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Nutrients, Volume 8, Issue 8 (August 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Mucosal MicroRNAs Expression Profiles before and after Exclusive Enteral Nutrition Therapy in Adult Patients with Crohn’s Disease
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080519 - 22 Aug 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1988
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be important for the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD). Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is an effective therapy for inducing remission in CD. We aimed to investigate the alteration of miRNAs expression profile in the terminal ileal mucosa [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be important for the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD). Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is an effective therapy for inducing remission in CD. We aimed to investigate the alteration of miRNAs expression profile in the terminal ileal mucosa of CD patients before and after EEN. Twenty-five patients and ten healthy individuals were included. MiRNAs expression profile was firstly assessed using microarray technology and then validation was performed by qRT-PCR. The correlations between miRNAs and CD activity index (CDAI) score and serum C–reactive protein (CRP) level were also evaluated. Microarray analysis showed that mucosal miRNAs expression profile after EEN therapy was significantly changed compared with inflamed mucosa before treatment, and was most similar to the healthy one among all CD groups. Altered expressions of hsa-miR-192-5p, hsa-miR-423-3p, hsa-miR-99a-5p, hsa-miR-124-3p, hsa-miR-301a-5p, hsa-miR-495-5p, and hsa-let-7b-5p were confirmed by qRT-PCR. hsa-let-7b-5p was significantly correlated with serum CRP levels before and after EEN treatment (r = −0.518, p = 0.008, and r = −0.569, p = 0.003). Our study showed EEN induction therapy was associated with a trend for normalizing of the mucosal miRNAs expression profile, and expression of mucosal hsa-let-7b-5p was correlated with serum CRP level in patients with CD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080518 - 22 Aug 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2782
Abstract
Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM) contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and [...] Read more.
Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM) contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years) participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p < 0.0125). Exercise performance did not differ between WM puree or carbohydrate beverage trials (p > 0.05), however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05). WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p < 0.05), but without differences in systemic markers of inflammation or innate immune function. Daily WM puree consumption fully supported the energy demands of exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine), antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReply
Reply to B. Meunier’s Letter to the Editor Re: Brewer G. J.; Nutrients 2015, 7, 10053–10064
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080517 - 22 Aug 2016
Viewed by 1242
Abstract
In a letter to the editor, Meunier [1] apparently attempts to discredit the copper-2 hypothesis for causation of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) epidemic in developed countries proposed by myself in a review in this journal [2].[...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Natural Polyphenols for Prevention and Treatment of Cancer
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080515 - 22 Aug 2016
Cited by 112 | Viewed by 4489
Abstract
There is much epidemiological evidence that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables could lower the risk of certain cancers. The effect has been attributed, in part, to natural polyphenols. Besides, numerous studies have demonstrated that natural polyphenols could be used for the [...] Read more.
There is much epidemiological evidence that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables could lower the risk of certain cancers. The effect has been attributed, in part, to natural polyphenols. Besides, numerous studies have demonstrated that natural polyphenols could be used for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Potential mechanisms included antioxidant, anti-inflammation as well as the modulation of multiple molecular events involved in carcinogenesis. The current review summarized the anticancer efficacy of major polyphenol classes (flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans and stilbenes) and discussed the potential mechanisms of action, which were based on epidemiological, in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies within the past five years. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Oral Administration of Fermented Soymilk Products Protects the Skin of Hairless Mice against Ultraviolet Damage
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080514 - 20 Aug 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2225
Abstract
The protective effect of isoflavones on skin damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their bioavailability were investigated in ovariectomized hairless mice fed diets composed of fermented soymilk containing aglycone forms of isoflavones or control soymilk containing glucose-conjugated forms of isoflavones. The erythema intensity [...] Read more.
