Special Issue "Recent Advances in Flood Hazard and Risk Science"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 5811

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Julio Garrote
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Geodynamics, Stratigraphy and Paleontology, Complutense University of Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: flood hazard; flood risk analysis; flood modelling; fluvial geomorphology; flash floods; LiDAR and photogrametry DEMS; PaleoFloods modelling; fluvial and terrain morphometry; beach and dune system erosion; coastal and shoreline process
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Virginia Ruiz-Villanueva
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Earth Surface Dynamics (IDYST), University of Lausanne, Geopolis, UNIL-Mouline, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
Interests: fluvial geomorphology; flood dynamics; bio-morphodynamics; eco-morphology; cascade processes; instream large wood dynamics; frequency and magnitude of extreme events; flood hazard; risk analysis
Dr. Andres Diez-Herrero
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Geological Hazards Division, Geological Survey of Spain (IGME), Ríos Rosas 23, E-28003 Madrid, Spain
Interests: flood risk analysis; natural hazards mitigation; flood hydrology; paleohydrology; dendrogeomorphology; fluvial geomorphology; landscape and urban planning
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Flood hazard and risk science has undergone a revolution over the past decade, driven by the dramatically growing capabilities for monitoring and modelling Earth processes. Data are increasingly available from the extensive use of unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with different sensors, ground-based imagery, the development of active remote-sensing techniques such as light detection and ranging (LiDAR), photogrammetry, or the availability of high-resolution satellite data. Moreover, there has been a rise in computational competence thanks to the development of complex and more accurate meteorological, hydrological and hydraulic models and packages, specifically designed for statistical and topographical analyses and data visualization. In addition, river management, and hence flood risk management, are shifting, from traditional flood protection using hard defenses only, towards a more holistic approach, by encouraging flood prevention, adaptation, and recovery, together with the conservation and restoration of river ecosystem services. This change in approach represents a paradigm shift, that needs to deal with the threat pose by climate change and global warming. Therefore, there is an urgent need to adapt and develop new methods and techniques to properly face the challenges of this new era.

We welcome scientific contributions in this domain, including (but not restricted to): theoretical and applied developments of hydrologic and hydrodynamic modelling including morphodynamics; post-event surveys; floods and related processes monitoring; flood frequency analysis; data mining and machine learning tools for hazard, exposure and vulnerability analysis; social networks and big data analysis for risk analysis and model calibration; palaeohydrology and geochronological dating techniques; geographical information systems; risk perception, risk communication, and dissemination.

Dr. Julio Garrote
Dr. Virginia Ruiz-Villanueva
Dr. Andres Diez-Herrero
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Flood hazard analysis
  • Flood risk analysis
  • Flood exposure analysis
  • Flood vulnerability analysis
  • Resilience
  • Remote sensing
  • Hydrologic models
  • Hydraulic models
  • Flood frequency analysis
  • Flood maps

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Wildfire-Induced Changes in Flood Risk in Recreational Canyoning Areas: Lessons from the 2017 Jerte Canyons Disaster
Water 2022, 14(15), 2345; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152345 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 291
Abstract
Few studies identify potential hazards affecting canyoning. This activity has an increasing number of practitioners, and hence, a greater number of people are affected by potential natural hazards. Mountain rivers are located in places subject to several hydrological hazards; the risks are mostly [...] Read more.
