Special Issue "Green Infrastructure for Stormwater Management: Hydrological, Hydrodynamic and Pollutant Removal Processes"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 7000

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Christian Berretta
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering, [email protected], University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
Interests: Water sensitive urban design; Green infrastructure for stormwater management; Point source and diffuse urban pollutants; Sustainable water management in developing countries; Pluvial flood models in rapidly developing cities; Railway drainage systems
Prof. Dr. Gislain Lipeme Kouyi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon, DEEP Laboratory - Wastes Water Environment Pollutions, Villeurbanne, France
Interests: transport and fate of micropollutants; infiltration processes; green infrastructures; bioretention; settling processes; source and transport of microplastics in urban drainage systems; flow measurement and instrumentation; sediments transport; sewer gases transfer; Combined sewer overflow structures (CSOs); Applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in urban drainage systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are seeking papers on the topic of “Green Infrastructure for stormwater management: hydrological, hydrodynamic and pollutant removal processes”.

Management of urban weather discharges including surface runoff, combined sewer overflows and stormwater flows is crucial in urban areas. In the last decade we have been observed an increasing implementation of Green Infrastructure (GI) for hydrological restoration and pollution control in urban areas. These GI refer to Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD), Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS), Best Management Practices (BMP) or Nature-Based Solutions (NBS).

GI provide a very adaptable tool for stormwater runoff management with respect to hydrodynamic characterisation and pollutant control mechanisms. However, additional research investigations are needed on treatment functions and their interactions with engineered media and plant properties in order to tailor functionality to specific sites, based on pollutants conveyed by runoff water and the ecological requirements of recipient water bodies. The design and choice of plants, media composition, and drainage configuration all impact upon hydrological, hydrodynamic, water quality and long-term performance.

GI lifetime predictions are uncertain due to high variability of pollutant loading, and media-vegetation variation or loss of pollutant retention capacity. More evidence on GI performance within time and maintenance could support the assessment of long-term cost/benefits which have been identified as impediments to GI uptake and have prevented from developing strong business cases for GI projects.

We seek papers that investigate the performance of GI and provide evidence on the impact of media, preferential flow paths, vegetation, climate, design on the hydrological, hydrodynamic and pollutant removal processes. The papers for this special issue could include laboratory and field tests of GI, innovative doped-media or designing and modelling approaches for simulating event-based or long-term performance.

Original research papers or critical reviews are expected.

Dr. Christian Berretta
Prof. Dr. Gislain Lipeme Kouyi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Stormwater management
  • Sustainable urban water management
  • Green Infrastructure
  • Water Sensitive Urban Design
  • Sustainable Drainage Systems
  • Best Management Practices
  • Nature-Based Solutions
  • Urban runoff quality
  • Urban hydrology
  • Green Infrastructure Performance

