Next Issue
Volume 8, June
Previous Issue
Volume 8, April

Table of Contents

Cells, Volume 8, Issue 5 (May 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Skin is the largest organ of the human body. Its architecture and physiological functions depend on [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Lipid and Lipid Droplet Metabolism in Human HCC
Cells 2019, 8(5), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050512 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 884
Abstract
Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults and the most common cause of death in people with cirrhosis. While previous metabolic studies of HCC have mainly focused on the glucose metabolism (Warburg effect), less attention [...] Read more.
Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults and the most common cause of death in people with cirrhosis. While previous metabolic studies of HCC have mainly focused on the glucose metabolism (Warburg effect), less attention has been paid to tumor-specific features of the lipid metabolism. Here, we applied a computational approach to analyze major pathways of fatty acid utilization in individual HCC. To this end, we used protein intensity profiles of eleven human HCCs to parameterize tumor-specific kinetic models of cellular lipid metabolism including formation, enlargement, and degradation of lipid droplets (LDs). Our analysis reveals significant inter-tumor differences in the lipid metabolism. The majority of HCCs show a reduced uptake of fatty acids and decreased rate of β-oxidation, however, some HCCs display a completely different metabolic phenotype characterized by high rates of β-oxidation. Despite reduced fatty acid uptake in the majority of HCCs, the content of triacylglycerol is significantly enlarged compared to the tumor-adjacent tissue. This is due to tumor-specific expression profiles of regulatory proteins decorating the surface of LDs and controlling their turnover. Our simulations suggest that HCCs characterized by a very high content of triglycerides comprise regulatory peculiarities that render them susceptible to selective drug targeting without affecting healthy tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Droplets in Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Hematological Malignancy-Derived Small Extracellular Vesicles and Tumor Microenvironment: The Art of Turning Foes into Friends
Cells 2019, 8(5), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050511 - 27 May 2019
Viewed by 1051
Abstract
Small extracellular vesicles (small EVs) are commonly released by all cells, and are found in all body fluids. They are implicated in cell to cell short- and long-distance communication through the transfer of genetic material and proteins, as well as interactions between target [...] Read more.
Small extracellular vesicles (small EVs) are commonly released by all cells, and are found in all body fluids. They are implicated in cell to cell short- and long-distance communication through the transfer of genetic material and proteins, as well as interactions between target cell membrane receptors and ligands anchored on small EV membrane. Beyond their canonical functions in healthy tissues, small EVs are strategically used by tumors to communicate with the cellular microenvironment and to establish a proper niche which would ultimately allow cancer cell proliferation, escape from the immune surveillance, and metastasis formation. In this review, we highlight the effects of hematological malignancy-derived small EVs on immune and stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Microenvironment: Interaction and Metabolism)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
E3 Ubiquitin Ligase TRIM Proteins, Cell Cycle and Mitosis
Cells 2019, 8(5), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050510 - 27 May 2019
Viewed by 830
Abstract
The cell cycle is a series of events by which cellular components are accurately segregated into daughter cells, principally controlled by the oscillating activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and their co-activators. In eukaryotes, DNA replication is confined to a discrete synthesis phase while [...] Read more.
The cell cycle is a series of events by which cellular components are accurately segregated into daughter cells, principally controlled by the oscillating activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and their co-activators. In eukaryotes, DNA replication is confined to a discrete synthesis phase while chromosome segregation occurs during mitosis. During mitosis, the chromosomes are pulled into each of the two daughter cells by the coordination of spindle microtubules, kinetochores, centromeres, and chromatin. These four functional units tie chromosomes to the microtubules, send signals to the cells when the attachment is completed and the division can proceed, and withstand the force generated by pulling the chromosomes to either daughter cell. Protein ubiquitination is a post-translational modification that plays a central role in cellular homeostasis. E3 ubiquitin ligases mediate the transfer of ubiquitin to substrate proteins determining their fate. One of the largest subfamilies of E3 ubiquitin ligases is the family of the tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins, whose dysregulation is associated with a variety of cellular processes and directly involved in human diseases and cancer. In this review we summarize the current knowledge and emerging concepts about TRIMs and their contribution to the correct regulation of cell cycle, describing how TRIMs control the cell cycle transition phases and their involvement in the different functional units of the mitotic process, along with implications in cancer progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitination in Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Inhibition of Hedgehog Signaling in Fibroblasts, Pancreatic, and Lung Tumor Cells by Oxy186, an Oxysterol Analogue with Drug-Like Properties
Cells 2019, 8(5), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050509 - 27 May 2019
Viewed by 953
Abstract
The widespread involvement of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in human malignancies has motivated the clinical development of Smoothened (Smo) antagonists, such as vismodegib and sonidegib. However, Smo antagonists have failed to benefit patients suffering from Hh pathway-dependent solid tumors, such as pancreatic, [...] Read more.
The widespread involvement of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in human malignancies has motivated the clinical development of Smoothened (Smo) antagonists, such as vismodegib and sonidegib. However, Smo antagonists have failed to benefit patients suffering from Hh pathway-dependent solid tumors, such as pancreatic, colorectal, or ovarian cancer. Hh-dependent cancers are often driven by activating mutations that occur downstream of Smo and directly activate the transcription factors known as glioma-associated oncogenes (Gli1-3). Hence, the direct targeting of Gli could be a more effective strategy for achieving disease modification compared to Smo antagonism. In this study, we report on the biological and pharmacological evaluation of Oxy186, a semisynthetic oxysterol analogue, as a novel inhibitor of Hh signaling acting downstream of Smo, with encouraging drug-like properties. Oxy186 exhibits strong inhibition of ligand-induced Hh signaling in NIH3T3-E1 fibroblasts, as well as in constitutively activated Hh signaling in Suppressor of Fused (Sufu) null mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. Oxy186 also inhibits Gli1 transcriptional activity in NIH3T3-E1 cells expressing exogenous Gli1 and Gli-dependent reporter constructs. Furthermore, Oxy186 suppresses Hh signaling in PANC-1 cells, a human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tumor cell line, as well as PANC-1 cell proliferation in vitro, and in human lung cancer cell lines, A549 and H2039. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting Hedgehog Signaling in Cancer)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Regulation of Ribosomal Proteins on Viral Infection
Cells 2019, 8(5), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050508 - 27 May 2019
Viewed by 758
Abstract
Ribosomal proteins (RPs), in conjunction with rRNA, are major components of ribosomes involved in the cellular process of protein biosynthesis, known as “translation”. The viruses, as the small infectious pathogens with limited genomes, must recruit a variety of host factors to survive and [...] Read more.
