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Water, Volume 13, Issue 16 (August-2 2021) – 173 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Are physical atmospheric correction models most effective for water quality modeling or image-based models? To answer this long-standing debate, a comparative analysis was conducted to evaluate the limits of three image-based atmospheric correction models (top of the atmosphere (ToA), dark object subtraction (DOS), and cosine of solar zenith angle (COST)) and three physical models (atmospheric correction for flat terrain (ATCOR), fast line-of-sight atmospheric analysis of spectral hypercubes (FLAASH)), and ACOLITE) to retrieve inland suspended particulate matter concentrations using Landsat imagery. Contrary to expectations, image-based models outperformed physical models in terms of accuracy, particularly the DOS and COST models. View this paper
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Article
Machine Learning Modeling of Water Use Patterns in Small Disadvantaged Communities
Water 2021, 13(16), 2312; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162312 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1118
Abstract
Water use patterns were explored for three small communities that are located in proximity to agricultural fields and rely on their local wells for potable water supply. High-resolution water use data, collected over a four-year period, revealed significant temporal variability. Monthly, daily, and [...] Read more.
Water use patterns were explored for three small communities that are located in proximity to agricultural fields and rely on their local wells for potable water supply. High-resolution water use data, collected over a four-year period, revealed significant temporal variability. Monthly, daily, and hourly water use patterns were well described by autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models. Model development was supported by unsupervised clustering analysis via self-organizing maps (SOMs) that revealed similarities of water use patterns and confirmed the time-series water use model attributes. The inclusion of ambient temperature and rainfall as model attributes improved ARMA model performance for daily and hourly water use from R2 ~0.86–0.87 to 0.94–0.97 and from R2 ~0.85–0.89 to 0.92–0.98, respectively. Water use predictions for an entire year forward in time was feasible demonstrating ARMA models’ performance of (i) R2 ~0.90–0.94 and average absolute relative error (AARE) of ~2.9–4.9% for daily water use, and (ii) R2 ~0.81–0.95 and AARE ~1.9–3.8% for hourly water use. The study suggests that ARMA modeling should be useful for analysis of temporally variable water use in support of water source management, as well as assessing capacity building for small water systems including water treatment needs and wastewater handling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Use and Scarcity)
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Review
Water Literacy in the Southeast Asian Context: Are We There Yet?
Water 2021, 13(16), 2311; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162311 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1149
Abstract
The water situation in Southeast Asia has changed from one of relative abundance to one of relative scarcity. Conventional water management that strategized around the provision of adequate water supply to users has limited sustainability. Though nations in this region have adopted the [...] Read more.
The water situation in Southeast Asia has changed from one of relative abundance to one of relative scarcity. Conventional water management that strategized around the provision of adequate water supply to users has limited sustainability. Though nations in this region have adopted the United Nations Sustainable Development Plan into their water management framework, successful outcomes are limited thus far. Water literacy has a growing importance for improving water sustainability, especially in developing countries. A literature search was employed to extract data on the different dimensions of water literacy in Southeast Asia including the sources and consumption patterns, water governance and management, and sociodemographic elements as well as the various aspects of water related challenges faced. Results from the review and analysis show that a large proportion of Southeast Asian populations are not part of a water sustainable society, and this presents a major hurdle for the countries to meet United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 6 by 2030. Therefore, active cognitive engagement through the creation of a water literate environment is critical for breaking the chain of water illiteracy and to achieve long-term water sustainability in Southeast Asia countries. Overall, this paper provides a critical analysis on lessons learnt from the region that can be mirrored in other parts of the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
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Article
Storage-Discharge Relationships under Forest Cover Change in Ethiopian Highlands
Water 2021, 13(16), 2310; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162310 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 750
Abstract
Detecting the impacts of forest cover changes on hydrology is challenging given uncertainties in how changes will manifest in observed streamflow. Considering changes in the rate of change of observed streamflow (e.g., recession characteristics) may offer insights to hydrological shifts driven by forest [...] Read more.
Detecting the impacts of forest cover changes on hydrology is challenging given uncertainties in how changes will manifest in observed streamflow. Considering changes in the rate of change of observed streamflow (e.g., recession characteristics) may offer insights to hydrological shifts driven by forest cover change that are not seen when considering absolute changes of streamflow itself. This study assesses the impacts of forest cover changes on the storage–discharge relationships in three meso-scale watersheds in the highlands of Ethiopia based on a 30-year hydro-climatic and land cover change dataset. We analyze streamflow recessions and fitted parameters of a linear reservoir model to depict fundamental shifts in the storage–discharge relation for these watersheds. Our analysis shows that recession slopes and the total storages increase as natural forest covers decrease in the 273 km2 Woshi-Dimbira and 1980 km2 Upper-Didesa watersheds. The linear reservoir model storage coefficient parameter shows an increasing trend with time for the 41 km2 Sokoru watershed which is afforested, indicating faster drainage and reduction in storage. Our work highlights that considering storage–discharge relationships may be useful for assessing the impacts of forest cover change on water resources in regions where land use change is active and rapid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Article
Antibiotic Resistance in Wastewater and Its Impact on a Receiving River: A Case Study of WWTP Brno-Modřice, Czech Republic
Water 2021, 13(16), 2309; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162309 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1180
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance has become a global threat in which the anthropogenically influenced aquatic environment represents not only a reservoir for the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) among humans and animals but also an environment where resistance genes are introduced into natural microbial [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance has become a global threat in which the anthropogenically influenced aquatic environment represents not only a reservoir for the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) among humans and animals but also an environment where resistance genes are introduced into natural microbial ecosystems. Wastewater is one of the sources of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this research was the evaluation of wastewater impact on the spread of antibiotic resistance in the water environment. In this study, qPCR was used to detect antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs)—blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-32, ampC, blaTEM, sul1, tetM and mcr-1 and an integron detection primer (intl1). Detection of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli was used as a complement to the observed qPCR results. Our results show that the process of wastewater treatment significantly reduces the abundances of ARGs and ARB. Nevertheless, treated wastewater affects the ARGs and ARB number in the receiving river. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Water Microbiology and Wastewater-Based Epidemiology)
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Article
Automatic Calibration for CE-QUAL-W2 Model Using Improved Global-Best Harmony Search Algorithm
Water 2021, 13(16), 2308; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162308 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 832
Abstract
CE-QUAL-W2 is widely used for simulating hydrodynamics and water quality of the aquatic environments. Currently, the model calibration is mainly based on trial and error, and therefore it is subject to the knowledge and experience of users. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm [...] Read more.
