Ribosomal proteins (RPs), in conjunction with rRNA, are major components of ribosomes involved in the cellular process of protein biosynthesis, known as “translation”. The viruses, as the small infectious pathogens with limited genomes, must recruit a variety of host factors to survive and propagate, including RPs. At present, more and more information is available on the functional relationship between RPs and virus infection. This review focuses on advancements in my own understanding of critical roles of RPs in the life cycle of viruses. Various RPs interact with viral mRNA and proteins to participate in viral protein biosynthesis and regulate the replication and infection of virus in host cells. Most interactions are essential for viral translation and replication, which promote viral infection and accumulation, whereas the minority represents the defense signaling of host cells by activating immune pathway against virus. RPs provide a new platform for antiviral therapy development, however, at present, antiviral therapeutics with RPs involving in virus infection as targets is limited, and exploring antiviral strategy based on RPs will be the guides for further study.
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