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Cancers, Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2015) – 33 articles

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368 KiB  
Review
Role of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Signaling in Chronic Pancreatitis
by Miriam Falzon and Vandanajay Bhatia
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 1091-1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020826 - 18 Jun 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6885
Abstract
Chronic pancreatitis (CP), a progressive inflammatory disease where acini are destroyed and replaced by fibrous tissue, increases the risk for pancreatic cancer. Risk factors include alcohol, smoking, and obesity. The effects of these risk factors are exacerbated in patients with mutations in genes [...] Read more.
Chronic pancreatitis (CP), a progressive inflammatory disease where acini are destroyed and replaced by fibrous tissue, increases the risk for pancreatic cancer. Risk factors include alcohol, smoking, and obesity. The effects of these risk factors are exacerbated in patients with mutations in genes that predispose to CP. The different environmental and genetic factors produce the same clinical phenotype; once CP develops, disease course is the same regardless of etiology. Critical questions still need to be answered to understand what modifies predisposition to develop CP in persons exposed to risk factors. We postulate that risk factors modulate endogenous pathways, with parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) signaling being one such pathway. In support, PTHrP levels are elevated in mice treated with alcohol, and in mouse models of cerulein- and pancreatic duct ligation-induced CP. Disrupting the Pthrp gene in acinar cells exerts protective effects (decreased edema, histological damage, amylase and cytokine release, and fibrosis) in these CP models. PTHrP levels are elevated in human CP. Currently, CP care lacks specific pharmacological interventions. Targeting PTHrP signaling may present a novel therapeutic strategy that inhibits pancreatic inflammation and fibrosis, especially since the risk of developing pancreatic cancer is strongly associated with duration of chronic inflammation. Full article
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Article
Oncogenic BRAF(V600E) Induces Clastogenesis and UVB Hypersensitivity
by Dennis A. Simpson, Nathalay Lemonie, David S. Morgan, Shobhan Gaddameedhi and William K. Kaufmann
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 1072-1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020825 - 17 Jun 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 7231
Abstract
The oncogenic BRAF(V600E) mutation is common in melanomas as well as moles. The roles that this mutation plays in the early events in the development of melanoma are poorly understood. This study demonstrates that expression of BRAF(V600E) is not only clastogenic, but synergizes [...] Read more.
The oncogenic BRAF(V600E) mutation is common in melanomas as well as moles. The roles that this mutation plays in the early events in the development of melanoma are poorly understood. This study demonstrates that expression of BRAF(V600E) is not only clastogenic, but synergizes for clastogenesis caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation in the 300 to 320 nM (UVB) range. Expression of BRAF(V600E) was associated with induction of Chk1 pS280 and a reduction in chromatin remodeling factors BRG1 and BAF180. These alterations in the Chk1 signaling pathway and SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling pathway may contribute to the clastogenesis and UVB sensitivity. These results emphasize the importance of preventing sunburns in children with developing moles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Cutaneous Melanoma)
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Article
Silencing of Taxol-Sensitizer Genes in Cancer Cells: Lack of Sensitization Effects
by Shang-Lang Huang and Chuck C.-K. Chao
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 1052-1071; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020824 - 16 Jun 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5128
Abstract
A previous genome-wide screening analysis identified a panel of genes that sensitize the human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line NCI-H1155 to taxol. However, whether the identified genes sensitize other cancer cells to taxol has not been examined. Here, we silenced the taxol-sensitizer genes [...] Read more.
A previous genome-wide screening analysis identified a panel of genes that sensitize the human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line NCI-H1155 to taxol. However, whether the identified genes sensitize other cancer cells to taxol has not been examined. Here, we silenced the taxol-sensitizer genes identified (acrbp, atp6v0d2, fgd4, hs6st2, psma6, and tubgcp2) in nine other cancer cell types (including lung, cervical, ovarian, and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines) that showed reduced cell viability in the presence of a sub-lethal concentration of taxol. Surprisingly, none of the genes studied increased sensitivity to taxol in the tested panel of cell lines. As observed in H1155 cells, SKOV3 cells displayed induction of five of the six genes studied in response to a cell killing dose of taxol. The other cell types were much less responsive to taxol. Notably, four of the five inducible taxol-sensitizer genes tested (acrbp, atp6v0d2, psma6, and tubgcp2) were upregulated in a taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cell line. These results indicate that the previously identified taxol-sensitizer loci are not conserved genetic targets involved in inhibiting cell proliferation in response to taxol. Our findings also suggest that regulation of taxol-sensitizer genes by taxol may be critical for acquired cell resistance to the drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Cell Proliferation)
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Review
Exploring the Mechanisms of Gastrointestinal Cancer Development Using Deep Sequencing Analysis
by Tomonori Matsumoto, Takahiro Shimizu, Atsushi Takai and Hiroyuki Marusawa
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 1037-1051; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020823 - 15 Jun 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6372
Abstract
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have revolutionized cancer genomics due to their high throughput sequencing capacity. Reports of the gene mutation profiles of various cancers by many researchers, including international cancer genome research consortia, have increased over recent years. In addition to detecting somatic [...] Read more.
