Special Issue "Industrial and Municipal Wastewater Treatment with a Focus on Water-Reuse"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2022) | Viewed by 9125

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Martin Wagner
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Technische Universität Darmstadt, Franziska-Braun-Straße 7. 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
Interests: new infrastructure systems; aeration and gas transfer; innovative concepts for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment; water-reuse; water-reuse in industrial parks
Prof. Dr. Sonja Bauer
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Hochschule für Technik Stuttgart, Schellingstraße 24, 70174 Stuttgart, Germany
Interests: water-reuse concepts for urban; rural and industrial areas; sustainable spatial development; urban and infrastructure planning; water-reuse and water-saving potentials; water-reuse concepts for industrial parks; spatial analysis and geoinformation systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Given the impact of climate change, it is becoming increasingly important to ensure a secure water supply in order to enable sustainable spatial development. Water shortages, which are already noticeable in many regions of the world, are thus hindering rural, urban and industrial development. Nowadays, approximately half of the world’s population is affected by water scarcity, albeit temporarily. Climate change is serving to further aggravate this situation since periods of drought are becoming increasingly common.

To enable a secure water supply, alternative water sources must be generated to tackle the challenge of water scarcity since ground and surface water sources are often overexploited. An important alternative resource is the reuse of treated wastewater. Nowadays, water reuse processes are rarely considered and implemented. In contrast to the storage and use of rainwater, treated wastewater is a valuable resource, as it is available daily and in calculable quantities. Certain wastewater treatment processes within wastewater treatment plants are required to produce the new resource “reused water”. The treatment processes depend on the quality of the wastewater inflow to the treatment plant since industrial and municipal wastewater flows are characterized, for example, by different concentrations. Moreover, water reuse methods must be developed in order to use the treated wastewater as efficiently as possible. Ideally, the reused water can be provided according to the "fit for purpose" principle and applied directly in areas such as irrigation, street cleaning, toilet flushing or make-up water for cooling systems.

This Special Issue brings together new wastewater treatment technologies and emerging water reuse concepts to tackle the challenges of climate change with the aim of bringing the new resource “reused water” according to the “fit for purpose” principle to the subsequent user. This issue aims to draw on global experiences, approaches and solutions in the field of wastewater treatment and water reuse in rural, urban and industrial (park) areas. This allows a specific transferability to regions which have been subject to the long-term effects of climate change and/or those newly affected.

Prof. Dr. Martin Wagner
Prof. Dr. Sonja Bauer
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

Wastewater treatment:

  • Municipal wastewater treatment (aerobic/anaerobic treatment, membranes)
  • Industrial wastewater treatment (aerobic/anaerobic treatment, AOP, membranes)
  • New technologies (aerobic/anaerobic granula processes, innovative membrane systems, biofilter, etc.)
  • Dimensioning/planning and operation
  • Removal of micro-pollutants, antibiotic resistance, microplastics, etc.

Water-Reuse

  • Innovative water reuse concepts and technologies for sustainable development
  • Water reuse applications “fit for purpose” in urban, rural and industrial areas
  • Requirements and acceptance of reused water
  • Spatial planning aspects for water reuse concepts
  • Implementations, case studies and best practices

