Special Issue "Constructed Wetlands for Water Pollution Control in Urban and Rural Areas"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Ewa Wojciechowska
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland
Interests: constructed wetlands; landfill leachate treatment; nature-based solutions; stormwater management; sustainable urban drainage systems; heavy metals; nutrients; sediments

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Constructed wetlands are engineered systems which incorporate processes of water purification that are naturally occurring in marsh and wetlands ecosystems. Specific technical design aids to intensify and optimize the treatment processes at the substrate–root zone matrix by using different technical configurations, substrates, and plant species. Used since the 1980s, constructed wetlands are one of the first Nature-based solutions that were successfully used for the treatment of various types of wastewater, starting from domestic and municipal wastewater through to greywater, CSO, stormwater runoff, agricultural drainage, food industry effluent, landfill leachate, and others. The systems are gaining increasing popularity because they are simple and cheap in operation and provide reliable treatment efficiency, while also bringing co-benefits in terms of ecosystem services, which makes them a good choice both for developing and developed countries. Besides, constructed wetlands are flexible and can be easily adapted to new applications including the removal of contaminants of emerging concern. New technical developments are constantly emerging to meet the current challenges of wastewater treatment to assure effective water pollution control. Constructed wetlands as a Nature-based solution fit into the newly emerging concepts of urban metabolism providing the potential of water reuse, nutrient recovery, as well as energy and biomass production.

This Special Issue encourages submissions covering the broad range of topics related to constructed wetlands applications for water and wastewater purification, bringing new insights into ongoing treatment processes as well as novel technological developments. Review papers and case studies, especially those presenting constructed wetlands integration at urban sites, are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Ewa Wojciechowska
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Constructed wetlands
  • Water pollution
  • Removal of contaminants
  • VSSF
  • HSSF
  • Floating treatment wetlands
  • Nature-based solutions
  • Green infrastructure
  • Stormwater runoff treatment
  • Contaminants of emerging concern