Ribosomal proteins (RPs), in conjunction with rRNA, are major components of ribosomes involved in the cellular process of protein biosynthesis, known as “translation”. The viruses, as the small infectious pathogens with limited genomes, must recruit a variety of host factors to survive and propagate, including RPs. At present, more and more information is available on the functional relationship between RPs and virus infection. This review focuses on advancements in my own understanding of critical roles of RPs in the life cycle of viruses. Various RPs interact with viral mRNA and proteins to participate in viral protein biosynthesis and regulate the replication and infection of virus in host cells. Most interactions are essential for viral translation and replication, which promote viral infection and accumulation, whereas the minority represents the defense signaling of host cells by activating immune pathway against virus. RPs provide a new platform for antiviral therapy development, however, at present, antiviral therapeutics with RPs involving in virus infection as targets is limited, and exploring antiviral strategy based on RPs will be the guides for further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ribosome Function and Dynamics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Heterologous Immunity between Adenoviruses and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV): Recombinant Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors Containing Antigens from Unrelated Pathogens Induce Cross-Reactive Immunity Against HCV Antigens
Cells 2019, 8(5), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050507 - 26 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 809
Abstract
Host immune responses play an important role in the outcome of infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). They can lead to viral clearance and a positive outcome, or progression and severity of chronic disease. Extensive research in the past >25 years into understanding [...] Read more.
Host immune responses play an important role in the outcome of infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). They can lead to viral clearance and a positive outcome, or progression and severity of chronic disease. Extensive research in the past >25 years into understanding the immune responses against HCV have still resulted in many unanswered questions implicating a role for unknown factors and events. In our earlier studies, we made a surprising discovery that peptides derived from structural and non-structural proteins of HCV have substantial amino acid sequence homologies with various proteins of adenoviruses and that immunizing mice with a non-replicating, non-recombinant adenovirus vector leads to induction of a robust cross-reactive cellular and humoral response against various HCV antigens. In this work, we further demonstrate antibody cross-reactivity between Ad and HCV in vivo. We also extend this observation to show that recombinant adenoviruses containing antigens from unrelated pathogens also possess the ability to induce cross-reactive immune responses against HCV antigens along with the induction of transgene antigen-specific immunity. This cross-reactive immunity can (a) accommodate the making of dual-pathogen vaccines, (b) play an important role in the natural course of HCV infection and (c) provide a plausible answer to many unexplained questions regarding immunity to HCV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatitis C Virus and Host Interactions)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Nilotinib: A Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Mediates Resistance to Intracellular Mycobacterium Via Regulating Autophagy
Cells 2019, 8(5), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050506 - 26 May 2019
Viewed by 1062
Abstract
Nilotinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been studied extensively in various tumor models; however, no information exists about the pharmacological action of nilotinib in bacterial infections. Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) are the etiological agents of [...] Read more.
Nilotinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been studied extensively in various tumor models; however, no information exists about the pharmacological action of nilotinib in bacterial infections. Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) are the etiological agents of bovine tuberculosis and Johne’s disease, respectively. Although M. bovis and MAP cause distinct tissue tropism, both of them infect, reside, and replicate in mononuclear phagocytic cells of the infected host. Autophagy is an innate immune defense mechanism for the control of intracellular bacteria, regulated by diverse signaling pathways. Here we demonstrated that nilotinib significantly inhibited the intracellular survival and growth of M. bovis and MAP in macrophages by modulating host immune responses. We showed that nilotinib induced autophagic degradation of intracellular mycobacterium occurred via the inhibition of PI3k/Akt/mTOR axis mediated by abelson (c-ABL) tyrosine kinase. In addition, we observed that nilotinib promoted ubiquitin accumulation around M. bovis through activation of E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin. From in-vivo experiments, we found that nilotinib effectively controlled M. bovis growth and survival through enhanced parkin activity in infected mice. Altogether, our data showed that nilotinib regulates protective innate immune responses against intracellular mycobacterium, both in-vitro and in-vivo, and can be exploited as a novel therapeutic remedy for the control of M. bovis and MAP infections. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Current Status of Patient-Derived Ovarian Cancer Models
Cells 2019, 8(5), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050505 - 25 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1066
Abstract
Ovarian cancer (OC) is one of the leading causes of female cancer death. Recent studies have documented its extensive variations as a disease entity, in terms of cell or tissue of origin, pre-cancerous lesions, common mutations, and therapeutic responses, leading to the notion [...] Read more.
Ovarian cancer (OC) is one of the leading causes of female cancer death. Recent studies have documented its extensive variations as a disease entity, in terms of cell or tissue of origin, pre-cancerous lesions, common mutations, and therapeutic responses, leading to the notion that OC is a generic term referring to a whole range of different cancer subtypes. Despite such heterogeneity, OC treatment is stereotypic; aggressive surgery followed by conventional chemotherapy could result in chemo-resistant diseases. Whereas molecular-targeted therapies will become shortly available for a subset of OC, there still remain many patients without effective drugs, requiring development of groundbreaking therapeutic agents. In preclinical studies for drug discovery, cancer cell lines used to be the gold standard, but now this has declined due to frequent failure in predicting therapeutic responses in patients. In this regard, patient-derived cells and tumors are gaining more attention in precise and physiological modeling of in situ tumors, which could also pave the way to implementation of precision medicine. In this article, we comprehensively overviewed the current status of various platforms for patient-derived OC models. We highly appreciate the potentials of organoid culture in achieving high success rate and retaining tumor heterogeneity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
ZAP-70 Regulates Autoimmune Arthritis via Alterations in T Cell Activation and Apoptosis
Cells 2019, 8(5), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050504 - 24 May 2019
Viewed by 682
Abstract
T cells play an essential role in the pathogenesis of both human rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its murine models. A key molecule in T cell activation is ZAP-70, therefore we aimed to investigate the effects of partial ZAP-70 deficiency on the pathogenesis of [...] Read more.