CE-QUAL-W2 is widely used for simulating hydrodynamics and water quality of the aquatic environments. Currently, the model calibration is mainly based on trial and error, and therefore it is subject to the knowledge and experience of users. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm has been tested for automatic calibration of CE-QUAL-W2, but it has an issue of prematurely converging to a local optimum. In this study, we proposed an Improved Global-Best Harmony Search (IGHS) algorithm to automatically calibrate the CE-QUAL-W2 model to overcome these shortcomings. We tested the performance of the IGHS calibration method by simulating water temperature of Devils Lake, North Dakota, which agreed with field observations with R2 = 0.98, and RMSE = 1.23 and 0.77 °C for calibration (2008–2011) and validation (2011–2016) periods, respectively. The same comparison, but with the PSO-calibrated CE-QUAL-W2 model, produced R2 = 0.98 and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) = 1.33 and 0.91 °C. Between the two calibration methods, the CE-QUAL-W2 model calibrated by the IGHS method could lower the RMSE in water temperature simulation by approximately 7–15%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Challenges in Hydrological Modeling and Engineering)
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Article
Sustainable Wastewater Management to Reduce Freshwater Contamination and Water Depletion in Mexico
Water 2021, 13(16), 2307; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162307 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
At present, most rivers, lakes, and reservoirs in Mexico have significant anthropogenic contamination. The lack of sanitation infrastructure, the increase in the number of nonoperational or abandoned sanitation facilities, limited enforcement of environmental regulations, and limited public policies for the reuse of treated [...] Read more.
At present, most rivers, lakes, and reservoirs in Mexico have significant anthropogenic contamination. The lack of sanitation infrastructure, the increase in the number of nonoperational or abandoned sanitation facilities, limited enforcement of environmental regulations, and limited public policies for the reuse of treated wastewater all contribute to the contamination and water availability problem. The reasons for this are identified as (1) the high maintenance and operational costs in sanitation facilities (including electricity consumption); (2) poor planning and practices of wastewater management and reuse by municipalities; (3) national policies that do not favor the reuse of treated wastewater for agriculture, industry, and municipal services instead of using groundwater as at present; (4) failure to adopt a governance model at the three levels of government; and (5) transparency in the management of financial resources. Some measures to improve this situation include (a) transparent decision-making; (b) participation and accountability in budgeting and planning at the national, state, and municipal levels; and (c) planning for the reuse of treated wastewater to reduce groundwater extractions and to reduce discharges to surface waters from the beginning of every WWTP project. Full article
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Article
Rapid Spread of the Invasive Brown Alga Rugulopteryx okamurae in a National Park in Provence (France, Mediterranean Sea)
Water 2021, 13(16), 2306; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162306 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
The temperate Northwest Pacific brown alga Rugulopteryx okamurae (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae) was first discovered in 2002 in the Mediterranean Sea in the Thau coastal lagoon (Occitania, France) and then again in 2015 along the southern side of the Strait of Gibraltar, where it was [...] Read more.
The temperate Northwest Pacific brown alga Rugulopteryx okamurae (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae) was first discovered in 2002 in the Mediterranean Sea in the Thau coastal lagoon (Occitania, France) and then again in 2015 along the southern side of the Strait of Gibraltar, where it was assigned with invasive status. We report here on the first occurrence of the species in the Northwest Mediterranean Sea in Calanques National Park (Marseille, France) in 2018. By 2020, a large population had developed, extending over 9.5 km of coastline, including highly protected no-take zones. The seafood trade, with R. okamurae used as packing material for sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus shipments from Thau Lagoon, could be the vector of its introduction into the Marseille area. As observed in the Strait of Gibraltar, R. okamurae is spreading rapidly along the Marseille coasts, suggesting an invasive pathway. The subtidal reefs are densely carpeted with R. okamurae, which overgrows most native algal species. Fragments of the alga are continuously detached by wave actions and currents, sedimenting on the seabed and potentially clogging fishing nets, and thus, impacting artisanal fishing or washing up on the beaches, where they rot and raise concern among local populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Invasions in the Marine Environment)
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Article
Response of Zooplankton Size Structure to Multiple Stressors in Urban Lakes
Water 2021, 13(16), 2305; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162305 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 929
Abstract
Urban lakes are important environmental assets that contribute significant ecosystem services in urbanised areas around the world. Consequently, urban lakes are more exposed to anthropogenic pressures. Zooplankton communities play a central role in lake processes and, as such, are very sensitive to the [...] Read more.