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Biomass Production and Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Processed Municipal Wastewater by Salix schwerinii: A Field Trial
Water 2021, 13(16), 2298; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162298 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 851
Abstract
In many Baltic regions, short-rotation willow (Salix spp.) is used as a vegetation filter for wastewater treatment and recycling of valuable nutrients to upsurge bioeconomy development. In this context, a four-year field trial (2016–2019) was carried out near a wastewater treatment plant [...] Read more.
In many Baltic regions, short-rotation willow (Salix spp.) is used as a vegetation filter for wastewater treatment and recycling of valuable nutrients to upsurge bioeconomy development. In this context, a four-year field trial (2016–2019) was carried out near a wastewater treatment plant in eastern Finland (Outokumpu) to investigate the effect of the processed wastewater (WW) on biomass production as well as the nutrients uptake capability (mainly N and P) by a willow variety (Salix schwerinii). Results indicated that WW irrigation expressively increased the willow diameter growth and biomass yield around 256% and 6510%, respectively, compared to the control treatment site (without WW). The willow was also able to accumulate approximately 41–60% of the N and 32–50% of the P in two years (2018–2019). Overall, willow showed a total 20% mortality rate under WW irrigation throughout the growing periods (2017–2019) as compared to control (39%). The results demonstrate that willow has the potential to control eutrophication (reducing nutrients load) from the wastewater with the best survival rate and can provide high biomass production for bioenergy generations in cold climatic conditions. Full article
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Article
Effects of Packing Media and the Insertion of Vegetation on the Performance of Biological Trickling Filters
Water 2021, 13(13), 1735; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131735 - 23 Jun 2021
Viewed by 578
Abstract
The use of the plant Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver), able to develop under adverse conditions while removing a great number of pollutants, in constructed wetlands (CWs) is widely reported. Regarding the biological trickling filters (BTFs), the selection of the media is one of the [...] Read more.
The use of the plant Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver), able to develop under adverse conditions while removing a great number of pollutants, in constructed wetlands (CWs) is widely reported. Regarding the biological trickling filters (BTFs), the selection of the media is one of the most important factors in its performance. We investigated whether the addition of vegetation improves the efficiency of the basic parameters of BTFs with gravel. In addition, due to the properties of light expanded clay aggregate (LECA), we evaluated whether the support media composed of vetiver and LECA is able to increase the media’s oxygenation. The efficiencies were 39, 49, 56, and 49% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and 27, 20, 12, and 31%, for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) in BTFLV (vetiver with LECA), BTFL (LECA only), BTFGV (vetiver with gravel) and BTFG (gravel only), respectively. LECA when associated with vetiver may have provided higher aeration of the filter, denoted by the higher nitrate effluent concentration (0.35, against 0.03, 0.06, and 0.10 mg L−1 for BTFL, BTFGV, and BTFG). Vetiver had no improvement on BTFs performance concerning BOD. However, associated with LECA, its use could be viable to remove dissolved forms of nitrogen. Full article
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Article
Plant Nutrient Uptake in Full-Scale Floating Treatment Wetlands in a Florida Stormwater Pond: 2016–2020
Water 2021, 13(4), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040569 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 749
Abstract
Nutrient enrichment of surface waters degrades water quality. Municipalities need effective and economical solutions to remove nutrients from surface waters. From July 2016 to May 2020, full-scale (900 m2, 5% cover) floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) were deployed in Wickham Park pond, [...] Read more.
Nutrient enrichment of surface waters degrades water quality. Municipalities need effective and economical solutions to remove nutrients from surface waters. From July 2016 to May 2020, full-scale (900 m2, 5% cover) floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) were deployed in Wickham Park pond, a eutrophic water body (0.13 mg/L total phosphorus (P), 0.96 mg/L total nitrogen (N)). The plants in FTWs in close proximity to a SB10000 mixer fixed N and P more efficiently. The rate of N (g/m2/year) fixed within tissues was highest for Juncus effusus (13.5), Agrostis alba (13.2), and Sagittaria lancifolia (12.1). The rate of P (g/m2/year) fixed within plant tissues was similar for all species (3.77, Agrostis alba, Canna spp., Iris hexagona, Juncus effusus, and Sagittaria lancifolia) save Pontederia cordata (2.52) volunteer species (1.41). The N and P removed with plant harvest were similar for non-mixed and mixed FTWs. Notably, the N:P ratio in plant tissues in 2017 (pre-mixer installation) was 11:1; after mixer installation (2018–2020), N:P ratios averaged 2.7:1, indicating increased P fixation within plant tissues. In 2017, 12,828 kg of plant tissues was harvested, removing 334 kg of N and 29.5 kg of P. In 2019, 32,958 kg of plant biomass was harvested from the pond, removing 425 kg of N and 138 kg of P. In 2020, 27,945 kg of biomass was harvested from FTWs, removing 267 kg of N and 95 kg of P. From 2016 to 2020, 73,000 kg of biomass was harvested, removing 1026 kg of N and 262 kg of P from Wickham Park pond. Knowing the total fresh biomass of tissues removed from FTWs at harvest is critical for accuracy in reporting nutrient removal aided by FTWs. Full article
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Review

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Review
The Influence of Design and Operational Factors on the Removal of Personal Care Products by Constructed Wetlands
Water 2020, 12(5), 1367; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051367 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
This research presents the correlation analysis of selected design and operational factors (depth, area, hydraulic and organic loading rate, and hydraulic retention time), and physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen) of constructed wetlands (CWs) with the removal efficiency of personal care products [...] Read more.
This research presents the correlation analysis of selected design and operational factors (depth, area, hydraulic and organic loading rate, and hydraulic retention time), and physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen) of constructed wetlands (CWs) with the removal efficiency of personal care products (PCPs). The results demonstrated that the removal efficiencies of the studied PCPs exhibit a significant correlation with two or more of these factors. The role of plants in the removal of PCPs is demonstrated by the higher performance of planted compared with unplanted CWs due to direct uptake of PCPs and their aerobic biodegradation. The enhanced removal of PCPs was achieved with the use of substrate material of high adsorption capacity and with high surface area in CWs. The removal efficiency of almost all of the studied PCPs revealed seasonal differences, but significant difference was established in the case of galaxolide and methyl dihydrojasmonate. Most of the examined PCPs demonstrated adsorption and/or sorption as their most dominant removal mechanism followed by biodegradation and plant uptake. Therefore, the efficient removal of PCPs demands the integrated design ensuring suitable environment for the occurrence of these processes along with the optimal values of design and operational factors, and physicochemical parameters. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

 

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