T cells play an essential role in the pathogenesis of both human rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its murine models. A key molecule in T cell activation is ZAP-70, therefore we aimed to investigate the effects of partial ZAP-70 deficiency on the pathogenesis of recombinant human G1(rhG1)-induced arthritis (GIA), a well-established mouse model of RA. Arthritis was induced in BALB/c and ZAP-70+/− heterozygous mice. Disease progression was monitored using a scoring system and in vivo imaging, antigen-specific proliferation, cytokine and autoantibody production was measured and T cell apoptotic pathways were analyzed. ZAP-70+/− mice developed a less severe arthritis, as shown by both clinical picture and in vitro parameters (decreased T cell proliferation, cytokine and autoantibody production). The amount of cleaved Caspase-3 increased in arthritic ZAP-70+/− T cells, with no significant changes in cleaved Caspase-8 and -9 levels; although expression of Bim, Bcl-2 and Cytochrome C showed alterations. Tyrosine phosphorylation was less pronounced in arthritic ZAP-70+/− T cells and the amount of Cbl-b—a negative regulator of T cell activation—decreased as well. We hypothesize that the less severe disease seen in the partial absence of ZAP-70 might be caused by the decreased T cell activation accompanied by increased apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Molecular and Cellular Basis for Rheumatoid Arthritis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Single Cell RNA Sequencing Identifies Subsets of Hepatic Stellate Cells and Myofibroblasts in Liver Fibrosis
Cells 2019, 8(5), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050503 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1625
Abstract
Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and their trans-differentiation towards collagen-secreting myofibroblasts (MFB) promote liver fibrosis progression. During chronic liver disease, resting HSCs become activated by inflammatory and injury signals. However, HSCs/MFB not only produce collagen, but also secrete cytokines, participate in metabolism, [...] Read more.
Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and their trans-differentiation towards collagen-secreting myofibroblasts (MFB) promote liver fibrosis progression. During chronic liver disease, resting HSCs become activated by inflammatory and injury signals. However, HSCs/MFB not only produce collagen, but also secrete cytokines, participate in metabolism, and have biomechanical properties. We herein aimed to characterize the heterogeneity of these liver mesenchymal cells by single cell RNA sequencing. In vivo resting HSCs or activated MFB were isolated from C57BL6/J mice challenged by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intraperitoneally for 3 weeks to induce liver fibrosis and compared to in vitro cultivated MFB. While resting HSCs formed a homogenous population characterized by high platelet derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) expression, in vivo and in vitro activated MFB split into heterogeneous populations, characterized by α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagens, or immunological markers. S100 calcium binding protein A6 (S100A6) was a universal marker of activated MFB on both the gene and protein expression level. Compared to the heterogeneity of in vivo MFB, MFB in vitro sequentially and only transiently expressed marker genes, such as chemokines, during culture activation. Taken together, our data demonstrate the heterogeneity of HSCs and MFB, indicating the existence of functionally relevant subsets in hepatic fibrosis. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
The Roles of Hippo Signaling Transducers Yap and Taz in Chromatin Remodeling
Cells 2019, 8(5), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050502 - 24 May 2019
Viewed by 887
Abstract
Hippo signaling controls cellular processes that ultimately impact organogenesis and homeostasis. Consequently, disease states including cancer can emerge when signaling is deregulated. The major pathway transducers Yap and Taz require cofactors to impart transcriptional control over target genes. Research into Yap/Taz-mediated epigenetic modifications [...] Read more.
Hippo signaling controls cellular processes that ultimately impact organogenesis and homeostasis. Consequently, disease states including cancer can emerge when signaling is deregulated. The major pathway transducers Yap and Taz require cofactors to impart transcriptional control over target genes. Research into Yap/Taz-mediated epigenetic modifications has revealed their association with chromatin-remodeling complex proteins as a means of altering chromatin structure, therefore affecting accessibility and activity of target genes. Specifically, Yap/Taz have been found to associate with factors of the GAGA, Ncoa6, Mediator, Switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF), and Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD) chromatin-remodeling complexes to alter the accessibility of target genes. This review highlights the different mechanisms by which Yap/Taz collaborate with other factors to modify DNA packing at specific loci to either activate or repress target gene transcription. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disease and the Hippo Pathway: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
gga-miR-146c Activates TLR6/MyD88/NF-κB Pathway through Targeting MMP16 to Prevent Mycoplasma Gallisepticum (HS Strain) Infection in Chickens
Cells 2019, 8(5), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050501 - 24 May 2019
Viewed by 677
Abstract
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), a pathogen that infects chickens and some other birds, triggers chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in chickens, which is characterized by inflammation. The investigation of microbial pathogenesis would contribute to the deep understanding of infection control. Since microribonucleic acids [...] Read more.