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have revolutionized cancer genomics due to their high throughput sequencing capacity. Reports of the gene mutation profiles of various cancers by many researchers, including international cancer genome research consortia, have increased over recent years. In addition to detecting somatic mutations in tumor cells, NGS technologies enable us to approach the subject of carcinogenic mechanisms from new perspectives. Deep sequencing, a method of optimizing the high throughput capacity of NGS technologies, allows for the detection of genetic aberrations in small subsets of premalignant and/or tumor cells in noncancerous chronically inflamed tissues. Genome-wide NGS data also make it possible to clarify the mutational signatures of each cancer tissue by identifying the precise pattern of nucleotide alterations in the cancer genome, providing new information regarding the mechanisms of tumorigenesis. In this review, we highlight these new methods taking advantage of NGS technologies, and discuss our current understanding of carcinogenic mechanisms elucidated from such approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Generation Sequencing Approaches in Cancer)
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Review
Involvement of 14-3-3 Proteins in Regulating Tumor Progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
by Yi-Ju Wu, Yee-Jee Jan, Bor-Sheng Ko, Shu-Man Liang and Jun-Yang Liou
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 1022-1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020822 - 15 Jun 2015
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 6300
Abstract
There are seven mammalian isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein, which regulate multiple cellular functions via interactions with phosphorylated partners. Increased expression of 14-3-3 proteins contributes to tumor progression of various malignancies. Several isoforms of 14-3-3 are overexpressed and associate with higher metastatic risks [...] Read more.
There are seven mammalian isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein, which regulate multiple cellular functions via interactions with phosphorylated partners. Increased expression of 14-3-3 proteins contributes to tumor progression of various malignancies. Several isoforms of 14-3-3 are overexpressed and associate with higher metastatic risks and poorer survival rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ζ regulate HCC cell proliferation, tumor growth and chemosensitivity via modulating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 signal pathways. Moreover, 14-3-3ε suppresses E-cadherin and induces focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression, thereby enhancing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and HCC cell migration. 14-3-3ζ forms complexes with αB-crystallin, which induces EMT and is the cause of sorafenib resistance in HCC. Finally, a recent study has indicated that 14-3-3σ induces heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression, which increases HCC cell migration. These results suggest that selective 14-3-3 isoforms contribute to cell proliferation, EMT and cell migration of HCC by regulating distinct targets and signal pathways. Targeting 14-3-3 proteins together with specific downstream effectors therefore has potential to be therapeutic and prognostic factors of HCC. In this article, we will overview 14-3-3's regulation of its downstream factors and contributions to HCC EMT, cell migration and proliferation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Cell Proliferation)
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Review
Sarcoidosis in Melanoma Patients: Case Report and Literature Review
by Bryce D. Beutler and Philip R. Cohen
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 1005-1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020821 - 15 Jun 2015
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 10145
Abstract
Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by the development of noncaseating granulomas in multiple organ systems. Many hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, including melanoma, have been associated with sarcoidosis. We describe the clinical and pathologic findings of a 54-year-old man with melanoma-associated [...] Read more.
Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by the development of noncaseating granulomas in multiple organ systems. Many hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, including melanoma, have been associated with sarcoidosis. We describe the clinical and pathologic findings of a 54-year-old man with melanoma-associated sarcoidosis. In addition, we not only review the literature describing characteristics of other melanoma patients with sarcoidosis, but also the features of melanoma patients with antineoplastic therapy-associated sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis has been described in 80 melanoma patients; sufficient information for analysis was provided in 39 of these individuals. In 43.6% of individuals (17 out of 39), sarcoidosis was directly associated with melanoma; in 56.4% of oncologic patients (22 out of 39), sarcoidosis was induced by antineoplastic therapy that had been administered for the treatment of their metastatic melanoma. The discovery of melanoma preceded the development of sarcoidosis in 12 of the 17 (70.5%) individuals who did not receive systemic treatment. Pulmonary and/or cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis were common among both groups of patients. Most patients did not require treatment for sarcoidosis. Melanoma patients—either following antineoplastic therapy or without systemic treatment—may be at an increased risk to develop sarcoidosis. In antineoplastic therapy naive melanoma patients, a common etiologic factor—such as exposure to ultraviolet light—may play a role in their developing melanoma and sarcoidosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Cutaneous Melanoma)
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Review
Complications from Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer
by Kylie H. Kang, Christian C. Okoye, Ravi B. Patel, Shankar Siva, Tithi Biswas, Rodney J. Ellis, Min Yao, Mitchell Machtay and Simon S. Lo
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 981-1004; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020820 - 15 Jun 2015
Cited by 83 | Viewed by 8172
Abstract
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has become a standard treatment option for early stage, node negative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients who are either medically inoperable or refuse surgical resection. SBRT has high local control rates and a favorable toxicity profile relative [...] Read more.
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has become a standard treatment option for early stage, node negative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients who are either medically inoperable or refuse surgical resection. SBRT has high local control rates and a favorable toxicity profile relative to other surgical and non-surgical approaches. Given the excellent tumor control rates and increasing utilization of SBRT, recent efforts have focused on limiting toxicity while expanding treatment to increasingly complex patients. We review toxicities from SBRT for lung cancer, including central airway, esophageal, vascular (e.g., aorta), lung parenchyma (e.g., radiation pneumonitis), and chest wall toxicities, as well as radiation-induced neuropathies (e.g., brachial plexus, vagus nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve). We summarize patient-related, tumor-related, dosimetric characteristics of these toxicities, review published dose constraints, and propose strategies to reduce such complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Therapies)
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561 KiB  
Article
New Variants of Tomato Thymidine Kinase 1 Selected for Increased Sensitivity of E. coli KY895 towards Azidothymidine
by Louise Slot Christiansen, Louise Egeblad, Birgitte Munch-Petersen, Jure Piškur and Wolfgang Knecht
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 966-980; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020819 - 8 Jun 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4760
Abstract
Nucleoside analogues (NA) are prodrugs that are phosphorylated by deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) as the first step towards a compound toxic to the cell. During the last 20 years, research around dNKs has gone into new organisms other than mammals and viruses. Newly discovered [...] Read more.