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
Carbamazepine Removal by Clay-Based Materials Using Adsorption and Photodegradation
Water 2022, 14(13), 2047; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132047 - 26 Jun 2022
Viewed by 378
Abstract
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the most common emerging contaminants released to the aquatic environment through domestic and pharmaceutical wastewater. Due to its high persistence through conventional degradation treatments, CBZ is considered a typical indicator for anthropogenic activities. This study tested the removal [...] Read more.
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the most common emerging contaminants released to the aquatic environment through domestic and pharmaceutical wastewater. Due to its high persistence through conventional degradation treatments, CBZ is considered a typical indicator for anthropogenic activities. This study tested the removal of CBZ through two different clay-based purification techniques: adsorption of relatively large concentrations (20–500 μmol L−1) and photocatalysis of lower concentrations (<20 μmol L−1). The sorption mechanism was examined by FTIR measurements, exchangeable cations released, and colloidal charge of the adsorbing clay materials. Photocatalysis was performed in batch experiments under various conditions. Despite the neutral charge of carbamazepine, the highest adsorption was observed on negatively charged montmorillonite-based clays. Desorption tests indicate that adsorbed CBZ is not released by washing. The adsorption/desorption processes were confirmed by ATR-FTIR analysis of the clay-CBZ particles. A combination of synthetic montmorillonite or hectorite with low H2O2 concentrations under UVC irradiation exhibits efficient homo-heterogeneous photodegradation at μM CBZ levels. The two techniques presented in this study suggest solutions for both industrial and municipal wastewater, possibly enabling water reuse. Full article
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Article
Assessment of the Effect of Irrigation with Treated Wastewater on Soil Properties and on the Performance of Infiltration Models
Water 2022, 14(9), 1520; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091520 - 09 May 2022
Viewed by 468
Abstract
An alternative strategy for saving limited water resources is using treated wastewater (TWW) originating from wastewater treatment plants. However, using TWW can influence soil properties owing to its characteristics compared to conventional water resources. Therefore, assessing the effect of TWW on soil properties [...] Read more.
An alternative strategy for saving limited water resources is using treated wastewater (TWW) originating from wastewater treatment plants. However, using TWW can influence soil properties owing to its characteristics compared to conventional water resources. Therefore, assessing the effect of TWW on soil properties and soil water infiltration is crucial to maintain sustainable use of TWW and to increase the water use efficiency of the precious irrigation water. Moreover, several studies were carried out to assess the performance of infiltration models. However, few studies evaluate infiltration models under the use of treated wastewater. Therefore, this study aims to assess the effect of TWW irrigation on soil properties after 2 and 5 years and to evaluate five classical infiltration models with field data collected from soil irrigated by treated wastewater for their capability in predicting soil water infiltration. This study revealed that using TWW for irrigation affects significantly on soil properties after 2 and 5 years. The soil irrigated with TWW had significantly higher electrical conductivity, organic matter, sodium adsorption ratio, cation exchange capacity, and lower soil bulk density compared to control. The basic infiltration rate and cumulative infiltration decreased significantly compared to control (60.84, 14.04, and 8.42 mm hr−1 and 140 mm, 72 mm, and 62 mm for control, 2, and 5 years’ treatments, respectively). The performance of the infiltration models proposed by Philip, Horton, Kostiakov, Modified Kostiakov, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service was evaluated with consideration of mean error, root mean square error, model efficiency, and Willmott’s index. Horton model had the lowest mean error (0.0008) and Philip model had the lowest root mean square error (0.1700) while Natural Resources Conservation Service had the highest values (0.0433 and 0.5898) for both mean error and root mean square error, respectively. Moreover, Philip model had the highest values of model efficiency and Willmott’s index, 0.9994 and 0.9998, respectively, whereas Horton model had the lowest values for the same indices, 0.9869 and 0.9967, respectively. Philip model followed by Modified Kostiakov model were the most efficient models in predicting cumulative infiltration, while Natural Resources Conservation Service model was the least predictable model. Full article
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Article
Ecological Synthesis of CuO Nanoparticles Using Punica granatum L. Peel Extract for the Retention of Methyl Green
Water 2022, 14(9), 1509; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091509 - 08 May 2022
Viewed by 498
Abstract
The aqueous extract from the bark of Punica granatum L. was invested to generate CuO nanoparticles from CuSO4 using a green, economical, ecological, and clean method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and were successfully used as adsorbents for methyl green retention of [...] Read more.
The aqueous extract from the bark of Punica granatum L. was invested to generate CuO nanoparticles from CuSO4 using a green, economical, ecological, and clean method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and were successfully used as adsorbents for methyl green retention of an absorptive capacity amounting to 28.7 mg g−1. Methyl green equilibrium adsorption data were correlated to the Langmuir model following the pseudo-second order kinetics model. This study clearly corroborates that copper nanoparticles exhibit a high potential for use in wastewater treatment. Full article
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Article
Feasibility Study of Water Reclamation Projects in Industrial Parks Incorporating Environmental Benefits: A Case Study in Chonburi, Thailand
Water 2022, 14(7), 1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071172 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 456
Abstract
Financial feasibility is usually a concern in water reclamation projects. Aside from internal benefits, water reclamation in industrial parks delivers health and environmental benefits not normally considered in cost–benefit analyses (CBA). This study investigated the influence of environmental benefits on the feasibility of [...] Read more.
Financial feasibility is usually a concern in water reclamation projects. Aside from internal benefits, water reclamation in industrial parks delivers health and environmental benefits not normally considered in cost–benefit analyses (CBA). This study investigated the influence of environmental benefits on the feasibility of water reclamation projects with flow rate scenarios in accordance with industrial parks in Chonburi, Thailand. CBAs of water reclamation plants for industrial water supply, consisting of ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO), with flow rates of 5200, 10,000, 15,000, and 25,000 m3/day and discount rates of 3%, 5%, 7%, 9% and 11% were conducted. Considering only the direct costs and benefits, none of the projects were financially feasible. However, when the environmental benefits were included, the projects became profitable in all cases except those with a flow rate of 5200 m3/day and discount rates of 5%, 7%, 9%, and 11% and those with flow rates of 10,000 and 25,000 m3/day and an 11% discount rate. Further, CBAs of water reclamation projects in industrial parks for irrigation were conducted with post-treatment processes consisting of sand filtration and chlorine disinfection for flow rates of 240, 480, 2400, 3600, and 4800 m3/day. The projects are profitable, regardless of environmental benefits. Full article
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Article
Reuse of Textile Dyeing Wastewater Treated by Electrooxidation
Water 2022, 14(7), 1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071084 - 29 Mar 2022
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Wastewater reuse has been addressed to promote the sustainable water utilization in textile industry. However, conventional technologies are unable to deliver treated wastewater with the quality required for reuse, mainly due to the presence of dyes and high salinity. In this work, the [...] Read more.
Wastewater reuse has been addressed to promote the sustainable water utilization in textile industry. However, conventional technologies are unable to deliver treated wastewater with the quality required for reuse, mainly due to the presence of dyes and high salinity. In this work, the feasibility of electrooxidation, using a boron-doped diamond anode, to provide treated textile dyeing wastewater (TDW) with the quality required for reuse, and with complete recovery of salts, was evaluated. The influence of the applied current density on the quality of treated TDW and on the consecutive reuse in new dyeing baths was studied. The ecotoxicological evaluation of the process towards Daphnia magna was performed. After 10 h of electrooxidation at 60 and 100 mA cm−2, discolorized treated TDW, with chemical oxygen demand below 200 (moderate-quality) and 50 mg L−1 (high-quality), respectively, was obtained. Salt content was unchanged in both treatment conditions, enabling the consecutive reuse without any salt addition. For the two reuse cycles performed, both treated samples led to dyed fabrics in compliance with the most restrictive controls, showing that an effective consecutive reuse can be achieved with a moderate-quality water. Besides the water reuse and complete salts saving, electrooxidation accomplished an ecotoxicity reduction up to 18.6-fold, allowing TDW reuse without severe ecotoxicity accumulation. Full article