Urban lakes are important environmental assets that contribute significant ecosystem services in urbanised areas around the world. Consequently, urban lakes are more exposed to anthropogenic pressures. Zooplankton communities play a central role in lake processes and, as such, are very sensitive to the impacts of human activities both through in-lake and catchment processes. Understanding their ecological function in urban lakes and how they respond to urbanisation is essential for environmental sustainability. In this study, we investigated the reliability of zooplankton size structure as indicators of anthropogenic stressors in urban lakes. We examined the relationship between environmental variables and zooplankton community size spectra derived as mean body size, density, and biomass. Our study showed that the overall mean body size was within the small size group ranged from 416 to 735 µm equivalent spherical diameter (ESD). Despite no significant difference in total zooplankton density between lakes, there was variability in the total density of the five different size classes. Total biomass was characterised by a significant proportion of size >750 µm. As the specific parameter of normalised biomass size spectra (NBSS), the slopes of the NBSS varied from moderate (−0.83 to −1.04) for a community with higher biomass of the larger size zooplankton to steeper slopes (from −1.15 to −1.49) for a community with higher biomass of smaller size. The environmental variables, represented by total phosphorus (TP) and chlorophyll a (chl-a), had a strong effect on zooplankton biomass and NBSS, where TP and chl-a were significantly correlated with the increase of total biomass and corresponded well with a less negative slope. Our results indicated that the community metric was sensitive to nutrient input and that size-based metrics have the potential to serve as key indicators for the management of urban lakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
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Article
Environmental Surveillance of Legionella spp. in an Italian University Hospital Results of 10 Years of Analysis
Water 2021, 13(16), 2304; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162304 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
The occurrence of Legionella spp. in the water distribution systems of large hospitals and other healthcare facilities is considered particularly dangerous, due to the critical nature of the hospitalized patients. The aim of this study is to present a pluri-annual environmental surveillance in [...] Read more.
The occurrence of Legionella spp. in the water distribution systems of large hospitals and other healthcare facilities is considered particularly dangerous, due to the critical nature of the hospitalized patients. The aim of this study is to present a pluri-annual environmental surveillance in a large university hospital assessing the prevalence of Legionella spp. and underlining its variability over the years. The samples of water were collected in accordance with the Italian National Guidelines and the sampling sites considered in this study were selected favoring wards with very high-risk patients and with patients at increased risk. The laboratory analyzed a total of 305 water samples deriving from 24 different sampling points. Legionella spp. were detected in 39.4% of samples, the majority of which were contaminated by Legionella pneumophila serogroups 2–14 (68.7%). Statistically significant differences were found among different seasons with a linear trend in positive proportion from summer to spring. Several experimental interventions to prevent and reduce Legionella colonization were attempted, but there is no a definitive method for the complete eradication of this microorganism. The permanent monitoring of hospital water distribution systems is fundamental to preventing the potential risk of nosocomial Legionellosis and to implementing procedures to minimize the risk of Legionella spp. colonization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water and One Health)
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Article
Event Based Post-Fire Hydrological Modeling of the Upper Arroyo Seco Watershed in Southern California
Water 2021, 13(16), 2303; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162303 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1395
Abstract
Understanding, development and integration of pre-fire and post-fire watershed hydrological processes into a watershed hydrological model in a wild-fire repeating region similar to parts of California is critical for emergency assessments. 95% of the upper Arroyo Seco watershed located in Los Angeles County [...] Read more.
Understanding, development and integration of pre-fire and post-fire watershed hydrological processes into a watershed hydrological model in a wild-fire repeating region similar to parts of California is critical for emergency assessments. 95% of the upper Arroyo Seco watershed located in Los Angeles County in southern California was burned by the Station fire that occurred in August 2009, significantly increasing the watershed observed runoff. This watershed was employed to develop the January 2008 rainfall runoff model as a pre-fire event-based watershed hydrological model. This pre-fire watershed model was subsequently employed in the rainfall events of 18 January 2010 and 27 February 2010, a few months after the fire event of August 2009. The pre-fire watershed model when employed in the post-fire rainfall events without considering the fire effects vastly underestimated the simulated discharge. For this reason, in this study of the post-fire catchment runoff modeling the following points are taken into consideration: (a) a realistic distributed initial soil moisture condition; (b) a formulation that includes a reduction factor and a burn severity factor, as multiplying factors to soil hydraulic conductivity in the soil characteristic curve; and (c) runoff routing parameterization under burned conditions. Developing the post-fire Arroyo Seco watershed model by using the above-mentioned points enhanced the Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency from −24% to 82% for the 18 January 2010 rainfall event and from −47% to 96% for the 27 February 2010 rainfall event. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of By-Pass Fishway Operation for Attraction Efficiency Based on GPS Drifter Field Experiments
Water 2021, 13(16), 2302; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162302 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 989
Abstract
The attraction efficiency of a by-pass fishway installed at Gangjeong-Goryeong Weir on the Nakdong River in South Korea was evaluated according to flow rate variation of the main channel. Optimal flow rate that achieved the maximum value of attraction efficiency at the fishway [...] Read more.
The attraction efficiency of a by-pass fishway installed at Gangjeong-Goryeong Weir on the Nakdong River in South Korea was evaluated according to flow rate variation of the main channel. Optimal flow rate that achieved the maximum value of attraction efficiency at the fishway entrance was also determined. The weir can adjust the flow rate of the main channel and the fishway by operating sluice gates. The weighted usable area (WUA) calculated on the basis of habitat suitability criteria (HSC) for target species using River2D (a two-dimensional physical habitat model) was regarded as an indicator of attraction efficiency. The simulated velocity field by River2D was validated by virtue of measured data acquired from GPS drifter field experiments. Additionally, monthly fish monitoring data obtained with a fish trap served as supporting data to confirm the validity of the estimated attraction efficiency. The monitoring results revealed that the fishway attraction efficiency was the highest during the spawning season (from April to June). The target fish used the fishway most frequently in April. However, many other fish species used the fishway in June. Simulation results revealed that the flow rate of the main channel at the weir should be maintained at 190 m3/s in order to most effectively attract the target fish species into the fishway entrance. Managing the optimal flow rate by operating the sluice gate is especially important during the spawning season of the target fish to facilitate upstream and downstream migration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics)
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Review
Cryptic Constituents: The Paradox of High Flux–Low Concentration Components of Aquatic Ecosystems
Water 2021, 13(16), 2301; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162301 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 967
Abstract
The interface between terrestrial ecosystems and inland waters is an important link in the global carbon cycle. However, the extent to which allochthonous organic matter entering freshwater systems plays a major role in microbial and higher-trophic-level processes is under debate. Human perturbations can [...] Read more.
