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Heterologous Immunity between Adenoviruses and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV): Recombinant Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors Containing Antigens from Unrelated Pathogens Induce Cross-Reactive Immunity Against HCV Antigens

1
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G2S2, Canada
2
Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G2S2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(5), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050507
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 26 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatitis C Virus and Host Interactions)
Host immune responses play an important role in the outcome of infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). They can lead to viral clearance and a positive outcome, or progression and severity of chronic disease. Extensive research in the past >25 years into understanding the immune responses against HCV have still resulted in many unanswered questions implicating a role for unknown factors and events. In our earlier studies, we made a surprising discovery that peptides derived from structural and non-structural proteins of HCV have substantial amino acid sequence homologies with various proteins of adenoviruses and that immunizing mice with a non-replicating, non-recombinant adenovirus vector leads to induction of a robust cross-reactive cellular and humoral response against various HCV antigens. In this work, we further demonstrate antibody cross-reactivity between Ad and HCV in vivo. We also extend this observation to show that recombinant adenoviruses containing antigens from unrelated pathogens also possess the ability to induce cross-reactive immune responses against HCV antigens along with the induction of transgene antigen-specific immunity. This cross-reactive immunity can (a) accommodate the making of dual-pathogen vaccines, (b) play an important role in the natural course of HCV infection and (c) provide a plausible answer to many unexplained questions regarding immunity to HCV. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hepatitis C virus; heterologous immunity; adenoviruses; host response Hepatitis C virus; heterologous immunity; adenoviruses; host response
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MDPI and ACS Style

Agrawal, B.; Gupta, N.; Vedi, S.; Singh, S.; Li, W.; Garg, S.; Li, J.; Kumar, R. Heterologous Immunity between Adenoviruses and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV): Recombinant Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors Containing Antigens from Unrelated Pathogens Induce Cross-Reactive Immunity Against HCV Antigens. Cells 2019, 8, 507.

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