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), a pathogen that infects chickens and some other birds, triggers chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in chickens, which is characterized by inflammation. The investigation of microbial pathogenesis would contribute to the deep understanding of infection control. Since microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) play a key role in this process, gga-mir-146c, an upregulated miRNA upon MG infection, was selected according to our previous RNA-sequencing data. In this paper, we predicted and validated that MMP16 is one of gga-miR-146c target genes. Results show that MMP16 is the target of gga-miR-146c and gga-miR-146c can downregulate MMP16 expression within limits. gga-miR-146c upregulation significantly increased the expression of TLR6, NF-κB p65, MyD88, and TNF-α, whereas the gga-miR-146c inhibitor led to an opposite result. gga-miR-146c upregulation effectively decreased apoptosis and stimulated DF-1 cells proliferation upon MG infection. On the contrary, gga-miR-146c inhibitor promoted apoptosis and repressed the proliferation. Collectively, our results suggest that gga-miR-146c upregulation upon MG infection represses MMP16 expression, activating TLR6/MyD88/NF-κB pathway, promoting cell proliferation by inhibiting cell apoptosis, and, finally, enhancing cell cycle progression to defend against host MG infection. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
TNF-α Modulates P-Glycoprotein Expression and Contributes to Cellular Proliferation via Extracellular Vesicles
Cells 2019, 8(5), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050500 - 24 May 2019
Viewed by 843
Abstract
P-glycoprotein (Pgp/ABCB1) overexpression is associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype and, consequently, failure in cancer chemotherapy. However, molecules involved in cell death deregulation may also support MDR. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is an important cytokine that may trigger either death or tumor growth. [...] Read more.
P-glycoprotein (Pgp/ABCB1) overexpression is associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype and, consequently, failure in cancer chemotherapy. However, molecules involved in cell death deregulation may also support MDR. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is an important cytokine that may trigger either death or tumor growth. Here, we examined the role of cancer cells in self-maintenance and promotion of cellular malignancy through the transport of Pgp and TNF-α molecules by extracellular vesicles (membrane microparticles (MP)). By using a classical MDR model in vitro, we identified a positive correlation between endogenous TNF-α and Pgp, which possibly favored a non-cytotoxic effect of recombinant TNF-α (rTNF-α). We also found a positive feedback involving rTNF-α incubation and TNF-α regulation. On the other hand, rTNF-α induced a reduction in Pgp expression levels and contributed to a reduced Pgp efflux function. Our results also showed that parental and MDR cells spontaneously released MP containing endogenous TNF-α and Pgp. However, these MP were unable to transfer their content to non-cancer recipient cells. Nevertheless, MP released from parental and MDR cells elevated the proliferation index of non-tumor cells. Collectively, our results suggest that Pgp and endogenous TNF-α positively regulate cancer cell malignancy and contribute to changes in normal cell behavior through MP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ABC Transporters: From Basic Functions to Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Multi-Path Dilated Residual Network for Nuclei Segmentation and Detection
Cells 2019, 8(5), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050499 - 23 May 2019
Viewed by 583
Abstract
As a typical biomedical detection task, nuclei detection has been widely used in human health management, disease diagnosis and other fields. However, the task of cell detection in microscopic images is still challenging because the nuclei are commonly small and dense with many [...] Read more.
As a typical biomedical detection task, nuclei detection has been widely used in human health management, disease diagnosis and other fields. However, the task of cell detection in microscopic images is still challenging because the nuclei are commonly small and dense with many overlapping nuclei in the images. In order to detect nuclei, the most important key step is to segment the cell targets accurately. Based on Mask RCNN model, we designed a multi-path dilated residual network, and realized a network structure to segment and detect dense small objects, and effectively solved the problem of information loss of small objects in deep neural network. The experimental results on two typical nuclear segmentation data sets show that our model has better recognition and segmentation capability for dense small targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinformatics and Computational Biology 2019)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
c-Cbl: An Important Regulator and a Target in Angiogenesis and Tumorigenesis
Cells 2019, 8(5), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050498 - 23 May 2019
Viewed by 635
Abstract
Casitas B lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl) is a multifunctional protein with a ubiquitin E3 ligase activity capable of degrading diverse sets of proteins. Although previous work had focused mainly on c-Cbl mutations in humans with hematological malignancies, recent emerging evidence suggests a critical role [...] Read more.
Casitas B lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl) is a multifunctional protein with a ubiquitin E3 ligase activity capable of degrading diverse sets of proteins. Although previous work had focused mainly on c-Cbl mutations in humans with hematological malignancies, recent emerging evidence suggests a critical role of c-Cbl in angiogenesis and human solid organ tumors. The combination of its unique structure, modular function, and ability to channelize cues from a rich network of signaling cascades, empowers c-Cbl to assume a central role in these disease models. This review consolidates the structural and functional insights based on recent studies that highlight c-Cbl as a target with tantalizing therapeutic potential in various models of angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Angiogenesis in Cancer)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Intermediate Filaments as Effectors of Cancer Development and Metastasis: A Focus on Keratins, Vimentin, and Nestin
Cells 2019, 8(5), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050497 - 23 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 747
Abstract
Intermediate filament (IF) proteins make up the largest family of cytoskeletal proteins in metazoans, and are traditionally known for their roles in fostering structural integrity in cells and tissues. Remarkably, individual IF genes are tightly regulated in a fashion that reflects the type [...] Read more.
Intermediate filament (IF) proteins make up the largest family of cytoskeletal proteins in metazoans, and are traditionally known for their roles in fostering structural integrity in cells and tissues. Remarkably, individual IF genes are tightly regulated in a fashion that reflects the type of tissue, its developmental and differentiation stages, and biological context. In cancer, IF proteins serve as diagnostic markers, as tumor cells partially retain their original signature expression of IF proteins. However, there are also characteristic alterations in IF gene expression and protein regulation. The use of high throughput analytics suggests that tumor-associated alterations in IF gene expression have prognostic value. Parallel research is also showing that IF proteins directly and significantly impact several key cellular properties, including proliferation, death, migration, and invasiveness, with a demonstrated impact on the development, progression, and characteristics of various tumors. In this review, we draw from recent studies focused on three IF proteins most associated with cancer (keratins, vimentin, and nestin) to highlight how several “hallmarks of cancer” described by Hanahan and Weinberg are impacted by IF proteins. The evidence already in hand establishes that IF proteins function beyond their classical roles as markers and serve as effectors of tumorigenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cell Signaling and Regulated Cell Death)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Establishment of Highly Transplantable Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Lines from a Patient-Derived Xenograft Mouse Model
Cells 2019, 8(5), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050496 - 23 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a deadly malignant tumor of the liver. It is a significant health problem in Thailand. The critical obstacles of CCA diagnosis and treatment are the high heterogeneity of disease and considerable resistance to treatment. Recent multi-omics studies revealed the promising [...] Read more.