The interface between terrestrial ecosystems and inland waters is an important link in the global carbon cycle. However, the extent to which allochthonous organic matter entering freshwater systems plays a major role in microbial and higher-trophic-level processes is under debate. Human perturbations can alter fluxes of terrestrial carbon to aquatic environments in complex ways. The biomass and production of aquatic microbes are traditionally thought to be resource limited via stoichiometric constraints such as nutrient ratios or the carbon standing stock at a given timepoint. Low concentrations of a particular constituent, however, can be strong evidence of its importance in food webs. High fluxes of a constituent are often associated with low concentrations due to high uptake rates, particularly in aquatic food webs. A focus on biomass rather than turnover can lead investigators to misconstrue dissolved organic carbon use by bacteria. By combining tracer methods with mass balance calculations, we reveal hidden patterns in aquatic ecosystems that emphasize fluxes, turnover rates, and molecular interactions. We suggest that this approach will improve forecasts of aquatic ecosystem responses to warming or altered nitrogen usage. Full article
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Article
Combined Adsorption and Photocatalytic Degradation for Ciprofloxacin Removal Using Sugarcane Bagasse/N,S-TiO2 Powder Composite
Water 2021, 13(16), 2300; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162300 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 905
Abstract
N,S-TiO2 deposited on three kinds of pre-treated sugarcane bagasse was synthesized via a sol–gel method. The obtained composites were characterized by various techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). UV-visible induced degradation [...] Read more.
N,S-TiO2 deposited on three kinds of pre-treated sugarcane bagasse was synthesized via a sol–gel method. The obtained composites were characterized by various techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). UV-visible induced degradation of ciprofloxacin was investigated. The influence of some experimental parameters such as contact time, pH, dosage, and initial concentration on the efficiency of ciprofloxacin elimination was also evaluated. The highest efficiency was observed for the alkaline pre-treated sugarcane bagasse combined with N,S-TiO2, about 86% under optimal conditions (contact time 150-min irradiation, pH 5.5–6, dosage 0.5 g L−1, and the initial concentration CIP 30 ppm). There may be a rapid ciprofloxacin transition from the adsorption site to the photocatalytic site, and the alkaline pre-treated sugarcane bagasse/N,S-TiO2 prevented the recombining of holes and electrons of the photocatalyst. Furthermore, the alkaline pretreatment sugarcane bagasse/N,S-TiO2 composite material was sustainable, with only a 10% reduction after reusing the material three times. The presence of sugarcane bagasse made the material easy to recover from the liquid phase. Full article
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Article
A Method for Modeling Urban Water Infrastructures Combining Geo-Referenced Data
Water 2021, 13(16), 2299; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162299 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 988
Abstract
Water distribution networks are the backbone of any municipal water supply. Their task is to supply the population regardless of the respective demand. High resilience of these infrastructures is of great importance and has brought these infrastructures into the focus of science and [...] Read more.
Water distribution networks are the backbone of any municipal water supply. Their task is to supply the population regardless of the respective demand. High resilience of these infrastructures is of great importance and has brought these infrastructures into the focus of science and politics. At the same time, the data collected is highly sensitive and often openly unavailable. Therefore, researchers have to rely on models that represent the topology of these infrastructures. In this work, a model is developed that allows the topology of an urban water infrastructure to be mapped using the example of Cologne, Germany by combining freely available data. On the one hand, spatial data on land use (local climate zones) are used to disaggregate the water demand within the city under consideration. On the other hand, the parallelism of water and urban transportation infrastructures is used to identify the topology of a network by applying optimization methods. These networks can be analyzed to identify vulnerable areas within urban structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilience of Interdependent Urban Water Systems)
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Article
Biomass Production and Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Processed Municipal Wastewater by Salix schwerinii: A Field Trial
Water 2021, 13(16), 2298; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162298 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
In many Baltic regions, short-rotation willow (Salix spp.) is used as a vegetation filter for wastewater treatment and recycling of valuable nutrients to upsurge bioeconomy development. In this context, a four-year field trial (2016–2019) was carried out near a wastewater treatment plant [...] Read more.
In many Baltic regions, short-rotation willow (Salix spp.) is used as a vegetation filter for wastewater treatment and recycling of valuable nutrients to upsurge bioeconomy development. In this context, a four-year field trial (2016–2019) was carried out near a wastewater treatment plant in eastern Finland (Outokumpu) to investigate the effect of the processed wastewater (WW) on biomass production as well as the nutrients uptake capability (mainly N and P) by a willow variety (Salix schwerinii). Results indicated that WW irrigation expressively increased the willow diameter growth and biomass yield around 256% and 6510%, respectively, compared to the control treatment site (without WW). The willow was also able to accumulate approximately 41–60% of the N and 32–50% of the P in two years (2018–2019). Overall, willow showed a total 20% mortality rate under WW irrigation throughout the growing periods (2017–2019) as compared to control (39%). The results demonstrate that willow has the potential to control eutrophication (reducing nutrients load) from the wastewater with the best survival rate and can provide high biomass production for bioenergy generations in cold climatic conditions. Full article
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Article
Ice Melt-Induced Variations of Structural and Functional Traits of the Aquatic Microbial Community along an Arctic River (Pasvik River, Norway)
Water 2021, 13(16), 2297; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162297 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 886
Abstract
The effects of climate change-induced ice melting on the microbial communities in different glacial-fed aquatic systems have been reported, but seasonal dynamics remain poorly investigated. In this study, the structural and functional traits of the aquatic microbial community were assessed along with the [...] Read more.