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Article
Introducing a Calculator for the Environmental and Financial Potential of Drain Water Heat Recovery in Commercial Kitchens
Water 2021, 13(24), 3486; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243486 - 07 Dec 2021
Viewed by 867
Abstract
Food service providers like restaurants, cafes, or canteens are of economic importance worldwide, but also contribute to environmental impacts through water and energy consumption. Drain water heat recovery from commercial kitchens, using a heat exchanger, has shown large potential to decarbonise hot water [...] Read more.
Food service providers like restaurants, cafes, or canteens are of economic importance worldwide, but also contribute to environmental impacts through water and energy consumption. Drain water heat recovery from commercial kitchens, using a heat exchanger, has shown large potential to decarbonise hot water use across food services, but is rarely deployed. This work translates previous findings on the technical feasibility and heat recovery potential for commercial kitchens into a publicly available calculator. It facilitates decision-making towards recovery and reuse of the freely available heat in kitchen drains by estimating both financial costs and payback time, as well as environmental burdens associated with the installation and environmental savings from avoided energy consumption. Environmental burdens and savings include, but are not limited to, carbon emissions. Further, the tool highlights key aspects of the technical implementation to understand installation requirements. The tool is freely available and could contribute to the uptake of heat recovery in the food service sector, ideally in conjunction with policy support through financial incentives or subsidies. Full article
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Article
Long-Term Toxicological Monitoring of a Multibarrier Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant Comprising Ozonation and Granular Activated Carbon with In Vitro Bioassays
Water 2021, 13(22), 3245; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223245 - 16 Nov 2021
Viewed by 819
Abstract
A set of CALUX in vitro bioassays was applied for long-term toxicity monitoring at an advanced wastewater treatment plant comprising ozonation and granular activated carbon filtration for the abatement of contaminants of emerging concern (CEC). During the 13-month monitoring, eight reporter gene assays [...] Read more.
A set of CALUX in vitro bioassays was applied for long-term toxicity monitoring at an advanced wastewater treatment plant comprising ozonation and granular activated carbon filtration for the abatement of contaminants of emerging concern (CEC). During the 13-month monitoring, eight reporter gene assays targeting different modes of action along the cellular toxicity pathway were accessed to evaluate the suitability and robustness of the technologies. Two approaches were followed: on the one hand, signal reduction during advanced treatment was monitored; on the other hand, results were compared to currently available effect-based trigger values (EBTs). A decrease of the corresponding biological equivalent concentrations after the multibarrier system could be observed for all modes of action; while the estrogenic activity decreased below the EBT already during ozonation, the potencies of oxidative stress-like and toxic PAH-like compounds still exceeded the discussed EBT after advanced treatment. Overall, the long-term monitoring confirmed the positive effect of the multibarrier system, commonly evaluated only by CEC abatement based on chemical analysis. It could be demonstrated that advanced WWTPs designed for CEC abatement are suitable to significantly decrease toxicity responses not only in the frame of pilot studies but under real-world conditions as well. Full article
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Article
Photo-Catalytic Remediation of Pesticides in Wastewater Using UV/TiO2
Water 2021, 13(21), 3080; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213080 - 02 Nov 2021
Viewed by 558
Abstract
One of the most serious environmental concerns worldwide is the consequences of industrial wastes and agricultural usage leading to pesticide residues in water. At present, a wide range of pesticides are used directly to control pests and diseases. However, environmental damage is expected [...] Read more.
One of the most serious environmental concerns worldwide is the consequences of industrial wastes and agricultural usage leading to pesticide residues in water. At present, a wide range of pesticides are used directly to control pests and diseases. However, environmental damage is expected even at their low concentration because they are sustained a long time in nature, which has a negative impact on human health. In this study, photolysis and photocatalysis of the pesticides dieldrin and deltamethrin were tested at two UV wavelengths (254 and 306 nm) and in different test media (distilled water, wastewater, and agricultural wastewater) to examine their ability to eliminate pesticides. TiO2 (0.001 g/10 mL) was used as a catalyst for each treatment. The purpose was to determine the influence of UV wavelength, exposure time, and catalyst addition on the pesticide decomposition processes in different water types. Water was loaded with the tested pesticides (2000 µg) for 12 h under UV irradiation, and the pesticide concentrations were measured at 2 h intervals after UV irradiation. The results showed a clear effect of UV light on the pesticides photodegradations that was both a wavelength- and time-dependent effect. Photolysis was more effective at λ = 306 nm than at λ = 254 nm. Furthermore, TiO2 addition (0.001 g/10 mL) increased the degradation at both tested wavelengths and hence could be considered a potential catalyst for both pesticide degradations. Deltamethrin was more sensitive to UV light than dieldrin under all conditions. Full article
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Article
Operation and Performance of Austrian Wastewater and Sewage Sludge Treatment as a Basis for Resource Optimization
Water 2021, 13(21), 2998; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13212998 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 900
Abstract
Recent years came with a paradigm shift for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to extend the sole purpose of contaminant removal to an additional function as resource recovery facilities. This shift is accompanied by the development of new European legislation towards better inclusion of [...] Read more.
Recent years came with a paradigm shift for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to extend the sole purpose of contaminant removal to an additional function as resource recovery facilities. This shift is accompanied by the development of new European legislation towards better inclusion of resource recovery from wastewater. However, long operational lifespans and a multitude of treatment requirements demand thorough investigations into how resource recovery can be implemented sustainably. To aid the formulation of new legislation for phosphorus (P) recovery specifically, in 2017 we conducted a survey on Austrian WWTP-infrastructure, with a focus on P removal and sludge treatment, as well as disposal and sludge quality of all WWTPs above 2000 population equivalents (PE). Data were prepared for analysis, checked for completeness and cross-checked for plausibility. This study presents the major findings from this database and draws essential conclusions for the future recovery of P from wastewater. We see results from this study as useful to other countries, describing the current state of the art in Austria and potentially aiding in developing wastewater treatment and P recovery strategies. Full article
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Article
Sustainable Wastewater Management to Reduce Freshwater Contamination and Water Depletion in Mexico
Water 2021, 13(16), 2307; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162307 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 943
Abstract
At present, most rivers, lakes, and reservoirs in Mexico have significant anthropogenic contamination. The lack of sanitation infrastructure, the increase in the number of nonoperational or abandoned sanitation facilities, limited enforcement of environmental regulations, and limited public policies for the reuse of treated [...] Read more.
At present, most rivers, lakes, and reservoirs in Mexico have significant anthropogenic contamination. The lack of sanitation infrastructure, the increase in the number of nonoperational or abandoned sanitation facilities, limited enforcement of environmental regulations, and limited public policies for the reuse of treated wastewater all contribute to the contamination and water availability problem. The reasons for this are identified as (1) the high maintenance and operational costs in sanitation facilities (including electricity consumption); (2) poor planning and practices of wastewater management and reuse by municipalities; (3) national policies that do not favor the reuse of treated wastewater for agriculture, industry, and municipal services instead of using groundwater as at present; (4) failure to adopt a governance model at the three levels of government; and (5) transparency in the management of financial resources. Some measures to improve this situation include (a) transparent decision-making; (b) participation and accountability in budgeting and planning at the national, state, and municipal levels; and (c) planning for the reuse of treated wastewater to reduce groundwater extractions and to reduce discharges to surface waters from the beginning of every WWTP project. Full article
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Review