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a deadly malignant tumor of the liver. It is a significant health problem in Thailand. The critical obstacles of CCA diagnosis and treatment are the high heterogeneity of disease and considerable resistance to treatment. Recent multi-omics studies revealed the promising targets for CCA treatment; however, limited models for drug discovery are available. This study aimed to develop a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model as well as PDX-derived cell lines of CCA for future drug screening. From a total of 16 CCA frozen tissues, 75% (eight intrahepatic and four extrahepatic subtypes) were successfully grown and subpassaged in Balb/c Rag-2-/-/Jak3-/- mice. A shorter duration of PDX growth was observed during F0 to F2 transplantation; concomitantly, increased Oct-3/4 and Sox2 were evidenced in 50% and 33%, respectively, of serial PDXs. Only four cell lines were established. The cell lines exhibited either bile duct (KKK-D049 and KKK-D068) or combined hepatobiliary origin (KKK-D131 and KKK-D138). These cell lines acquired high transplantation efficiency in both subcutaneous (100%) and intrasplenic (88%) transplantation models. The subcutaneously transplanted xenograft retained the histological architecture as in the patient tissues. Our models of CCA PDX and PDX-derived cell lines would be a useful platform for CCA precision medicine. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
NDRG2 Sensitizes Myeloid Leukemia to Arsenic Trioxide via GSK3β–NDRG2–PP2A Complex Formation
Cells 2019, 8(5), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050495 - 22 May 2019
Viewed by 608
Abstract
N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) was characterized as a tumor suppressor, inducing anti-metastatic and anti-proliferative effects in several tumor cells. However, NDRG2 functions on anticancer drug sensitivity, and its molecular mechanisms are yet to be fully investigated. In this study, we investigated the [...] Read more.
N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) was characterized as a tumor suppressor, inducing anti-metastatic and anti-proliferative effects in several tumor cells. However, NDRG2 functions on anticancer drug sensitivity, and its molecular mechanisms are yet to be fully investigated. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of NDRG2-induced sensitization to As2O3 in the U937 cell line, which is one of the most frequently used cells in the field of resistance to As2O3. NDRG2-overexpressing U937 cells (U937-NDRG2) showed a higher sensitivity to As2O3 than mock control U937 cell (U937-Mock). The higher sensitivity to As2O3 in U937-NDRG2 was associated with Mcl-1 degradation through glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activation. Inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3β was significantly reduced in U937-NDRG2, and the reduction was diminished by okadaic acid, a protein phosphatase inhibitor. NDRG2 mediated the interaction between GSK3β and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), inducing dephosphorylation of GSK3β at S9 by PP2A. Although the C-terminal deletion mutant of NDRG2 (ΔC NDRG2), which could not interact with PP2A, interacted with GSK3β, the mutant failed to dephosphorylate GSK3β at S9 and increased sensitivity to As2O3. Our findings suggest that NDRG2 is a kind of adaptor protein mediating the interaction between GSK3β and PP2A, inducing GSK3β activation through dephosphorylation at S9 by PP2A, which increases sensitivity to As2O3 in U937 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cell Signaling and Regulated Cell Death)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Improved Antitumor Efficacy of Combined Vaccine Based on the Induced HUVECs and DC-CT26 Against Colorectal Carcinoma
Cells 2019, 8(5), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050494 - 22 May 2019
Viewed by 735
Abstract
Angiogenesis is essential for the development, growth, and metastasis of solid tumors. Vaccination with viable human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) has been used for antitumor angiogenesis. However, the limited immune response induced by HUVECs hinders their clinical application. In the present study, [...] Read more.
Angiogenesis is essential for the development, growth, and metastasis of solid tumors. Vaccination with viable human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) has been used for antitumor angiogenesis. However, the limited immune response induced by HUVECs hinders their clinical application. In the present study, we found that HUVECs induced by a tumor microenvironment using the supernatant of murine CT26 colorectal cancer cells exerted a better antiangiogenic effect than HUVECs themselves. The inhibitory effect on tumor growth in the induced HUVEC group was significantly better than that of the HUVEC group, and the induced HUVEC group showed a strong inhibition in CD31-positive microvessel density in the tumor tissues. Moreover, the level of anti-induced HUVEC membrane protein antibody in mouse serum was profoundly higher in the induced HUVEC group than in the HUVEC group. Based on this, the antitumor effect of a vaccine with a combination of induced HUVECs and dendritic cell-loading CT26 antigen (DC-CT26) was evaluated. Notably, the microvessel density of tumor specimens was significantly lower in the combined vaccine group than in the control groups. Furthermore, the spleen index, the killing effect of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), and the concentration of interferon-γ in the serum were enhanced in the combined vaccine group. Based on these results, the combined vaccine targeting both tumor angiogenesis and tumor cells may be an attractive and effective cancer immunotherapy strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Angiogenesis in Cancer)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Mitophagy in Cancer: A Tale of Adaptation
Cells 2019, 8(5), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050493 - 22 May 2019
Viewed by 1058
Abstract
In the past years, we have learnt that tumors co-evolve with their microenvironment, and that the active interaction between cancer cells and stromal cells plays a pivotal role in cancer initiation, progression and treatment response. Among the players involved, the pathways regulating mitochondrial [...] Read more.