The effects of climate change-induced ice melting on the microbial communities in different glacial-fed aquatic systems have been reported, but seasonal dynamics remain poorly investigated. In this study, the structural and functional traits of the aquatic microbial community were assessed along with the hydrological and biogeochemical variation patterns of the Arctic Pasvik River under riverine and brackish conditions at the beginning (May = Ice-melt (−)) and during the ice-melting season (July = Ice-melt (+)). The microbial abundance and morphometric analysis showed a spatial diversification between the riverine and brackish stations. Results highlighted different levels of microbial respiration and activities with different carbon and phosphorous utilization pathways, thus suggesting an active biogeochemical cycling along the river especially at the beginning of the ice-melting period. At Ice-melt (−), Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were dominant in riverine and brackish stations, respectively. Conversely, at Ice-melt (+), the microbial community composition was more homogeneously distributed along the river (Gammaproteobacteria > Alphaproteobacteria > Bacteroidetes). Our findings provide evidence on how riverine microbial communities adapt and respond to seasonal ice melting in glacial-fed aquatic ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Life in the Cold: A Focus on Extreme Aquatic Environments)
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Article
Influence of Sustainable Biochars Produced from Kitchen Waste, Pig Manure, and Wood on Soil Erosion
Water 2021, 13(16), 2296; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162296 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
The influence of biochars on water retention, mitigating nutrient leaching, and pollutant removal in green infrastructure has been explored in the past. However, there is a lack of understanding on how feedstock (i.e., biomass) would affect biochar physicochemical properties and hence, overall erosion [...] Read more.
The influence of biochars on water retention, mitigating nutrient leaching, and pollutant removal in green infrastructure has been explored in the past. However, there is a lack of understanding on how feedstock (i.e., biomass) would affect biochar physicochemical properties and hence, overall erosion control (including infiltration, surface, and sub-surface runoff) in green infrastructure. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of biochars produced from three different feedstocks (pig manure, wood, and kitchen waste) on the erosion of granite residual soil. Flume experiments were conducted to measure and analyze soil erosion, runoff, and infiltration. The result showed that the runoff and soil erosion of kitchen waste biochar (KWB) samples were reduced by 17.7% and 21.7%, respectively. On the contrary, wood biochar (WB) and pig manure biochar (PMB) were found to enhance runoff and soil erosion. In addition, biochar particles were found in runoff and infiltration in erosion experiment. Thus, it is important to note that measures should be taken to prevent biochar loss when using biochar as a soil amendment. Additionally, the effects of different types of biochar on soil hydraulic and hydrophobicity properties should be taken into account as a selection criterion for choosing amendments in green infrastructure. This study finds that kitchen waste biochar has better performance in improving soil hydraulics and erosion. Full article
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Article
Algal Boom Characteristics of Yeongsan River Based on Weir and Estuary Dam Operating Conditions Using EFDC-NIER Model
Water 2021, 13(16), 2295; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162295 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 855
Abstract
A number of hydraulic structures have been installed along the Yeongsan River, including an estuary dam and two weirs (Seungchon and Juksan). While these structures aid in regional water security and use and reduce flooding, they reduce water flow in the summer, thereby [...] Read more.
A number of hydraulic structures have been installed along the Yeongsan River, including an estuary dam and two weirs (Seungchon and Juksan). While these structures aid in regional water security and use and reduce flooding, they reduce water flow in the summer, thereby frequently causing algal blooms. This study simulated algal bloom and water quality characteristics of sections of the Yeongsan River in South Korea under different weir and estuary dam operating conditions using the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code—National Institute of Environment Research (EFDC-NIER) model. Results showed that when the management levels of the Juksan Weir and estuary dam were maintained, simulated water levels were EL. 3.7 m in the weir section and EL. −1.2 m (below average water level of the Yellow Sea) in the dam section. When both the weir and dam were open, the water levels varied with the tide; in contrast, when the Juksan Weir alone was open, the water level was between EL. −1.2 and −0.9 m, in line with the management level of the estuary dam. Opening the weir alone reduced algal blooms by 72–84% in the weir region, and opening the estuary dam alone reduced the algal blooms by 83% in the dam region. This improvement was attributed to the reduced water retention time and dilution due to seawater inflows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
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Article
Application of the Regression-Augmented Regionalization Approach for BTOP Model in Ungauged Basins
Water 2021, 13(16), 2294; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162294 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
Ten years after the Predictions in Ungauged Basins (PUB) initiative was put forward, known as the post-PUB era (2013 onwards), reducing uncertainty in hydrological prediction in ungauged basins still receives considerable attention. This integration or optimization of the traditional regionalization approaches is an [...] Read more.
Ten years after the Predictions in Ungauged Basins (PUB) initiative was put forward, known as the post-PUB era (2013 onwards), reducing uncertainty in hydrological prediction in ungauged basins still receives considerable attention. This integration or optimization of the traditional regionalization approaches is an effective way to improve the river discharge simulation in the ungauged basins. In the Jialing River, southwest of China, the regression equations of hydrological model parameters and watershed characteristic factors were firstly established, based on the block-wise use of TOPMODEL (BTOP). This paper explored the application of twelve regionalization approaches that were combined with the spatial proximity, physical similarity, integration similarity, and regression-augmented approach in five ungauged target basins. The results showed that the spatial proximity approach performs best in the river discharge simulation of the studied basins, while the regression-augmented regionalization approach is satisfactory as well, indicating a good potential for the application in ungauged basins. However, for the regression-augmented approach, the number of watershed characteristic factors considered in the regression equation impacts the simulated effect, implying that the determination of optimal watershed characteristic factors set by the model parameter regression equation is a crux for the regression-augmented approach, and the regression strength may also be an influencing factor. These findings provide meaningful information to establish a parametric transfer equation, as well as references for the application in data-sparse regions for the BTOP model. Future research should address the classification of the donor basins under the spatial distance between the reference basin and the target basin, and build regression equations of model parameters adopted to regression-augmented regionalization in each classification group, to further explore this approach’s potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Article
Effect of Gas Volume Fraction on the Energy Loss Characteristics of Multiphase Pumps at Each Cavitation Stage
Water 2021, 13(16), 2293; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162293 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 685
Abstract
In the process of conveying a medium, when the inlet pressure is low, the cavitation phenomenon easily occurs in the pump, especially in the gas–liquid two-phase working condition. The occurrence of the cavitation phenomenon has a great impact on the performance of the [...] Read more.