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Review
Characterization and Treatment Technologies Applied for Produced Water in Qatar
Water 2021, 13(24), 3573; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243573 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1008
Abstract
Qatar is one of the major natural gas (NG) producing countries, which has the world’s third-largest NG reserves besides the largest supplier of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Since the produced water (PW) generated in the oil and gas industry is considered as the [...] Read more.
Qatar is one of the major natural gas (NG) producing countries, which has the world’s third-largest NG reserves besides the largest supplier of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Since the produced water (PW) generated in the oil and gas industry is considered as the largest waste stream, cost-effective PW management becomes fundamentally essential. The oil/gas industries in Qatar produce large amounts of PW daily, hence the key challenges facing these industries reducing the volume of PW injected in disposal wells by a level of 50% for ensuring the long-term sustainability of the reservoir. Moreover, it is important to study the characteristics of PW to determine the appropriate method to treat it and then use it for various applications such as irrigation, or dispose of it without harming the environment. This review paper targets to highlight the generation of PW in Qatar, as well as discuss the characteristics of chemical, physical, and biological treatment techniques in detail. These processes and methods discussed are not only applied by Qatari companies, but also by other companies associated or in collaboration with those in Qatar. Finally, case studies from different companies in Qatar and the challenges of treating the PW are discussed. From the different studies analyzed, various techniques as well as sequencing of different techniques were noted to be employed for the effective treatment of PW. Full article
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Other