In the past years, we have learnt that tumors co-evolve with their microenvironment, and that the active interaction between cancer cells and stromal cells plays a pivotal role in cancer initiation, progression and treatment response. Among the players involved, the pathways regulating mitochondrial functions have been shown to be crucial for both cancer and stromal cells. This is perhaps not surprising, considering that mitochondria in both cancerous and non-cancerous cells are decisive for vital metabolic and bioenergetic functions and to elicit cell death. The central part played by mitochondria also implies the existence of stringent mitochondrial quality control mechanisms, where a specialized autophagy pathway (mitophagy) ensures the selective removal of damaged or dysfunctional mitochondria. Although the molecular underpinnings of mitophagy regulation in mammalian cells remain incomplete, it is becoming clear that mitophagy pathways are intricately linked to the metabolic rewiring of cancer cells to support the high bioenergetic demand of the tumor. In this review, after a brief introduction of the main mitophagy regulators operating in mammalian cells, we discuss emerging cell autonomous roles of mitochondria quality control in cancer onset and progression. We also discuss the relevance of mitophagy in the cellular crosstalk with the tumor microenvironment and in anti-cancer therapy responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Microenvironment: Interaction and Metabolism)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Live-Cell Imaging of Physiologically Relevant Metal Ions Using Genetically Encoded FRET-Based Probes
Cells 2019, 8(5), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050492 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 851
Abstract
Essential biochemical reactions and processes within living organisms are coupled to subcellular fluctuations of metal ions. Disturbances in cellular metal ion homeostasis are frequently associated with pathological alterations, including neurotoxicity causing neurodegeneration, as well as metabolic disorders or cancer. Considering these important aspects [...] Read more.
Essential biochemical reactions and processes within living organisms are coupled to subcellular fluctuations of metal ions. Disturbances in cellular metal ion homeostasis are frequently associated with pathological alterations, including neurotoxicity causing neurodegeneration, as well as metabolic disorders or cancer. Considering these important aspects of the cellular metal ion homeostasis in health and disease, measurements of subcellular ion signals are of broad scientific interest. The investigation of the cellular ion homeostasis using classical biochemical methods is quite difficult, often even not feasible or requires large cell numbers. Here, we report of genetically encoded fluorescent probes that enable the visualization of metal ion dynamics within individual living cells and their organelles with high temporal and spatial resolution. Generally, these probes consist of specific ion binding domains fused to fluorescent protein(s), altering their fluorescent properties upon ion binding. This review focuses on the functionality and potential of these genetically encoded fluorescent tools which enable monitoring (sub)cellular concentrations of alkali metals such as K+, alkaline earth metals including Mg2+ and Ca2+, and transition metals including Cu+/Cu2+ and Zn2+. Moreover, we discuss possible approaches for the development and application of novel metal ion biosensors for Fe2+/Fe3+, Mn2+ and Na+. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Trends in Metal Biochemistry)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Anti-Inflammatory Effects by Pharmacological Inhibition or Knockdown of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase in BV2 Microglial Cells
Cells 2019, 8(5), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050491 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 703
Abstract
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) has been recognized as a therapeutic target for several neurological diseases because its inhibition can exert neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects by boosting the endogenous levels of N-acylethanolamines. However, previous studies have shown inconsistent results by pharmacological inhibition [...] Read more.
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) has been recognized as a therapeutic target for several neurological diseases because its inhibition can exert neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects by boosting the endogenous levels of N-acylethanolamines. However, previous studies have shown inconsistent results by pharmacological inhibition and genetic deletion of FAAH in response to inflammation. In this study we used two inhibitors, PF3845 and URB597, together with siRNA knockdown to characterize further the effects of FAAH inhibition in BV2 microglial cells. Treatment with PF3845 suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, and down-regulated cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal PGE synthase. PF3845 reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines but had no effect on the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The anti-inflammatory effects of URB597 were not as potent as those of PF3845. Knockdown of FAAH also suppressed PGE2 production and pro-inflammatory gene expression. Interestingly, FAAH knockdown enhanced expression of anti-inflammatory molecules in both the absence and presence of LPS treatment. The anti-inflammatory effects of FAAH inhibition and knockdown were not affected by the cannabinoid receptor antagonists or the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) antagonists. Although inhibition and knockdown of FAAH have potent anti-inflammatory effects and possibly lead to the dynamic change of microglial gene regulation, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microglia in Neurodegenerative Diseases)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Integrative Analysis of the Wheat PHT1 Gene Family Reveals A Novel Member Involved in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Phosphate Transport and Immunity
Cells 2019, 8(5), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050490 - 22 May 2019
Viewed by 689
Abstract
Phosphorus (P) deficiency is one of the main growth-limiting factors for plants. However, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can significantly promote P uptake. Generally, PHT1 transporters play key roles in plants’ P uptake, and thus, PHT1 genes have been investigated in some plants, but [...] Read more.