Nucleoside analogues (NA) are prodrugs that are phosphorylated by deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) as the first step towards a compound toxic to the cell. During the last 20 years, research around dNKs has gone into new organisms other than mammals and viruses. Newly discovered dNKs have been tested as enzymes for suicide gene therapy. The tomato thymidine kinase 1 (ToTK1) is a dNK that has been selected for its in vitro kinetic properties and then successfully been tested in vivo for the treatment of malignant glioma. We present the selection of two improved variants of ToTK1 generated by random protein engineering for suicide gene therapy with the NA azidothymidine (AZT).We describe their selection, recombinant production and a subsequent kinetic and biochemical characterization. Their improved performance in killing of E. coli KY895 is accompanied by an increase in specificity for the NA AZT over the natural substrate thymidine as well as a decrease in inhibition by dTTP, the end product of the nucleoside salvage pathway for thymidine. The understanding of the enzymatic properties improving the variants efficacy is instrumental to further develop dNKs for use in suicide gene therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancers Gene Therapy)
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262 KiB  
Editorial
Cancers Best Paper Award 2015
by Robert H. Weiss
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 963-965; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020818 - 29 May 2015
Viewed by 3900
Abstract
Cancers has instituted a “Best Paper” award to recognize the most outstanding papers in the area of oncology published in Cancers.[...] Full article
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210 KiB  
Review
Quality of Life in Patients with NSCLC Receiving Maintenance Therapy
by Achim Rittmeyer
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 950-962; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020817 - 29 May 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4466
Abstract
Introduction: In the past few years many trials have evaluated the use of maintenance therapy in the treatment of NSCLC stage IV. Both switch as well as continuation maintenance show an improved PFS and overall survival. HRQoL data was only partially published. The [...] Read more.
Introduction: In the past few years many trials have evaluated the use of maintenance therapy in the treatment of NSCLC stage IV. Both switch as well as continuation maintenance show an improved PFS and overall survival. HRQoL data was only partially published. The aim of this article is to review the published effects of maintenance therapy on HRQoL. Methods: Two PubMed searches were performed using the terms: “maintenance therapy and NSCLC” and “maintenance therapy and NSCLC and HRQoL”. The published data was compared, analysed and evaluated. Results: 272 articles were found dealing with maintenance therapy, and of these 85 articles were found regarding maintenance therapy and HRQoL in NSCLC. Maintenance therapy showed no negative impact on HRQoL but failed to show a real benefit. Some symptoms showed positive trends during maintenance therapy. HRQoL can be used to select patients for maintenance therapy. Conclusions: Maintenance therapy is very safe, improves PFS and OS without impairing HRQoL. Although a positive impact on general QoL could not be demonstrated this is possibly due to the mode of evaluating HRQoL. Patient reported outcomes should be simplified and examined for a longer period of time. Full article
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Review
Targeted Therapies in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer—Beyond EGFR and ALK
by Sacha I. Rothschild
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 930-949; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020816 - 26 May 2015
Cited by 86 | Viewed by 8312
Abstract
Systemic therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has undergone a dramatic paradigm shift over the past decade. Advances in our understanding of the underlying biology of NSCLC have revealed distinct molecular subtypes. A substantial proportion of NSCLC depends on oncogenic molecular aberrations [...] Read more.
Systemic therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has undergone a dramatic paradigm shift over the past decade. Advances in our understanding of the underlying biology of NSCLC have revealed distinct molecular subtypes. A substantial proportion of NSCLC depends on oncogenic molecular aberrations (so-called “driver mutations”) for their malignant phenotype. Personalized therapy encompasses the strategy of matching these subtypes with effective targeted therapies. EGFR mutations and ALK translocation are the most effectively targeted oncogenes in NSCLC. EGFR mutations and ALK gene rearrangements are successfully being targeted with specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The number of molecular subgroups of NSCLC continues to grow. The scope of this review is to discuss recent data on novel molecular targets as ROS1, BRAF, KRAS, HER2, c-MET, RET, PIK3CA, FGFR1 and DDR2. Thereby the review will focus on therapeutic strategies targeting these aberrations. Moreover, the emerging challenge of acquired resistance to initially effective therapies will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Therapies)
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Review
Effects of Age on the Detection and Management of Breast Cancer
by Andrew McGuire, James A. L. Brown, Carmel Malone, Ray McLaughlin and Michael J. Kerin
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 908-929; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020815 - 22 May 2015
Cited by 239 | Viewed by 16101
Abstract
Currently, breast cancer affects approximately 12% of women worldwide. While the incidence of breast cancer rises with age, a younger age at diagnosis is linked to increased mortality. We discuss age related factors affecting breast cancer diagnosis, management and treatment, exploring key concepts [...] Read more.