Few studies identify potential hazards affecting canyoning. This activity has an increasing number of practitioners, and hence, a greater number of people are affected by potential natural hazards. Mountain rivers are located in places subject to several hydrological hazards; the risks are mostly connected with floods produced by intense storms or dam operation, but changes in hydrological factors may alter the usual basin behavior given even moderate or less severe storms. Data about flood events and the peak discharge of the 2017 flood in the two studied canyons were collected by means of a quick field survey of water levels after the flood, hydrological modeling, and soil analysis. The present research shows the dramatic consequences of a two-year return period storm affecting a guided group of canyoneers. A previous wildfire changed the soil, leading to hydrophobic conditions and increasing the flood effects. Peak discharge increased from 2 m3 s−1 in normal conditions to 12 m3 s−1 under a hydrophobic regime related to wildfire occurrence; moreover, a reduction in the time of concentration also occurred, pointing to a more powerful and dangerous flood event. In this paper, some hydrological recommendations are highlighted that will be helpful in recreational canyoning management, leading to safer practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flood Hazard and Risk Science)
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Article
Revisiting Flood Hazard Assessment Practices under a Hybrid Stochastic Simulation Framework
Water 2022, 14(3), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030457 - 02 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1023
Abstract
We propose a novel probabilistic approach to flood hazard assessment, aiming to address the major shortcomings of everyday deterministic engineering practices in a computationally efficient manner. In this context, the principal sources of uncertainty are defined across the overall modeling procedure, namely, the [...] Read more.
We propose a novel probabilistic approach to flood hazard assessment, aiming to address the major shortcomings of everyday deterministic engineering practices in a computationally efficient manner. In this context, the principal sources of uncertainty are defined across the overall modeling procedure, namely, the statistical uncertainty of inferring annual rainfall maxima through distribution models that are fitted to empirical data, and the inherently stochastic nature of the underlying hydrometeorological and hydrodynamic processes. Our work focuses on three key facets, i.e., the temporal profile of storm events, the dependence of flood generation mechanisms on antecedent soil moisture conditions, and the dependence of runoff propagation over the terrain and the stream network on the intensity of the flood event. These are addressed through the implementation of a series of cascade modules, based on publicly available and open-source software. Moreover, the hydrodynamic processes are simulated by a hybrid 1D/2D modeling approach, which offers a good compromise between computational efficiency and accuracy. The proposed framework enables the estimation of the uncertainty of all flood-related quantities, by means of empirically derived quantiles for given return periods. Lastly, a set of easily applicable flood hazard metrics are introduced for the quantification of flood hazard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flood Hazard and Risk Science)
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Article
Free Global DEMs and Flood Modelling—A Comparison Analysis for the January 2015 Flooding Event in Mocuba City (Mozambique)
Water 2022, 14(2), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020176 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 681
Abstract
Flood hazard and risk analysis in developing countries is a difficult task due to the absence or scarce availability of flow data and digital elevation models (DEMs) with the necessary quality. Up to eight DEMs (ALOS Palsar, Aster GDEM, Bare Earth DEM, SRTM [...] Read more.
Flood hazard and risk analysis in developing countries is a difficult task due to the absence or scarce availability of flow data and digital elevation models (DEMs) with the necessary quality. Up to eight DEMs (ALOS Palsar, Aster GDEM, Bare Earth DEM, SRTM DEM, Merit DEM, TanDEM-X DEM, NASA DEM, and Copernicus DEM) of different data acquisition, spatial resolution, and data processing were used to reconstruct the January 2015 flood event. The systematic flow rate record from the Mocuba city gauge station as well as international aid organisms and field data were used to define both the return period peak flows in years for different flood frequencies (Tyear) and the January 2015 flooding event peak flow. Both visual and statistical analysis of flow depth values at control point locations give us a measure of the different hydraulic modelling performance. The results related to the Copernicus DEM, both in visual and statistical approach, show a clear improvement over the results of the other free global DEMs. Under the assumption that Copernicus DEM provides the best results, a flood hazard analysis was carried out, its results being in agreement with previous data of the effects of the January 2015 flooding event in the Mocuba District. All these results highlight the step forward that Copernicus DEM represents for flood hazard analysis in developing countries, along with the use of so-called “citizen science” in the form of flooding evidence field data acquisition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flood Hazard and Risk Science)
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Article
Design and Field Implementation of a Low-Cost, Open-Hardware Platform for Hydrological Monitoring
Water 2021, 13(21), 3099; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213099 - 03 Nov 2021
Viewed by 729
Abstract
Hydrologic processes acting on catchments are complex and variable, especially in mountain basins due to their topography and specific characteristics, so runoff simulation models and water management are also complex. Nevertheless, model parameters are usually estimated on the basis of guidelines from user [...] Read more.