Phosphorus (P) deficiency is one of the main growth-limiting factors for plants. However, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can significantly promote P uptake. Generally, PHT1 transporters play key roles in plants’ P uptake, and thus, PHT1 genes have been investigated in some plants, but the regulation and functions of these genes in wheat (TaPHT1) during AM symbiosis have not been studied in depth. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of TaPHT1 genes was performed, including sequence, phylogeny, cis-elements, expression, subcellular localization and functions, to elucidate their roles in AM-associated phosphate transport and immunity. In total, 35 TaPHT1s were identified in the latest high-quality bread wheat genome, 34 of which were unevenly distributed on 13 chromosomes, and divided into five groups. Sequence analysis indicated that there are 11 types of motif architectures and five types of exon-intron structures in the TaPHT1 family. Duplication mode analysis indicated that the TaPHT1 family has expanded mainly through segmental and tandem duplication events, and that all duplicated gene pairs have been under purifying selection. Transcription analysis of the 35 TaPHT1s revealed that not only known the mycorrhizal-specific genes TaPht-myc, TaPT15-4B (TaPT11) and TaPT19-4D (TaPT10), but also four novel mycorrhizal-specific/inducible genes (TaPT3-2D, TaPT11-4A, TaPT29-6A, and TaPT31-7A) are highly up-regulated in AM wheat roots. Furthermore, the mycorrhizal-specific/inducible genes are significantly induced in wheat roots at different stages of infection by colonizing fungi. Transient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation expression in onion epidermal cells showed that TaPT29-6A is a membrane-localized protein. In contrast to other AM-specific/inducible PHT1 genes, TaPT29-6A is apparently required for the symbiotic and direct Pi pathway. TaPT29-6A-silenced lines exhibited reduced levels of AM fungal colonization and arbuscules, but increased susceptibility to biotrophic, hemi-biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. In conclusion, TaPT29-6A was not only essential for the AM symbiosis, but also played vital roles in immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cell Nuclei: Function, Transport and Receptors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
3D-Organotypic Cultures to Unravel Molecular and Cellular Abnormalities in Atopic Dermatitis and Ichthyosis Vulgaris
Cells 2019, 8(5), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050489 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 635
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by dry and itchy skin evolving into disseminated skin lesions. AD is believed to result from a primary acquired or a genetically-induced epidermal barrier defect leading to immune hyper-responsiveness. Filaggrin (FLG) is a protein found in the cornified [...] Read more.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by dry and itchy skin evolving into disseminated skin lesions. AD is believed to result from a primary acquired or a genetically-induced epidermal barrier defect leading to immune hyper-responsiveness. Filaggrin (FLG) is a protein found in the cornified envelope of fully differentiated keratinocytes, referred to as corneocytes. Although FLG null mutations are strongly associated with AD, they are not sufficient to induce the disease. Moreover, most patients with ichthyosis vulgaris (IV), a monogenetic skin disease characterized by FLG homozygous, heterozygous, or compound heterozygous null mutations, display non-inflamed dry and scaly skin. Thus, all causes of epidermal barrier impairment in AD have not yet been identified, including those leading to the Th2-predominant inflammation observed in AD. Three dimensional organotypic cultures have emerged as valuable tools in skin research, replacing animal experimentation in many cases and precluding the need for repeated patient biopsies. Here, we review the results on IV and AD obtained with epidermal or skin equivalents and consider these findings in the context of human in vivo data. Further research utilizing complex models including immune cells and cutaneous innervation will enable finer dissection of the pathogenesis of AD and deepen our knowledge of epidermal biology. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Amyloid Beta and Phosphorylated Tau-Induced Defective Autophagy and Mitophagy in Alzheimer’s Disease
Cells 2019, 8(5), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050488 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1629
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory loss and multiple cognitive impairments. Several decades of intense research have revealed that multiple cellular changes are implicated in the development and progression of AD, including mitochondrial damage, synaptic dysfunction, amyloid beta [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory loss and multiple cognitive impairments. Several decades of intense research have revealed that multiple cellular changes are implicated in the development and progression of AD, including mitochondrial damage, synaptic dysfunction, amyloid beta (Aβ) formation and accumulation, hyperphosphorylated tau (P-Tau) formation and accumulation, deregulated microRNAs, synaptic damage, and neuronal loss in patients with AD. Among these, mitochondrial dysfunction and synaptic damage are early events in the disease process. Recent research also revealed that Aβ and P-Tau-induced defective autophagy and mitophagy are prominent events in AD pathogenesis. Age-dependent increased levels of Aβ and P-Tau reduced levels of several autophagy and mitophagy proteins. In addition, abnormal interactions between (1) Aβ and mitochondrial fission protein Drp1; (2) P-Tau and Drp1; and (3) Aβ and PINK1/parkin lead to an inability to clear damaged mitochondria and other cellular debris from neurons. These events occur selectively in affected AD neurons. The purpose of our article is to highlight recent developments of a Aβ and P-Tau-induced defective autophagy and mitophagy in AD. This article also summarizes several aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction, including abnormal mitochondrial dynamics (increased fission and reduced fusion), defective mitochondrial biogenesis, reduced ATP, increased free radicals and lipid peroxidation, and decreased cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity and calcium dyshomeostasis in AD pathogenesis. Our article also discusses how reduced levels of Drp1, Aβ, and P-Tau can enhance the clearance of damaged mitochondria and other cellular debris by autophagy and mitophagy mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proteostasis and Autophagy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Endoplasmic Reticulum Detergent-Resistant Membranes Accommodate Hepatitis C Virus Proteins for Viral Assembly
Cells 2019, 8(5), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050487 - 22 May 2019
Viewed by 664
Abstract
During Hepatitis C virus (HCV) morphogenesis, the non-structural protein 2 (NS2) brings the envelope proteins 1 and 2 (E1, E2), NS3, and NS5A together to form a complex at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, initiating HCV assembly. The nature of the interactions in [...] Read more.
During Hepatitis C virus (HCV) morphogenesis, the non-structural protein 2 (NS2) brings the envelope proteins 1 and 2 (E1, E2), NS3, and NS5A together to form a complex at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, initiating HCV assembly. The nature of the interactions in this complex is unclear, but replication complex and structural proteins have been shown to be associated with cellular membrane structures called detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs). We investigated the role of DRMs in NS2 complex formation, using a lysis buffer combining Triton and n-octyl glucoside, which solubilized both cell membranes and DRMs. When this lysis buffer was used on HCV-infected cells and the resulting lysates were subjected to flotation gradient centrifugation, all viral proteins and DRM-resident proteins were found in soluble protein fractions. Immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated direct protein–protein interactions between NS2 and E2 and E1 proteins, and an association of NS2 with NS3 through DRMs. The well-folded E1E2 complex and NS5A were not associated, instead interacting separately with the NS2-E1-E2-NS3 complex through less stable DRMs. Core was also associated with NS2 and the E1E2 complex through these unstable DRMs. We suggest that DRMs carrying this NS2-E1-E2-NS3-4A-NS5A-core complex may play a central role in HCV assembly initiation, potentially as an assembly platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatitis C Virus and Host Interactions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Inhibitory Effects of the Two Novel TSPO Ligands 2-Cl-MGV-1 and MGV-1 on LPS-induced Microglial Activation
Cells 2019, 8(5), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050486 - 22 May 2019
Viewed by 630
Abstract
The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) ligands 2-Cl-MGV-1 and MGV-1 can attenuate cell death of astrocyte-like cells (U118MG) and induce differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells (PC-12). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a bacterial membrane endotoxin that activates cellular inflammatory pathways by releasing pro-inflammatory molecules, including [...] Read more.