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Water Dynamics in an Infiltration Trench in an Urban Centre in Brazil: Monitoring and Modelling
Water 2022, 14(4), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040513 - 09 Feb 2022
Viewed by 621
Abstract
Infiltration trenches are compensatory techniques that consist of a reservoir filled with granular material. Their function is to store and infiltrate runoff water generated by rainfall. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hydraulic performance and model the water dynamics of [...] Read more.
Infiltration trenches are compensatory techniques that consist of a reservoir filled with granular material. Their function is to store and infiltrate runoff water generated by rainfall. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hydraulic performance and model the water dynamics of an infiltration trench installed in the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. For each event, the response time of the infiltration system, the percentage of the infiltrated volume and the dynamics of water storage processes were analyzed as a function of rainfall events. The Puls method was used to model the events. The monitoring data demonstrated that the infiltration trench had a positive performance, infiltrating a large part of the drained volume, even with system overflows. The analyzed events presented an average emptying time of 6 days. The infiltration trench achieved its objective of decreasing the volume drained on the surface. The application of the Puls method in simulations of the monitored events showed satisfactory results in the statistical criteria coefficient of determination, deviation ratio and coefficient of residual mass, obtaining efficient adjustments, apart from a few exceptions. This study allowed us to prove the positive contribution of the trench to the water budget. Full article
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Article
Hygroscopic Water Retention and Physio-Chemical Properties of Three In-House Produced Biochars from Different Feedstock Types: Implications on Substrate Amendment in Green Infrastructure
Water 2021, 13(19), 2613; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192613 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 898
Abstract
Recent studies have proposed usage of biochar as a substrate amendment in green infrastructure, such as green roofs and bio-filtration units. However, understanding of the variation in physio-chemical properties of biochar due to the production process and feedstock is still lacking. The present [...] Read more.
Recent studies have proposed usage of biochar as a substrate amendment in green infrastructure, such as green roofs and bio-filtration units. However, understanding of the variation in physio-chemical properties of biochar due to the production process and feedstock is still lacking. The present study investigated the effects of pyrolysis temperature and feedstocks on the hygroscopic water content and physio-chemical properties of biochar. Biochars were produced from three feedstock types, invasive vegetation (i.e., water hyacinth), non-invasive vegetation (i.e., wood) and one animal waste (i.e., chicken manure). Biochar was produced at two different pyrolysis temperatures (i.e., 300 °C and 600 °C). Scanning electron microscopy + energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM + EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) were performed on all samples to analyze the surface morphology, pore size, element content, functional groups, and chemical bonds. Relative humidity was adjusted to reflect the biochar’s hygroscopic property by measuring the maximum moisture content at the sample equilibrium state. The characterization reveals that the lowest carbon content (42.78%) was found at 300 °C for water hyacinth biochar (WHB). The highest carbon content (92.14%) was found at 600 °C for wood biochar (WB). As the pyrolysis temperature increased, the mean pore volume (from 0.03 to 0.18 cm3/g) and diameter (from 8.40 to 10.33 nm) of the WHB increased. However, the pore diameter of chicken manure (CB) decreased (from 9.23 nm to 7.53 nm) under an increase in pyrolysis temperature. For a given pyrolysis temperature, the hygroscopicity of WHB was highest among all biochars. With an increase in pyrolysis temperature, the hygroscopicity of biochars changed differently. The hygroscopicity of WHB decreased from 82.41% to 44.33% with an increase of pyrolysis temperature. However, the hygroscopicity of CMB and WB remained unchanged. This study suggests that production process of biochars need to be considered for appropriate selection as substrate material in green infrastructure. Further, it promotes the establishment of commercial production of biochar for usage in green infrastructure. Full article
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Article
Influence of Sustainable Biochars Produced from Kitchen Waste, Pig Manure, and Wood on Soil Erosion
Water 2021, 13(16), 2296; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162296 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1212
Abstract
The influence of biochars on water retention, mitigating nutrient leaching, and pollutant removal in green infrastructure has been explored in the past. However, there is a lack of understanding on how feedstock (i.e., biomass) would affect biochar physicochemical properties and hence, overall erosion [...] Read more.
The influence of biochars on water retention, mitigating nutrient leaching, and pollutant removal in green infrastructure has been explored in the past. However, there is a lack of understanding on how feedstock (i.e., biomass) would affect biochar physicochemical properties and hence, overall erosion control (including infiltration, surface, and sub-surface runoff) in green infrastructure. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of biochars produced from three different feedstocks (pig manure, wood, and kitchen waste) on the erosion of granite residual soil. Flume experiments were conducted to measure and analyze soil erosion, runoff, and infiltration. The result showed that the runoff and soil erosion of kitchen waste biochar (KWB) samples were reduced by 17.7% and 21.7%, respectively. On the contrary, wood biochar (WB) and pig manure biochar (PMB) were found to enhance runoff and soil erosion. In addition, biochar particles were found in runoff and infiltration in erosion experiment. Thus, it is important to note that measures should be taken to prevent biochar loss when using biochar as a soil amendment. Additionally, the effects of different types of biochar on soil hydraulic and hydrophobicity properties should be taken into account as a selection criterion for choosing amendments in green infrastructure. This study finds that kitchen waste biochar has better performance in improving soil hydraulics and erosion. Full article
