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Article

Biomass Production and Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Processed Municipal Wastewater by Salix schwerinii: A Field Trial

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School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistokatu 7, P.O. Box 111, 80100 Joensuu, Finland
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Natural Resources Institute Finland (LUKE), Yliopistokatu 6, 80100 Joensuu, Finland
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Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Frederick Ritter
Water 2021, 13(16), 2298; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162298
Received: 13 July 2021 / Revised: 18 August 2021 / Accepted: 20 August 2021 / Published: 22 August 2021
In many Baltic regions, short-rotation willow (Salix spp.) is used as a vegetation filter for wastewater treatment and recycling of valuable nutrients to upsurge bioeconomy development. In this context, a four-year field trial (2016–2019) was carried out near a wastewater treatment plant in eastern Finland (Outokumpu) to investigate the effect of the processed wastewater (WW) on biomass production as well as the nutrients uptake capability (mainly N and P) by a willow variety (Salix schwerinii). Results indicated that WW irrigation expressively increased the willow diameter growth and biomass yield around 256% and 6510%, respectively, compared to the control treatment site (without WW). The willow was also able to accumulate approximately 41–60% of the N and 32–50% of the P in two years (2018–2019). Overall, willow showed a total 20% mortality rate under WW irrigation throughout the growing periods (2017–2019) as compared to control (39%). The results demonstrate that willow has the potential to control eutrophication (reducing nutrients load) from the wastewater with the best survival rate and can provide high biomass production for bioenergy generations in cold climatic conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: water pollution; wastewater reuse; nutrient; nature-based solution; willow water pollution; wastewater reuse; nutrient; nature-based solution; willow
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mohsin, M.; Kaipiainen, E.; Salam, M.M.A.; Evstishenkov, N.; Nawrot, N.; Villa, A.; Wojciechowska, E.; Kuittinen, S.; Pappinen, A. Biomass Production and Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Processed Municipal Wastewater by Salix schwerinii: A Field Trial. Water 2021, 13, 2298. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162298

AMA Style

Mohsin M, Kaipiainen E, Salam MMA, Evstishenkov N, Nawrot N, Villa A, Wojciechowska E, Kuittinen S, Pappinen A. Biomass Production and Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Processed Municipal Wastewater by Salix schwerinii: A Field Trial. Water. 2021; 13(16):2298. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162298

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mohsin, Muhammad, Erik Kaipiainen, Mir M.A. Salam, Nikolai Evstishenkov, Nicole Nawrot, Aki Villa, Ewa Wojciechowska, Suvi Kuittinen, and Ari Pappinen. 2021. "Biomass Production and Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Processed Municipal Wastewater by Salix schwerinii: A Field Trial" Water 13, no. 16: 2298. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162298

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