In the process of conveying a medium, when the inlet pressure is low, the cavitation phenomenon easily occurs in the pump, especially in the gas–liquid two-phase working condition. The occurrence of the cavitation phenomenon has a great impact on the performance of the multiphase pump. In this paper, the SST (sheard stress transport) k-ω turbulence model and ZGB (Zwart–Gerber–Belamri) cavitation model were used to simulate the helical axial flow multiphase pump (hereinafter referred to as the multiphase pump), and the experimental verification was carried out. The effect of gas volume fraction (GVF) on the energy loss characteristics in each cavitation stage of the multiphase pump is analyzed in detail. The study shows that the critical cavitation coefficient of the multiphase pump gradually decreases with the increase in GVF, which depresses the evolution of cavitation, and the cavitation performance of the multiphase hump is improved. The ratio of total loss and friction loss to total flow loss in the impeller fluid domain gradually increases with the development of cavitation, and the pressurization performance of the multiphase pump gradually decreases with the development of cavitation. The results of the study can provide theoretical guidance for the improvement of the performance of the multiphase pump. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics)
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Article
Cloud Physical and Climatological Factors for the Determination of Rain Intensity
Water 2021, 13(16), 2292; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162292 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 676
Abstract
The focus of this research is to develop a general method for estimation of rain intensity for application in various geographical regions. In a world with a changing climate, a high importance is attributed to the potential threats caused by increased temperature and [...] Read more.
The focus of this research is to develop a general method for estimation of rain intensity for application in various geographical regions. In a world with a changing climate, a high importance is attributed to the potential threats caused by increased temperature and rainfall intensity levels. The rainfall intensity climate is here interpreted by a combination of cloud physical factors affecting rain intensity and further developed by the use of climate data and rain intensity statistics. A formula was developed that estimates extreme rainfall and the frequency of these extremes with durations in the intervals of 5 min to 24 h. The obtained estimates are compared in this article with results from statistical methods for the extreme value analysis of measurements. The comparison shows about 90% of the explained variance. The coefficients in the formula are connected with climatological predictors based on the climatological norms of temperature and rainfall. Rain intensity maps over Sweden were produced using the developed formula. Examples of the function of the formula are also given for six European countries. The application of the formula in connection with the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) is presented, where the return period of extreme rainfall is a key factor. The formula is tested with an assumed increased warming of the atmosphere of 1 to 5 °C, and the result indicates an increase of 5.9% of the rainfall amount per each warming degree in intense rainfall. Full article
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Article
Impacts of Mixing Mode on Photocatalytic Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium over Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterial under Various Environmental Conditions
Water 2021, 13(16), 2291; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162291 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 880
Abstract
This study explores the effects of initial Cr(VI) concentration, wavelength, hole-scavenger (absence and presence of salicylic acid), and oxygen conditions (aeration by air, nitrogen gas, and mechanical stir only) on photocatalytic reduction of hexavalent chromium over titanium dioxide photocatalyst and the chromic species [...] Read more.
This study explores the effects of initial Cr(VI) concentration, wavelength, hole-scavenger (absence and presence of salicylic acid), and oxygen conditions (aeration by air, nitrogen gas, and mechanical stir only) on photocatalytic reduction of hexavalent chromium over titanium dioxide photocatalyst and the chromic species distribution after photocatalysis. The experimental results show the existence of strong interactions between these factors. The factor of hole-scavenger was more important than the UV light wavelength condition for a reduction of 3 mg Cr(VI) L−1, whereas both factors became important when Cr(VI) concentration increased to 20 mgL−1. The higher the UV wavelength was, the less the amount of chromium retained on the TiO2 surface. The influence of oxygen-containing conditions in the solution on the reduction of 3 mgL−1 Cr(VI) was unobvious, whereas its influence became remarkable for the reduction of 20 mgL−1 Cr(VI) in the presence of SA. The interaction between oxygen-containing factor and other environmental factors, such as Cr(VI) concentration and scavenger presence (SA in this study), is a key factor about the degree of oxygen effect on Cr(VI) photo-reduction and the chromic species distribution. Simple stirring obtained better photocatalytic efficiency than aeration by air or nitrogen gas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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Article
Effects of Soil Bulk Density and Moisture Content on the Physico-Mechanical Properties of Paddy Soil in Plough Layer
Water 2021, 13(16), 2290; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162290 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 925
Abstract
For paddy-upland rotation areas in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the paddy soil has undesired physico-mechanical properties of tillage during the dry season. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of soil bulk density and moisture [...] Read more.