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Article
Estimating Evapotranspiration from Commonly Occurring Urban Plant Species Using Porometry and Canopy Stomatal Conductance
Water 2021, 13(16), 2262; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162262 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1277
Abstract
Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key moisture flux in both the urban stormwater management and the urban energy budgets. While there are established methods for estimating ET for agricultural crops, relatively little is known about ET rates associated with plants in urban [...] Read more.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key moisture flux in both the urban stormwater management and the urban energy budgets. While there are established methods for estimating ET for agricultural crops, relatively little is known about ET rates associated with plants in urban Green Infrastructure settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using porometry to estimate ET rates. Porometry provides an instantaneous measurement of leaf stomatal conductance. There are two challenges when estimating ET from porometry: converting from leaf stomatal conductance to leaf ET and scaling from leaf ET to canopy ET. Novel approaches to both challenges are proposed here. ET was measured from three commonly occurring urban plant species (Sedum spectabile, Bergenia cordifolia and Primula vulgaris) using a direct mass loss method. This data was used to evaluate the estimates made from porometry in a preliminary study (Sheffield, UK). The Porometry data captured expected trends in ET, with clear differences between the plant species and the reproducible decreasing rates of ET in response to reductions in soil moisture content. Full article
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Article
Evaluating the Potential Hydrological Performance of a Bioretention Media with 100% Recycled Waste Components
Water 2021, 13(15), 2014; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152014 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1002
Abstract
Bioretention systems are a popular type of Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS). However, their largest single component, the fill media, is often a non-sustainably sourced material. This study evaluates a bioretention fill media comprising 100% recycled waste components. The fill media components come from [...] Read more.
Bioretention systems are a popular type of Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS). However, their largest single component, the fill media, is often a non-sustainably sourced material. This study evaluates a bioretention fill media comprising 100% recycled waste components. The fill media components come from multiple waste streams, quarry waste from the construction sector, crushed glass and green waste compost from domestic waste, and sugar-beet washings from the food processing sector. The hydraulically important physical characteristics of the recycled fill media were evaluated against reported literature examples of bioretention fill media, alongside UK and international guidance documentation. The particle size distribution of the recycled fill media was found to be unlike that seen in the literature and was also not compliant with the UK’s CIRIA ’The SuDS Manual’ guidance (d6 mm = 45% vs. 0% target). However, this did not result in any additional non-compliance, with laboratory-derived saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks=101 mm/h) and porosity (ϕ=44%) within recommended ranges (100Ks300 mm/h, ϕ>30%). SWMM was used to predict the performance of a bioretention system installed with the recycled fill media compared to UK guidance configured systems. It was found that the recycled fill media would have similar performance to a UK guidance compliant system, irrespective of its particle size distribution. Further work is required to validate the predicted performance of the recycled media. Full article
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Article
Performance Analysis for Road-Bioretention with Three Types of Curb Inlet Using Numerical Model
Water 2021, 13(12), 1643; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121643 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 981
Abstract
The FullSWOF-ZG (Full Shallow Water Overland Flow with infiltration determined by Zones and Grate-inlet submodules) program was used to simulate the road-bioretention (RB) stripe and evaluate the performance of the RB stripe with three types of curb inlet. The program was revised from [...] Read more.
The FullSWOF-ZG (Full Shallow Water Overland Flow with infiltration determined by Zones and Grate-inlet submodules) program was used to simulate the road-bioretention (RB) stripe and evaluate the performance of the RB stripe with three types of curb inlet. The program was revised from the open-source FullSWOF-2D program and the validation results indicated FullSWOF-ZG predicts the RB stripe performance accurately. The model cases of 27 RB with different longitude slopes (S0), cross slopes (Sx), and curb inlet lengths (Lci) for the undepressed, composite depressed, and local depressed curb inlets were established in this study. Therefore, 81 cases in total were simulated to explore the curb inlet type and design parameter’s influence on the RB stripe performance. Overall, it was found that the bioretention control efficiency will increase with the S0 decrease, Sx increase, and Lci increase. The composite depressed curb inlet was the most efficient to intercept the road runoff into the bioretention strip, the next best is the local depressed curb inlet, and the undepressed curb inlet was the least efficient. The curb inlet and grate inlet combination in composite depressed curb inlet cases were able to deal with all the road surface runoff for the small longitudinal slope (S0 = 0.1% and 0.3%) to relieve the road local flood inundation. Full article
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