Currently, breast cancer affects approximately 12% of women worldwide. While the incidence of breast cancer rises with age, a younger age at diagnosis is linked to increased mortality. We discuss age related factors affecting breast cancer diagnosis, management and treatment, exploring key concepts and identifying critical areas requiring further research. We examine age as a factor in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment relating it to factors such as genetic status, breast cancer subtype, hormone factors and nodal status. We examine the effects of age as seen through the adoption of population wide breast cancer screening programs. Assessing the incidence rates of each breast cancer subtype, in the context of age, we examine the observed correlations. We explore how age affects patient’s prognosis, exploring the effects of age on stage and subtype incidence. Finally we discuss the future of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, examining the potential of emerging tests and technologies (such as microRNA) and how novel research findings are being translated into clinically relevant practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancers and Aging)
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Article
The HSP90 Inhibitor Ganetespib Radiosensitizes Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells
by Roberto Gomez-Casal, Chitralekha Bhattacharya, Michael W. Epperly, Per H. Basse, Hong Wang, Xinhui Wang, David A. Proia, Joel S. Greenberger, Mark A. Socinski and Vera Levina
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 876-907; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020814 - 22 May 2015
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 6495
Abstract
The molecular chaperone HSP90 is involved in stabilization and function of multiple client proteins, many of which represent important oncogenic drivers in NSCLC. Utilization of HSP90 inhibitors as radiosensitizing agents is a promising approach. The antitumor activity of ganetespib, HSP90 inhibitor, was evaluated [...] Read more.
The molecular chaperone HSP90 is involved in stabilization and function of multiple client proteins, many of which represent important oncogenic drivers in NSCLC. Utilization of HSP90 inhibitors as radiosensitizing agents is a promising approach. The antitumor activity of ganetespib, HSP90 inhibitor, was evaluated in human lung adenocarcinoma (AC) cells for its ability to potentiate the effects of IR treatment in both in vitro and in vivo. The cytotoxic effects of ganetespib included; G2/M cell cycle arrest, inhibition of DNA repair, apoptosis induction, and promotion of senescence. All of these antitumor effects were both concentration- and time-dependent. Both pretreatment and post-radiation treatment with ganetespib at low nanomolar concentrations induced radiosensitization in lung AC cells in vitro. Ganetespib may impart radiosensitization through multiple mechanisms: such as down regulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway; diminished DNA repair capacity and promotion of cellular senescence. In vivo, ganetespib reduced growth of T2821 tumor xenografts in mice and sensitized tumors to IR. Tumor irradiation led to dramatic upregulation of β-catenin expression in tumor tissues, an effect that was mitigated in T2821 xenografts when ganetespib was combined with IR treatments. These data highlight the promise of combining ganetespib with IR therapies in the treatment of AC lung tumors. Full article
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Review
Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Cancer Cell Proliferation
by Vidhya R. Rao, Mathew Perez-Neut, Simon Kaja and Saverio Gentile
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 849-875; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020813 - 22 May 2015
Cited by 141 | Viewed by 13650
Abstract
Changes of the electrical charges across the surface cell membrane are absolutely necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis in physiological as well as in pathological conditions. The opening of ion channels alter the charge distribution across the surface membrane as they allow the diffusion [...] Read more.
Changes of the electrical charges across the surface cell membrane are absolutely necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis in physiological as well as in pathological conditions. The opening of ion channels alter the charge distribution across the surface membrane as they allow the diffusion of ions such as K+, Ca++, Cl, Na+. Traditionally, voltage-gated ion channels (VGIC) are known to play fundamental roles in controlling rapid bioelectrical signaling including action potential and/or contraction. However, several investigations have revealed that these classes of proteins can also contribute significantly to cell mitotic biochemical signaling, cell cycle progression, as well as cell volume regulation. All these functions are critically important for cancer cell proliferation. Interestingly, a variety of distinct VGICs are expressed in different cancer cell types, including metastasis but not in the tissues from which these tumors were generated. Given the increasing evidence suggesting that VGIC play a major role in cancer cell biology, in this review we discuss the role of distinct VGIC in cancer cell proliferation and possible therapeutic potential of VIGC pharmacological manipulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Cell Proliferation)
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Review
The Role of Intracellular Calcium for the Development and Treatment of Neuroblastoma
by Noothan Jyothi Satheesh and Dietrich Büsselberg
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 823-848; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020811 - 22 May 2015
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 11748
Abstract
Neuroblastoma is the second most common paediatric cancer. It developsfrom undifferentiated simpatico-adrenal lineage cells and is mostly sporadic; however, theaetiology behind the development of neuroblastoma is still not fully understood. Intracellularcalcium ([Ca2+]i) is a secondary messenger which regulates numerous cellular processesand, therefore, its [...] Read more.
Neuroblastoma is the second most common paediatric cancer. It developsfrom undifferentiated simpatico-adrenal lineage cells and is mostly sporadic; however, theaetiology behind the development of neuroblastoma is still not fully understood. Intracellularcalcium ([Ca2+]i) is a secondary messenger which regulates numerous cellular processesand, therefore, its concentration is tightly regulated. This review focuses on the role of[Ca2+]i in differentiation, apoptosis and proliferation in neuroblastoma. It describes themechanisms by which [Ca2+]i is regulated and how it modulates intracellular pathways.Furthermore, the importance of [Ca2+]i for the function of anti-cancer drugs is illuminatedin this review as [Ca2+]i could be a target to improve the outcome of anti-cancer treatmentin neuroblastoma. Overall, modulations of [Ca2+]i could be a key target to induce apoptosisin cancer cells leading to a more efficient and effective treatment of neuroblastoma. Full article
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Review
Insights into the Molecular Pathogenesis of Activated B-Cell-like Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Its Therapeutic Implications
by Georg Lenz
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 811-822; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020812 - 22 May 2015
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 9944
Abstract
Within the last couple of years, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has significantly improved. Large-scale gene expression profiling studies have led to the discovery of several molecularly defined subtypes that are characterized [...] Read more.