For paddy-upland rotation areas in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the paddy soil has undesired physico-mechanical properties of tillage during the dry season. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of soil bulk density and moisture content on the physico-mechanical properties of paddy soil in the plough layer. The bulk density and moisture content were selected as experimental factors, and the cohesion, tangential adhesion, plasticity index, and soil swelling rate were chosen as experimental indices from physico-mechanical properties of paddy soil in the plough layer. The experimental factors were quantitatively analyzed to explore the change characteristics of the physico-mechanical properties of paddy soil in the plough layer. Conclusions were obtained that show that when the bulk density increased in the range of 1 to 1.6 g·cm−3, the cohesion, tangential adhesion, plasticity index, and swelling rate of paddy soil increased in different degrees. Between 15% and 35% moisture content, the cohesion increased first and then decreased with the increase of moisture content, while the peak cohesion value occurred at the moisture content of 20%. Moisture content was positively correlated with tangential adhesion and negatively correlated with soil swelling rate. This study provides a reference for the regulation of paddy soil tillability in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Science and Hydrology: Water at the Crossroad of Two Disciplines)
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Review
Marine Seagrasses Transplantation in Confined and Coastal Adriatic Environments: Methods and Results
Water 2021, 13(16), 2289; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162289 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 828
Abstract
The anthropogenic pressures of the twentieth century have seriously endangered the Mediterranean coastal zone; as a consequence, marine seagrass habitats have strongly retreated, mostly those of Posidonia oceanica. For this reason, over time, restoration programs have been put in place through transplantation [...] Read more.
The anthropogenic pressures of the twentieth century have seriously endangered the Mediterranean coastal zone; as a consequence, marine seagrass habitats have strongly retreated, mostly those of Posidonia oceanica. For this reason, over time, restoration programs have been put in place through transplantation activities, with different success. These actions have also been conducted with other Mediterranean marine seagrasses. The results of numerous transplanting operations conducted in the Northern Adriatic Sea and lagoons with Cymodocea nodosa, Zostera marina and Z. noltei and in the Central and Southern Adriatic Sea with P. oceanica (only within the project Interreg SASPAS), are herein presented and compared, taking also into account the presence of extensive meadows of C. nodosa, Z. marina and Z. noltei, along the North Adriatic coasts and lagoons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Restore Degraded Marine Coastal Areas in the Mediterranean Sea)
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Article
Coupling Water Resources and Agricultural Practices for Sorghum in a Semiarid Environment
Water 2021, 13(16), 2288; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162288 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
Water scarcity and changing rainfall distribution have caused uncertainties in relation to agricultural production in semiarid areas. In this context, water reuse for irrigation is a promising alternative, although requiring irrigation and agricultural management. Production of forage plants is strategic for semiarid areas [...] Read more.
Water scarcity and changing rainfall distribution have caused uncertainties in relation to agricultural production in semiarid areas. In this context, water reuse for irrigation is a promising alternative, although requiring irrigation and agricultural management. Production of forage plants is strategic for semiarid areas due to their high tolerance to stresses and use as animal fodder. The objective of this work was to evaluate the combined performance of treated wastewater irrigation and mulching on forage sorghum and on soil attributes in Northeast Brazil. Sorghum was cropped in November 2018, three months before the beginning of the hydrologic year, and cultivated over three cycles until April 2019. The experiment was designed with five irrigation depths (60%, 80%, 100%, 120%, and 140% of crop evapotranspiration), and with four soil cover conditions (0% (witness), soil covered with native vegetation, with coconut coir, and with macerated moringa seeds), adopting four replications. Irrigation with treated wastewater promoted linear increases in forage sorghum yield at irrigation depths of up to 140% of crop evapotranspiration. Mulch promoted a 24% increase in productivity in relation to the area where conservation was not practiced, being able to control salinity while also contributing to the higher incorporation of organic matter. Irrigation with treated wastewater had no negative agronomic impacts on soil, once natural rainfall events typical of the Brazilian semiarid region allowed effective salt leaching from shallow sandy soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Agricultural Water Productivity in the Dry Areas)
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Article
Microplastic Pollution in the Surface Waters from Plain and Mountainous Lakes in Siberia, Russia
Water 2021, 13(16), 2287; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162287 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1417
Abstract
Microplastics (MPs) contaminations of freshwater and marine environments has become a global issue. Lakes in southern Siberia provide a wide range of ecosystem services and are essential elements in the annual and interannual runoff distribution of the Great Siberian Rivers. However, the extent [...] Read more.
Microplastics (MPs) contaminations of freshwater and marine environments has become a global issue. Lakes in southern Siberia provide a wide range of ecosystem services and are essential elements in the annual and interannual runoff distribution of the Great Siberian Rivers. However, the extent of their MPs pollution remains unknown. In this paper, for the first time, we analyze the concentrations, composition, and spatial distribution of MPs in six lakes in southern Siberia. The studied lakes are located both in the Altai mountains and the West Siberian plain. Some of them are significantly impacted by human activities, while others are located in protected areas with no permanent population. Nevertheless, MPs were detected in all of the studied lakes. MPs concentrations ranged from 4 to 26 MPs L−1. Comparing with other inland lakes, South Siberian lakes presented moderate MPs concentrations. Among the registered MPs forms, fragments and films were dominant, with a size range between 31 and 60 nm. The MPs’ sources depend on local human activities (fishing, transport, landfilling). Therefore, sufficiently high concentrations were observed even in remote lakes. The present study set a baseline that emphasizes the need for increased attention to waste management and sustainable water use in Siberian freshwater environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microplastics in Water Bodies and in the Environment)
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Article
Monitoring Land Use Changes and Their Future Prospects Using GIS and ANN-CA for Perak River Basin, Malaysia
Water 2021, 13(16), 2286; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162286 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1306
Abstract
Natural landscapes have changed significantly through anthropogenic activities, particularly in areas that are severely impacted by climate change and population expansion, such as countries in Southeast Asia. It is essential for sustainable development, particularly efficient water management practices, to know about the impact [...] Read more.