The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) ligands 2-Cl-MGV-1 and MGV-1 can attenuate cell death of astrocyte-like cells (U118MG) and induce differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells (PC-12). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a bacterial membrane endotoxin that activates cellular inflammatory pathways by releasing pro-inflammatory molecules, including cytokines and chemokines. The aim of the present study was to assess the immuno-modulatory effect of TSPO ligands in activated microglial cells. We demonstrated that the TSPO ligands 2-Cl-MGV-1 and MGV-1 can prevent LPS-induced activation of microglia (BV-2 cell line). Co-treatment of LPS (100 ng/mL) with these TSPO ligands (final concentration- 25 µM) reduces significantly the LPS-induced release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) from 16.9-fold to 2.5-fold, IL-β from 8.3-fold to 1.6-fold, interferon-γ from 16.0-fold to 2.2-fold, and tumor necrosis factor-α from 16.4-fold to 1.8-fold. This anti-inflammatory activity seems to be achieved by inhibition of NF-κB p65 activation. Assessment of initiation of ROS generation and cell metabolism shows significant protective effects of these two novel TSPO ligands. The IL-10 and IL-13 levels were not affected by any of the TSPO ligands. Thus, it appears that the ligands suppress the LPS-induced activation of some inflammatory responses of microglia. Such immunomodulatory effects may be relevant to the pharmacotherapy of neuro-inflammatory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Differential Regulation of Glial and Neuronal Functions by TSPO)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
H3K18Ac as a Marker of Cancer Progression and Potential Target of Anti-Cancer Therapy
Cells 2019, 8(5), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050485 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 740
Abstract
Acetylation and deacetylation are posttranslational modifications (PTMs) which affect the regulation of chromatin structure and its remodeling. Acetylation of histone 3 at lysine placed on position 18 (H3K18Ac) plays an important role in driving progression of many types of cancer, including breast, colon, [...] Read more.
Acetylation and deacetylation are posttranslational modifications (PTMs) which affect the regulation of chromatin structure and its remodeling. Acetylation of histone 3 at lysine placed on position 18 (H3K18Ac) plays an important role in driving progression of many types of cancer, including breast, colon, lung, hepatocellular, pancreatic, prostate, and thyroid cancer. The aim of this review is to analyze and discuss the newest findings regarding the role of H3K18Ac and acetylation of other histones in carcinogenesis. We summarize the level of H3K18Ac in different cancer cell lines and analyze its association with patients’ outcomes, including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and disease-free survival (DFS). Finally, we describe future perspectives of cancer therapeutic strategies based on H3K18 modifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Organisation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Compliance with Good Manufacturing Practice in the Assessment of Immunomodulation Potential of Clinical Grade Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Wharton’s Jelly
Cells 2019, 8(5), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050484 - 21 May 2019
Viewed by 768
Abstract
Background: The selection of assays suitable for testing the potency of clinical grade multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based products and its interpretation is a challenge for both developers and regulators. Here, we present a bioprocess design for the production of Wharton’s jelly [...] Read more.
Background: The selection of assays suitable for testing the potency of clinical grade multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based products and its interpretation is a challenge for both developers and regulators. Here, we present a bioprocess design for the production of Wharton’s jelly (WJ)-derived MSCs and a validated immunopotency assay approved by the competent regulatory authority for batch release together with the study of failure modes in the bioprocess with potential impact on critical quality attributes (CQA) of the final product. Methods: The lymphocyte proliferation assay was used for determining the immunopotency of WJ-MSCs and validated under good manufacturing practices (GMP). Moreover, failure mode effects analysis (FMEA) was used to identify and quantify the potential impact of different unexpected situations on the CQA. Results: A production process based on a two-tiered cell banking strategy resulted in batches with sufficient numbers of cells for clinical use in compliance with approved specifications including MSC identity (expressing CD73, CD90, CD105, but not CD31, CD45, or HLA-DR). Remarkably, all batches showed high capacity to inhibit the proliferation of activated lymphocytes. Moreover, implementation of risk management tools led to an in-depth understanding of the manufacturing process as well as the identification of weak points to be reinforced. Conclusions: The bioprocess design showed here together with detailed risk management and the use of a robust method for immunomodulation potency testing allowed for the robust production of clinical-grade WJ-MSCs under pharmaceutical standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunomodulation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Role of MHC-I Expression on Spinal Motoneuron Survival and Glial Reactions Following Ventral Root Crush in Mice
Cells 2019, 8(5), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050483 - 21 May 2019
Viewed by 527
Abstract
Lesions to the CNS/PNS interface are especially severe, leading to elevated neuronal degeneration. In the present work, we establish the ventral root crush model for mice, and demonstrate the potential of such an approach, by analyzing injury evoked motoneuron loss, changes of synaptic [...] Read more.
Lesions to the CNS/PNS interface are especially severe, leading to elevated neuronal degeneration. In the present work, we establish the ventral root crush model for mice, and demonstrate the potential of such an approach, by analyzing injury evoked motoneuron loss, changes of synaptic coverage and concomitant glial responses in β2-microglobulin knockout mice (β2m KO). Young adult (8–12 weeks old) C57BL/6J (WT) and β2m KO mice were submitted to a L4–L6 ventral roots crush. Neuronal survival revealed a time-dependent motoneuron-like cell loss, both in WT and β2m KO mice. Along with neuronal loss, astrogliosis increased in WT mice, which was not observed in β2m KO mice. Microglial responses were more pronounced during the acute phase after lesion and decreased over time, in WT and KO mice. At 7 days after lesion β2m KO mice showed stronger Iba-1+ cell reaction. The synaptic inputs were reduced over time, but in β2m KO, the synaptic loss was more prominent between 7 and 28 days after lesion. Taken together, the results herein demonstrate that ventral root crushing in mice provides robust data regarding neuronal loss and glial reaction. The retrograde reactions after injury were altered in the absence of functional MHC-I surface expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) in Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop