use of machine learning models are powerful tools for forecasting drinking water as larger scales to promote the design of efficient and sustainable water quality control and support decision-plans. Full article
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Article
Application of a New Architecture Neural Network in Determination of Flocculant Dosing for Better Controlling Drinking Water Quality
Water 2022, 14(17), 2727; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172727 - 01 Sep 2022
Viewed by 636
Abstract
In drinking water plants, accurate control of flocculation dosing not only improves the level of operation automation, thus reducing the chemical cost, but also strengthens the monitoring of pollutants in the whole water system. In this study, we used feedforward signal and feedback [...] Read more.
In drinking water plants, accurate control of flocculation dosing not only improves the level of operation automation, thus reducing the chemical cost, but also strengthens the monitoring of pollutants in the whole water system. In this study, we used feedforward signal and feedback signal data to establish a back-propagation (BP) model for the prediction of flocculant dosing. We examined the effect of the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and data type on the simulation performance of the model. The results showed that the parameters, such as the learning factor, population size, and number of generations, significantly affected the simulation. The best optimization conditions were attained at a learning factor of 1.4, population size of 20, 20 generations, 8 feedforward signals and 1 feedback signal as input data, 6 hidden layer nodes, and 1 output node. The coefficient of determination (R2) between the predicted and measured values was 0.68, and the root mean square error (RMSE) was lower than 20%, showing a good prediction result. Weak time-delay data enhanced the model accuracy, which increased the R2 to 0.73. Overall, with the hybridized data, PSO, and weak time-delay data, the new architecture neural network was able to predict flocculant dosing. Full article
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Article
Spatiotemporal Variation and Driving Factors of Water Supply Services in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area of China Based on Supply-Demand Balance
Water 2022, 14(14), 2271; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142271 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 810
Abstract
Water supply services (WSSs) are critical to human survival and development. The Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model enables an integrated, dynamic, and visual assessment of ecosystem services at different scales. In addition, Geodetector is an effective tool for identifying [...] Read more.
Water supply services (WSSs) are critical to human survival and development. The Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model enables an integrated, dynamic, and visual assessment of ecosystem services at different scales. In addition, Geodetector is an effective tool for identifying the main driving factors of spatial heterogeneity of ecosystem services. Therefore, this article takes the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), the most prominent strategic reserve of freshwater resources in China, as the study area and uses the InVEST model to simulate the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of the supply-demand balance of WSSs and freshwater security patterns in 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2018, and explores the key driving factors of freshwater security index (FSI) with Geodetector. The total supply of WSSs in the TGRA decreased by 1.05% overall between 2005 and 2018, with the head and tail areas being low-value regions for water yield and the central part of the belly areas being high-value regions for water yield. The total demand for WSSs in the TGRA increased by 9.1%, with the tail zones and the central part of the belly zones being the high water consumption areas. In contrast, the head zones are of low water consumption. The multi-year average FSI of the TGRA is 0.12, 0.1, 0.21, and 0.16, showing an upward trend. The key ecological function areas in the TGRA are high-value FSI regions, while the tail zones in the key development areas are low-value FSI regions. Industrial water consumption significantly impacts FSI, with a multi-year average q value of 0.82. Meanwhile, the q value of industrial and domestic water consumption on FSI in 2018 increased by 43.54% and 30%, respectively, compared with 2005. This study analyzes the spatiotemporal variation of WSSs and detects the drivers in the natural-economic-social perspective and innovation in ecosystem services research. The study results can guide water resource security management in other large reservoirs or specific reservoir areas. Full article
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Article
Using a Grey Niche Model to Predict the Water Consumption in 31 Regions of China
Water 2022, 14(12), 1883; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14121883 - 11 Jun 2022
Viewed by 898
Abstract
Regional development brings significant changes in industrial structure and water consumption. Researching the trend in water consumption by changes in industrial structure can promote water conservation. The grey niche model describes the industrial changes in China and analyzes the water consumption of different [...] Read more.