Hydrologic processes acting on catchments are complex and variable, especially in mountain basins due to their topography and specific characteristics, so runoff simulation models and water management are also complex. Nevertheless, model parameters are usually estimated on the basis of guidelines from user manuals and literature because they are not usually monitored, due to the high cost of conventional monitoring systems. Within this framework, a new and promising generation of low-cost sensors for hydrologic monitoring, logging, and transition has been developed. We aimed to design a low-cost, open-hardware platform, based on a Raspberry Pi and software written in Python 3, for measuring, recording, and wireless data transmission in hydrological monitoring contexts. Moreover, the data are linked to a runoff model, in real time, for flood prevention. Complementarily, it emphasizes the role of the calibration and validation of soil moisture, rain gauges, and water depth sensors in laboratories. It was installed in a small mountain basin. The results showed mean absolute errors of ±2.2% in soil moisture, ±1 mm in rainfall, and ±0.51 cm in water depth measurements; they highlight the potential of this platform for hydrological monitoring and flood risk management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flood Hazard and Risk Science)
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Article
Understanding the Mechanical Biases of Tipping-Bucket Rain Gauges: A Semi-Analytical Calibration Approach
Water 2021, 13(16), 2285; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162285 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 903
Abstract
Tipping bucket rain gauges (TBR) are widely used worldwide because they are simple, cheap, and have low-energy consumption. However, their main disadvantage lies in measurement errors, such as those caused by rainfall intensity (RI) variation, which results in data underestimation, especially during extreme [...] Read more.
Tipping bucket rain gauges (TBR) are widely used worldwide because they are simple, cheap, and have low-energy consumption. However, their main disadvantage lies in measurement errors, such as those caused by rainfall intensity (RI) variation, which results in data underestimation, especially during extreme rainfall events. This work aims to understand these types of errors, identifying some of their causes through an analysis of water behavior and its effect on the TBR mechanism when RI increases. The mechanical biases of TBR effects on data were studied using 13 years of data measured at 10 TBRs in a mountain basin, and two semi-analytical approaches based on the TBR mechanism response to RI have been proposed, validated in the laboratory, and contrasted with a simple linear regression dynamic calibration and a static calibration through a root-mean-square error analysis in two different TBR models. Two main sources of underestimation were identified: one due to the cumulative surplus during the tipping movement and the other due to the surplus water contributed by the critical drop. Moreover, a random variation, not related to RI, was also observed, and three regions in the calibration curve were identified. Proposed calibration methods have proved to be an efficient alternative for TBR calibration, reducing data error by more than 50% in contrast with traditional static calibration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flood Hazard and Risk Science)
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Article
The Story of a Steep River: Causes and Effects of the Flash Flood on 24 July 2017 in Western Norway
Water 2021, 13(12), 1688; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121688 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
Flash floods can cause great geomorphological changes in ephemeral fluvial systems and result in particularly severe damages for the unprepared population exposed to it. The flash flood in the Storelva river in Utvik (western Norway) on 24 July 2017 was witnessed and documented. [...] Read more.
Flash floods can cause great geomorphological changes in ephemeral fluvial systems and result in particularly severe damages for the unprepared population exposed to it. The flash flood in the Storelva river in Utvik (western Norway) on 24 July 2017 was witnessed and documented. This study assessed the causes and effects of the 2017 flood and provides valuable information for the calibration and validation of future modelling studies. The flooded area at peak discharge, maximum wetted and dry areas during the entire event, critical points and main flow paths were reconstructed using on-site and post-event (i) visual documentation, such as photographs and videos, and (ii) aerial surveying, such as orthophotographs and laser scanning, of the lowermost reach. The steep longitudinal slope together with the loose material forming the valley and riverbed contributed to a large amount of sediment transport during this extreme event. Steep rivers such as the Storelva river have very short response times to extreme hydrologic conditions, which calls for exhaustive monitoring and data collection in case of future events, as well as modelling tools that can emulate the hydro-morphodynamics observed during events such as the 2017 flash flood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flood Hazard and Risk Science)
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