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Perspective
Possibilities and Challenges of Wastewater Reuse—Planning Aspects and Realized Examples
Water 2022, 14(10), 1619; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101619 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 547
Abstract
Population growth and climate change has a huge impact on water availability. To ensure a secure water supply, water-reuse concepts and its implementation are gaining more and more importance. Additionally, water saving potentials to optimize the drinking and water reuse availability have to [...] Read more.
Population growth and climate change has a huge impact on water availability. To ensure a secure water supply, water-reuse concepts and its implementation are gaining more and more importance. Additionally, water saving potentials to optimize the drinking and water reuse availability have to be considered. However, limited spatial planning opportunities and missing regulation to provide treated wastewater according to the “fit-for-purpose” principle are often hindering its application. Some countries, such as the USA or Singapore, have been leading the way for decades in implementing water-reuse concepts and in treating wastewater for potable and non-potable reuse. The wastewater treatment technologies are currently providing solutions for an adequate provision of reclaimed water. Consequently, the opportunities for water reuse are given, but the challenge is largely in the implementation, which becomes necessary in water-scarce regions. This perspective is thus presenting the current possibilities and challenges of wastewater reuse with respect to existing examples of implementations but also shows the need for action in the future. The relevance of this topic is also underlined in particular by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), especially Goal 6 which is related to “Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all”. Full article
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