Within the last couple of years, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has significantly improved. Large-scale gene expression profiling studies have led to the discovery of several molecularly defined subtypes that are characterized by specific oncogene addictions and significant differences in their outcome. Next generation sequencing efforts combined with RNA interference screens frequently identify crucial oncogenes that lead to constitutive activation of various signaling pathways that drive lymphomagenesis. This review summarizes our current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCL subtype that is characterized by poor prognosis. A special emphasis is put on findings that might impact therapeutic strategies of affected patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lymphoma)
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Article
An Analytical Model of Leakage Neutron Equivalent Dose for Passively-Scattered Proton Radiotherapy and Validation with Measurements
by Christopher Schneider, Wayne Newhauser and Jad Farah
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 795-810; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020795 - 18 May 2015
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5595
Abstract
Exposure to stray neutrons increases the risk of second cancer development after proton therapy. Previously reported analytical models of this exposure were difficult to configure and had not been investigated below 100 MeV proton energy. The purposes of this study were to test [...] Read more.
Exposure to stray neutrons increases the risk of second cancer development after proton therapy. Previously reported analytical models of this exposure were difficult to configure and had not been investigated below 100 MeV proton energy. The purposes of this study were to test an analytical model of neutron equivalent dose per therapeutic absorbed dose at 75 MeV and to improve the model by reducing the number of configuration parameters and making it continuous in proton energy from 100 to 250 MeV. To develop the analytical model, we used previously published H/D values in water from Monte Carlo simulations of a general-purpose beamline for proton energies from 100 to 250 MeV. We also configured and tested the model on in-air neutron equivalent doses measured for a 75 MeV ocular beamline. Predicted H/D values from the analytical model and Monte Carlo agreed well from 100 to 250 MeV (10% average difference). Predicted H/D values from the analytical model also agreed well with measurements at 75 MeV (15% average difference). The results indicate that analytical models can give fast, reliable calculations of neutron exposure after proton therapy. This ability is absent in treatment planning systems but vital to second cancer risk estimation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proton Therapy for Cancer)
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Review
Hedgehog Signaling Inhibitors as Anti-Cancer Agents in Osteosarcoma
by Ram Mohan Ram Kumar and Bruno Fuchs
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 784-794; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020784 - 13 May 2015
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 7026
Abstract
Osteosarcoma is a rare type of cancer associated with a poor clinical outcome. Even though the pathologic characteristics of OS are well established, much remains to be understood, particularly at the molecular signaling level. The molecular mechanisms of osteosarcoma progression and metastases have [...] Read more.
Osteosarcoma is a rare type of cancer associated with a poor clinical outcome. Even though the pathologic characteristics of OS are well established, much remains to be understood, particularly at the molecular signaling level. The molecular mechanisms of osteosarcoma progression and metastases have not yet been fully elucidated and several evolutionary signaling pathways have been found to be linked with osteosarcoma pathogenesis, especially the hedgehog signaling (Hh) pathway. The present review will outline the importance and targeting the hedgehog signaling (Hh) pathway in osteosarcoma tumor biology. Available data also suggest that aberrant Hh signaling has pro-migratory effects and leads to the development of osteoblastic osteosarcoma. Activation of Hh signaling has been observed in osteosarcoma cell lines and also in primary human osteosarcoma specimens. Emerging data suggests that interference with Hh signal transduction by inhibitors may reduce osteosarcoma cell proliferation and tumor growth thereby preventing osteosarcomagenesis. From this perspective, we outline the current state of Hh pathway inhibitors in osteosarcoma. In summary, targeting Hh signaling by inhibitors promise to increase the efficacy of osteosarcoma treatment and improve patient outcome. Full article
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Review
Mechanisms of Acquired Resistance to ALK Inhibitors and the Rationale for Treating ALK-positive Lung Cancer
by Hideko Isozaki, Nagio Takigawa and Katsuyuki Kiura
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 763-783; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020763 - 30 Apr 2015
Cited by 63 | Viewed by 12264
Abstract
The discovery of an echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene led to improved clinical outcomes in patients with lung cancer after the development of the first ALK-targeting agent, crizotinib. Some second-generation ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which might be [...] Read more.
The discovery of an echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene led to improved clinical outcomes in patients with lung cancer after the development of the first ALK-targeting agent, crizotinib. Some second-generation ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which might be more potent than crizotinib or effective on crizotinib-resistant patients, have been developed. Although these ALK-TKIs show an excellent response initially, most patients eventually acquire resistance. Therefore, careful consideration of the resistance mechanisms might lead to superior therapeutic strategies. Here, we summarize the history of ALK-TKIs and their underlying resistance mechanisms in both the preclinical and clinical settings. In addition, we discuss potential future treatment strategies in ALK-TKI-naïve and -resistant patients with lung cancer harboring the EML4-ALK fusion gene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Therapies)
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Review
Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies
by Ranjan Upadhyay, Linda Hammerich, Paul Peng, Brian Brown, Miriam Merad and Joshua D. Brody
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 736-762; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020736 - 30 Apr 2015
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 10486
Abstract
While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant [...] Read more.