Regional development brings significant changes in industrial structure and water consumption. Researching the trend in water consumption by changes in industrial structure can promote water conservation. The grey niche model describes the industrial changes in China and analyzes the water consumption of different leading industries. Using data from 2014 to 2019, and taking the economy as the influencing reason and the industrial niche as the weight, water consumption was predicted. The average percentage errors of the prediction results were all less than 0.1%. While improving the forecasting accuracy, the water consumption forecasting has been strengthened. The calculation results show that regional industry is undergoing transformation, and tertiary industry is rising in the national economy. The successful implementation of industrial water-saving measures has kept the water consumption of industrially developed cities stable but the rapid development of tertiary industries will increase water consumption. Incorporating changes in industrial structure into water use analysis allows the Chinese government to draft water conservation policies for various industries. Full article
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Article
Prediction of Flow Based on a CNN-LSTM Combined Deep Learning Approach
Water 2022, 14(6), 993; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060993 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2213
Abstract
Although machine learning (ML) techniques are increasingly used in rainfall-runoff models, most of them are based on one-dimensional datasets. In this study, a rainfall-runoff model with deep learning algorithms (CNN-LSTM) was proposed to compute runoff in the watershed based on two-dimensional rainfall radar [...] Read more.
Although machine learning (ML) techniques are increasingly used in rainfall-runoff models, most of them are based on one-dimensional datasets. In this study, a rainfall-runoff model with deep learning algorithms (CNN-LSTM) was proposed to compute runoff in the watershed based on two-dimensional rainfall radar maps directly. The model explored a convolutional neural network (CNN) to process two-dimensional rainfall maps and long short-term memory (LSTM) to process one-dimensional output data from the CNN and the upstream runoff in order to calculate the flow of the downstream runoff. In addition, the Elbe River basin in Sachsen, Germany, was selected as the study area, and the high-water periods of 2006, 2011, and 2013, and the low-water periods of 2015 and 2018 were used as the study periods. Via the fivefold validation, we found that the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and Kling–Gupta efficiency (KGE) fluctuated from 0.46 to 0.97 and from 0.47 to 0.92 for the high-water period, where the optimal fold achieved 0.97 and 0.92, respectively. For the low-water period, the NSE and KGE ranged from 0.63 to 0.86 and from 0.68 to 0.93, where the optimal fold achieved 0.86 and 0.93, respectively. Our results demonstrate that CNN-LSTM would be useful for estimating water availability and flood alerts for river basin management. Full article
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Article
A Water Consumption Forecasting Model by Using a Nonlinear Autoregressive Network with Exogenous Inputs Based on Rough Attributes
Water 2022, 14(3), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030329 - 23 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1630
Abstract
Scientific prediction of water consumption is beneficial for the management of water resources. In practice, many factors affect water consumption, and the various impact mechanisms are complex and uncertain. Meanwhile, the water consumption time series has a nonlinear dynamic feature. Therefore, this paper [...] Read more.
Scientific prediction of water consumption is beneficial for the management of water resources. In practice, many factors affect water consumption, and the various impact mechanisms are complex and uncertain. Meanwhile, the water consumption time series has a nonlinear dynamic feature. Therefore, this paper proposes a nonlinear autoregressive model with an exogenous input (NARX) neural network model based on rough set (RS) theory. First, the RS theory was used to analyze the importance of each attribute in water consumption. Then, the main influencing factor was selected as the input of the NARX neural network model, which was applied to predict water consumption. The proposed model is proved to give better results of a single NARX model and a back propagation neural network. The experimental results indicate that the proposed model has higher prediction accuracy in terms of the mean absolute error, mean absolute percentage error and root mean square error. Full article
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Article
DSS-OSM: An Integrated Decision Support System for Offshore Oil Spill Management
Water 2022, 14(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010020 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
The marine ecosystem, human health and social economy are always severely impacted once an offshore oil spill event has occurred. Thus, the management of oil spills is of importance but is difficult due to constraints from a number of dynamic and interactive processes [...] Read more.
The marine ecosystem, human health and social economy are always severely impacted once an offshore oil spill event has occurred. Thus, the management of oil spills is of importance but is difficult due to constraints from a number of dynamic and interactive processes under uncertain conditions. An integrated decision support system is significantly helpful for offshore oil spill management, but it is yet to be developed. Therefore, this study aims at developing an integrated decision support system for supporting offshore oil spill management (DSS-OSM). The DSS-OSM was developed with the integration of a Monte Carlo simulation, artificial neural network and simulation-optimization coupling approach to provide timely and effective decision support to offshore oil spill vulnerability analysis, response technology screening and response devices/equipment allocation. In addition, the uncertainties and their interactions were also analyzed throughout the modeling of the DSS-OSM. Finally, an offshore oil spill management case study was conducted on the south coast of Newfoundland, Canada, demonstrating the feasibility of the developed DSS-OSM. Full article
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