Natural landscapes have changed significantly through anthropogenic activities, particularly in areas that are severely impacted by climate change and population expansion, such as countries in Southeast Asia. It is essential for sustainable development, particularly efficient water management practices, to know about the impact of land use and land cover (LULC) changes. Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing were used for monitoring land use changes, whereas artificial neural network cellular automata (ANN-CA) modeling using quantum geographic information systems (QGIS) was performed for prediction of LULC changes. This study investigated the changes in LULC in the Perak River basin for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. The study also provides predictions of future changes for the years 2030, 2040, and 2050. Landsat satellite images were utilized to monitor the land use changes. For the classification of Landsat images, maximum-likelihood supervised classification was implemented. The broad classification defines four main classes in the study area, including (i) waterbodies, (ii) agricultural lands, (iii) barren and urban lands, and (iv) dense forests. The outcomes revealed a considerable reduction in dense forests from the year 2000 to 2020, whereas a substantial increase in barren lands (up to 547.39 km2) had occurred by the year 2020, while urban land use has seen a rapid rise. The kappa coefficient was used to assess the validity of classified images, with an overall kappa coefficient of 0.86, 0.88, and 0.91 for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020, respectively. In addition, ANN-CA simulation results predicted that barren and urban lands will expand in the future at the expense of other classes in the years 2030, 2040, and 2050. However, a considerable decrease will occur in the area of dense forests in the simulated years. The study successfully presents LULC changes and future predictions highlighting significant pattern of land use change in the Perak River basin. This information could be helpful for land use administration and future planning in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Article
Understanding the Mechanical Biases of Tipping-Bucket Rain Gauges: A Semi-Analytical Calibration Approach
Water 2021, 13(16), 2285; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162285 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 914
Abstract
Tipping bucket rain gauges (TBR) are widely used worldwide because they are simple, cheap, and have low-energy consumption. However, their main disadvantage lies in measurement errors, such as those caused by rainfall intensity (RI) variation, which results in data underestimation, especially during extreme [...] Read more.
Tipping bucket rain gauges (TBR) are widely used worldwide because they are simple, cheap, and have low-energy consumption. However, their main disadvantage lies in measurement errors, such as those caused by rainfall intensity (RI) variation, which results in data underestimation, especially during extreme rainfall events. This work aims to understand these types of errors, identifying some of their causes through an analysis of water behavior and its effect on the TBR mechanism when RI increases. The mechanical biases of TBR effects on data were studied using 13 years of data measured at 10 TBRs in a mountain basin, and two semi-analytical approaches based on the TBR mechanism response to RI have been proposed, validated in the laboratory, and contrasted with a simple linear regression dynamic calibration and a static calibration through a root-mean-square error analysis in two different TBR models. Two main sources of underestimation were identified: one due to the cumulative surplus during the tipping movement and the other due to the surplus water contributed by the critical drop. Moreover, a random variation, not related to RI, was also observed, and three regions in the calibration curve were identified. Proposed calibration methods have proved to be an efficient alternative for TBR calibration, reducing data error by more than 50% in contrast with traditional static calibration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flood Hazard and Risk Science)
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Article
Coupling Rivers and Estuaries with an Ocean Model: An Improved Methodology
Water 2021, 13(16), 2284; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162284 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 740
Abstract
Freshwater sources are essential inputs for regional ocean models covering coastal areas such as the western Iberian Peninsula. The problem is how to include the mixture between fresh and salt water, typically performed by estuaries and in the adjacent areas of river mouths, [...] Read more.
Freshwater sources are essential inputs for regional ocean models covering coastal areas such as the western Iberian Peninsula. The problem is how to include the mixture between fresh and salt water, typically performed by estuaries and in the adjacent areas of river mouths, without unsustainable increases of computational time and human setup errors. This work provides a proof-of-concept solution to both these problems through the use of an offline two-way methodology, where local schematic rivers and estuaries are responsible for mixing river freshwater with salt water of a regional model application. Two different offline upscaling methodologies—which focus on the implementation of tidal fluxes from local domains to regional domains in the context of operational modelling—are implemented in the Portuguese Coast Operational Modelling System (PCOMS) regional model application as well as in a version without rivers. A comparison between results produced by these methodologies, field data, and satellite imagery was performed, which confirmed that the proposed methodology of using schematic rivers and estuaries, combined with the new offline upscaling methodology proposed herein, represents a good solution for operational modelling of coastal areas subject to a high dominance of freshwater inputs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oceans and Coastal Zones)
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Review
Occurrence of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Water Environment of Poland: A Review
Water 2021, 13(16), 2283; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162283 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1211
Abstract
The issue of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the water environment has gained increasing interest worldwide. To determine the nature and extent of this problem for Poland, this paper presents a review of research on the presence of PPCPs in Poland, [...] Read more.
The issue of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the water environment has gained increasing interest worldwide. To determine the nature and extent of this problem for Poland, this paper presents a review of research on the presence of PPCPs in Poland, looking at results for different water samples, including wastewater (before and after treatment), landfill leachate, surface water (standing water bodies and rivers), seawater, groundwater and drinking water. The review is based on over 50 scientific articles and dissertations referring to studies of PPCPs. It also briefly outlines possible sources and the fate of PPCPs in the aquatic environment. The review of Polish research has revealed that studies have previously covered at least 39 PPCP groups (270 compounds in total). These studies focused mainly on wastewater and rivers, and only a few concerned landfill leachate and seawater. They most often reported on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics. The highest concentrations of the analysed PPCPs were found mainly in raw wastewater (e.g., naproxen, up to 551,960 ng/L), but they were also occasionally found in surface water (e.g., azithromycin, erythromycin, irbesartan and metoprolol) and in groundwater (e.g., N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide, known as DEET, up to 17,280 ng/L). Extremely high concentrations of bisphenol A (up to 2,202,000 ng/L) and diclofenac (up to 108,340 ng/L) were found in landfill leachate. Although numerous substances have been detected, PPCPs are still not monitored regularly, which makes it difficult to obtain a clear understanding of their incidence in the water environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water and One Health)
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