While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lymphoma)
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Review
Pathologic Cellular Events in Smoking-Related Pancreatitis
by Edwin Thrower
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 723-735; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020723 - 29 Apr 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 7526
Abstract
Pancreatitis, a debilitating inflammatory disorder, results from pancreatic injury. Alcohol abuse is the foremost cause, although cigarette smoking has recently surfaced as a distinct risk factor. The mechanisms by which cigarette smoke and its toxins initiate pathological cellular events leading to pancreatitis, have [...] Read more.
Pancreatitis, a debilitating inflammatory disorder, results from pancreatic injury. Alcohol abuse is the foremost cause, although cigarette smoking has recently surfaced as a distinct risk factor. The mechanisms by which cigarette smoke and its toxins initiate pathological cellular events leading to pancreatitis, have not been clearly defined. Although cigarette smoke is composed of more than 4000 compounds, it is mainly nicotine and the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), which have been extensively studied with respect to pancreatic diseases. This review summarizes these research findings and highlights cellular pathways which may be of relevance in initiation and progression of smoking-related pancreatitis. Full article
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Review
Dosimetric Comparison and Potential for Improved Clinical Outcomes of Paediatric CNS Patients Treated with Protons or IMRT
by Kris S. Armoogum and Nicola Thorp
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 706-722; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020706 - 28 Apr 2015
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 7304
Abstract
Background: We compare clinical outcomes of paediatric patients with CNS tumours treated with protons or IMRT. CNS tumours form the second most common group of cancers in children. Radiotherapy plays a major role in the treatment of many of these patients but [...] Read more.
Background: We compare clinical outcomes of paediatric patients with CNS tumours treated with protons or IMRT. CNS tumours form the second most common group of cancers in children. Radiotherapy plays a major role in the treatment of many of these patients but also contributes to late side effects in long term survivors. Radiation dose inevitably deposited in healthy tissues outside the clinical target has been linked to detrimental late effects such as neurocognitive, behavioural and vascular effects in addition to endocrine abnormalities and second tumours. Methods: A literature search was performed using keywords: protons, IMRT, CNS and paediatric. Of 189 papers retrieved, 10 were deemed relevant based on title and abstract screening. All papers directly compared outcomes from protons with photons, five papers included medulloblastoma, four papers each included craniopharyngioma and low grade gliomas and three papers included ependymoma. Results: This review found that while proton beam therapy offered similar clinical target coverage, there was a demonstrable reduction in integral dose to normal structures. Conclusions: This in turn suggests the potential for superior long term outcomes for paediatric patients with CNS tumours both in terms of radiogenic second cancers and out-of-field adverse effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proton Therapy for Cancer)
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Article
Reducing the Cost of Proton Radiation Therapy: The Feasibility of a Streamlined Treatment Technique for Prostate Cancer
by Wayne D. Newhauser, Rui Zhang, Timothy G. Jones, Annelise Giebeler, Phillip J. Taddei, Robert D. Stewart, Andrew Lee and Oleg Vassiliev
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 688-705; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020688 - 24 Apr 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 9659
Abstract
Proton radiation therapy is an effective modality for cancer treatments, but the cost of proton therapy is much higher compared to conventional radiotherapy and this presents a formidable barrier to most clinical practices that wish to offer proton therapy. Little attention in literature [...] Read more.
Proton radiation therapy is an effective modality for cancer treatments, but the cost of proton therapy is much higher compared to conventional radiotherapy and this presents a formidable barrier to most clinical practices that wish to offer proton therapy. Little attention in literature has been paid to the costs associated with collimators, range compensators and hypofractionation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of cost-saving modifications to the present standard of care for proton treatments for prostate cancer. In particular, we quantified the dosimetric impact of a treatment technique in which custom fabricated collimators were replaced with a multileaf collimator (MLC) and the custom range compensators (RC) were eliminated. The dosimetric impacts of these modifications were assessed for 10 patients with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and confirmed with corresponding Monte Carlo simulations. We assessed the impact on lifetime risks of radiogenic second cancers using detailed dose reconstructions and predictive dose-risk models based on epidemiologic data. We also performed illustrative calculations, using an isoeffect model, to examine the potential for hypofractionation. Specifically, we bracketed plausible intervals of proton fraction size and total treatment dose that were equivalent to a conventional photon treatment of 79.2 Gy in 44 fractions. Our results revealed that eliminating the RC and using an MLC had negligible effect on predicted dose distributions and second cancer risks. Even modest hypofractionation strategies can yield substantial cost savings. Together, our results suggest that it is feasible to modify the standard of care to increase treatment efficiency, reduce treatment costs to patients and insurers, while preserving high treatment quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proton Therapy for Cancer)
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Communication
Cardiometabolic and Skeletal Risk Factors in Black Men with Prostate Cancer Starting Androgen Deprivation Therapy
by Orvar Gunnarsson, Shehzad Basaria and Gretchen A. Gignac
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 679-687; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020679 - 22 Apr 2015
Viewed by 5105
Abstract
Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with multiple metabolic complications, previously predominantly evaluated in the white population. Methods: A chart-based retrospective review was conducted on black patients with PCa, considered for ADT, from September 2007 to [...] Read more.
Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with multiple metabolic complications, previously predominantly evaluated in the white population. Methods: A chart-based retrospective review was conducted on black patients with PCa, considered for ADT, from September 2007 to July 2010. Baseline data were collected on body mass index (BMI), vitamin-D status, bone mineral density (BMD), dyslipidemia and diabetes. Overweight and obesity were classified as BMI ≥ 25 and BMI ≥ 30, respectively. Vitamin-D sufficiency was defined as levels ≥30 ng/mL, insufficiency as <30 ng/mL and deficiency as ≤20 ng/mL. Osteopenia was defined as T scores between −1 to −2.5 and osteoporosis when T scores ≤−2.5. Results: Of the initial cohort of 130 black men, 111 (85.4%) patients underwent ADT. At baseline, average BMI was 28.1 ± 5.9 with 43.3% of men being overweight and 30.8% obese. More than one-third of the patients had pre-existing dyslipidemia while 28.8% were diabetics. 50% were vitamin-D deficient while 41% had low bone mass. Conclusions: Black men with PCa presenting for consideration of ADT have a high prevalence of existing metabolic risk factors. Close monitoring of this patient population is needed during ADT to prevent and treat metabolic complications. Full article
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Article
A Possible Association between Melanoma and Prostate Cancer. Results from a Case-Control-Study
by Alina Goldenberg, Shang I. Brian Jiang and Philip R. Cohen
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 670-678; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020670 - 15 Apr 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6013
Abstract
Melanoma and prostate cancer are the fifth and first most common cancers in men within the United States, respectively. The association between the two cancers lies in the mutual androgen-dependence. However, the relationship between prostate cancer history and melanoma development remains to be [...] Read more.
Melanoma and prostate cancer are the fifth and first most common cancers in men within the United States, respectively. The association between the two cancers lies in the mutual androgen-dependence. However, the relationship between prostate cancer history and melanoma development remains to be further elucidated. We aim to determine the odds of history of prostate cancer among men with melanoma as compared to time-frame, clinic, and provider-matched controls without melanoma within a single academic surgical center. We present a case-control study comparing men treated for melanoma and non-melanoma cancer by a single provider between 2010 and 2014 within an academic dermatologic surgical center. Overall, there were nine cases of prostate cancer among the melanoma group and two cases amongst the controls—a statistically significant difference in both uni- and multivariable analyses (p = 0.057 [95% CI 1, 23.5], p = 0.042 [95% CI 1.1, 129], respectively). Body mass index, alcohol use, and skin type II were significant risk factors for melanoma (p = 0.011 [95% CI 1, 1.3], 0.005 [95% CI 1.4, 7], 0.025 [95% CI 1.1, 3.3], respectively). There were more immunosuppressed controls (p = 0.002); however, the melanoma patients had a significantly longer duration of immunosuppression (11.6 vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.001 [95% CI 0.03, 0.5]). Melanoma screenings for men should include questions on prostate cancer history. Prostate cancer patients may benefit from more frequent and comprehensive melanoma screening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Cutaneous Melanoma)
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Review
PP2A: The Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing?
by Maeve Kiely and Patrick A. Kiely
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 648-669; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020648 - 10 Apr 2015
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 15599
Abstract
Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a major serine/threonine phosphatase in cells. It consists of a catalytic subunit (C), a structural subunit (A), and a regulatory/variable B-type subunit. PP2A has a critical role to play in homeostasis where its predominant function is as a [...] Read more.
Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a major serine/threonine phosphatase in cells. It consists of a catalytic subunit (C), a structural subunit (A), and a regulatory/variable B-type subunit. PP2A has a critical role to play in homeostasis where its predominant function is as a phosphatase that regulates the major cell signaling pathways in cells. Changes in the assembly, activity and substrate specificity of the PP2A holoenzyme have a direct role in disease and are a major contributor to the maintenance of the transformed phenotype in cancer. We have learned a lot about how PP2A functions from specific mutations that disrupt the core assembly of PP2A and from viral proteins that target PP2A and inhibit its effect as a phosphatase. This prompted various studies revealing that restoration of PP2A activity benefits some cancer patients. However, our understanding of the mechanism of action of this is limited because of the complex nature of PP2A holoenzyme assembly and because it acts through a wide variety of signaling pathways. Information on PP2A is also conflicting as there are situations whereby inactivation of PP2A induces apoptosis in many cancer cells. In this review we discuss this relationship and we also address many of the pertinent and topical questions that relate to novel therapeutic strategies aimed at altering PP2A activity. Full article
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Review
Towards Effective and Efficient Patient-Specific Quality Assurance for Spot Scanning Proton Therapy
by X. Ronald. Zhu, Yupeng Li, Dennis Mackin, Heng Li, Falk Poenisch, Andrew K. Lee, Anita Mahajan, Steven J. Frank, Michael T. Gillin, Narayan Sahoo and Xiaodong Zhang
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 631-647; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020631 - 10 Apr 2015
Cited by 56 | Viewed by 9813
Abstract
An intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) patient-specific quality assurance (PSQA) program based on measurement alone can be very time consuming due to the highly modulated dose distributions of IMPT fields. Incorporating independent dose calculation and treatment log file analysis could reduce the time required [...] Read more.
An intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) patient-specific quality assurance (PSQA) program based on measurement alone can be very time consuming due to the highly modulated dose distributions of IMPT fields. Incorporating independent dose calculation and treatment log file analysis could reduce the time required for measurements. In this article, we summarize our effort to develop an efficient and effective PSQA program that consists of three components: measurements, independent dose calculation, and analysis of patient-specific treatment delivery log files. Measurements included two-dimensional (2D) measurements using an ionization chamber array detector for each field delivered at the planned gantry angles with the electronic medical record (EMR) system in the QA mode and the accelerator control system (ACS) in the treatment mode, and additional measurements at depths for each field with the ACS in physics mode and without the EMR system. Dose distributions for each field in a water phantom were calculated independently using a recently developed in-house pencil beam algorithm and compared with those obtained using the treatment planning system (TPS). The treatment log file for each field was analyzed in terms of deviations in delivered spot positions from their planned positions using various statistical methods. Using this improved PSQA program, we were able to verify the integrity of the data transfer from the TPS to the EMR to the ACS, the dose calculation of the TPS, and the treatment delivery, including the dose delivered and spot positions. On the basis of this experience, we estimate that the in-room measurement time required for each complex IMPT case (e.g., a patient receiving bilateral IMPT for head and neck cancer) is less than 1 h using the improved PSQA program. Our experience demonstrates that it is possible to develop an efficient and effective PSQA program for IMPT with the equipment and resources available in the clinic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proton Therapy for Cancer)
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Article
Predictive Risk of Radiation Induced Cerebral Necrosis in Pediatric Brain Cancer Patients after VMAT Versus Proton Therapy
by Derek Freund, Rui Zhang, Mary Sanders and Wayne Newhauser
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 617-630; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020617 - 10 Apr 2015
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 7947
Abstract
Cancer of the brain and central nervous system (CNS) is the second most common of all pediatric cancers. Treatment of many of these cancers includes radiation therapy of which radiation induced cerebral necrosis (RICN) can be a severe and potentially devastating side effect. [...] Read more.
Cancer of the brain and central nervous system (CNS) is the second most common of all pediatric cancers. Treatment of many of these cancers includes radiation therapy of which radiation induced cerebral necrosis (RICN) can be a severe and potentially devastating side effect. Risk factors for RICN include brain volume irradiated, the dose given per fraction and total dose. Thirteen pediatric patients were selected for this study to determine the difference in predicted risk of RICN when treating with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) compared to passively scattered proton therapy (PSPT) and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Plans were compared on the basis of dosimetric endpoints in the planned treatment volume (PTV) and brain and a radiobiological endpoint of RICN calculated using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman probit model. Uncertainty tests were performed to determine if the predicted risk of necrosis was sensitive to positional errors, proton range errors and selection of risk models. Both PSPT and IMPT plans resulted in a significant increase in the maximum dose to the brain, a significant reduction in the total brain volume irradiated to low doses, and a significant lower predicted risk of necrosis compared with the VMAT plans. The findings of this study were upheld by the uncertainty analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proton Therapy for Cancer)
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Review
The Roles of MicroRNAs in Breast Cancer
by Ryou-u Takahashi, Hiroaki Miyazaki and Takahiro Ochiya
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 598-616; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020598 - 9 Apr 2015
Cited by 120 | Viewed by 12048
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a large family of small, approximately 20–22 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes, mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Accumulating lines of evidence have indicated that miRNAs play important roles in the maintenance of biological homeostasis and [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a large family of small, approximately 20–22 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes, mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Accumulating lines of evidence have indicated that miRNAs play important roles in the maintenance of biological homeostasis and that aberrant expression levels of miRNAs are associated with the onset of many diseases, including cancer. In various cancers, miRNAs play important roles in tumor initiation, drug resistance and metastasis. Recent studies reported that miRNAs could also be secreted via small endosome-derived vesicles called exosomes, which are derived from multiple cell types, including dendritic cells, lymphocytes, and tumor cells. Exosomal miRNAs play an important role in cell-to-cell communication and have been investigated as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the major findings related to the functions of miRNAs in breast cancer, which is the most frequent cancer in women, and discuss the potential clinical uses of miRNAs, including their roles as therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer Biology and Treatment)
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Review
Profiling Invasiveness in Head and Neck Cancer: Recent Contributions of Genomic and Transcriptomic Approaches
by Lluís Nisa, Daniel Matthias Aebersold, Roland Giger, Marco Domenico Caversaccio, Urs Borner, Michaela Medová and Yitzhak Zimmer
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 585-597; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020585 - 31 Mar 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6217
Abstract
High-throughput molecular profiling approaches have emerged as precious research tools in the field of head and neck translational oncology. Such approaches have identified and/or confirmed the role of several genes or pathways in the acquisition/maintenance of an invasive phenotype and the execution of [...] Read more.
High-throughput molecular profiling approaches have emerged as precious research tools in the field of head and neck translational oncology. Such approaches have identified and/or confirmed the role of several genes or pathways in the acquisition/maintenance of an invasive phenotype and the execution of cellular programs related to cell invasion. Recently published new-generation sequencing studies in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have unveiled prominent roles in carcinogenesis and cell invasion of mutations involving NOTCH1 and PI3K-patwhay components. Gene-expression profiling studies combined with systems biology approaches have allowed identifying and gaining further mechanistic understanding into pathways commonly enriched in invasive HNSCC. These pathways include antigen-presenting and leucocyte adhesion molecules, as well as genes involved in cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Here we review the major insights into invasiveness in head and neck cancer provided by high-throughput molecular profiling approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Cell Invasion)
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