The protective effect of isoflavones on skin damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their bioavailability were investigated in ovariectomized hairless mice fed diets composed of fermented soymilk containing aglycone forms of isoflavones or control soymilk containing glucose-conjugated forms of isoflavones. The erythema intensity of dorsal skin was significantly higher in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated mice (p < 0.05). The erythema intensity and epidermal thickness of dorsal skin were significantly lower in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the control diet group (each p < 0.05). Levels of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in dorsal skin were significantly lower in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Serum and dorsal skin isoflavone concentrations were significantly higher in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the soymilk diet group (p < 0.05). These results indicate that oral administration of a fermented soymilk diet increases isoflavone concentrations in the blood and skin, effectively scavenging the reactive oxygen species generated by UV irradiation and exerting an estrogen-like activity, with a consequent protective effect on skin photodamage in hairless mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Soybean and other Grain Legumes)
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Open AccessReview
Association between Body Mass Index, Waist-to-Height Ratio and Adiposity in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080512 - 20 Aug 2016
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2847
Abstract
Obesity is defined as an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been suggested as the gold standard to define obesity, but because its use is complex and expensive, anthropometric measures such as body mass index [...] Read more.
Obesity is defined as an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been suggested as the gold standard to define obesity, but because its use is complex and expensive, anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) or the waist-to-height ratio (WtHr) have been used as alternatives. The aim of this study was to review the published literature and investigate the correlation of BMI and WtHr with body fat (BF) measured by DEXA in pediatric populations. References were sought in PubMed/Medline and Embase datasets. Five original articles, published between 2013 and 2015, were finally included in this review. Their sample size ranged from 83 to 5355, and the age of participants ranged from 4.9 to 19 years old. The most frequently reported association measurements were the coefficients of determination (R2), followed by correlation coefficients and least-squares regression coefficients. BF measured by DEXA was strongly correlated with both BMI (R2 ranging from 0.32 to 0.91) and WtHr (R2 ranging from 0.49 to 0.73). Thus, either BMI or WtHr may be useful to define obesity when more sophisticated techniques are not available. Our systematic review of the available literature found that neither index demonstrated superiority in assessing obesity in children. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080513 - 19 Aug 2016
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 3925
Abstract
The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish, low intake of dairy [...] Read more.
The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Do Lower Calorie or Lower Fat Foods Have More Sodium Than Their Regular Counterparts?
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080511 - 19 Aug 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2469
Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare the sodium content of a regular food and its lower calorie/fat counterpart. Four food categories, among the top 20 contributing the most sodium to the US diet, met the criteria of having the most matches [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to compare the sodium content of a regular food and its lower calorie/fat counterpart. Four food categories, among the top 20 contributing the most sodium to the US diet, met the criteria of having the most matches between regular foods and their lower calorie/fat counterparts. A protocol was used to search websites to create a list of “matches”, a regular and comparable lower calorie/fat food(s) under each brand. Nutrient information was recorded and analyzed for matches. In total, 283 matches were identified across four food categories: savory snacks (N = 44), cheese (N = 105), salad dressings (N = 90), and soups (N = 44). As expected, foods modified from their regular versions had significantly reduced average fat (total fat and saturated fat) and caloric profiles. Mean sodium content among modified salad dressings and cheeses was on average 8%–12% higher, while sodium content did not change with modification of savory snacks. Modified soups had significantly lower mean sodium content than their regular versions (28%–38%). Consumers trying to maintain a healthy diet should consider that sodium content may vary in foods modified to be lower in calories/fat. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Green Tea Ingestion and Interval Sprinting Exercise on the Body Composition of Overweight Males: A Randomized Trial
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080510 - 19 Aug 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2357
Abstract
The combined effect of green tea ingestion and interval sprinting exercise on body and abdominal fat of overweight males was investigated. Participants were randomly assigned into control (C), green tea (GT), interval sprinting exercise (ISE), and green tea and ISE (GT + ISE) [...] Read more.
The combined effect of green tea ingestion and interval sprinting exercise on body and abdominal fat of overweight males was investigated. Participants were randomly assigned into control (C), green tea (GT), interval sprinting exercise (ISE), and green tea and ISE (GT + ISE) groups. The GT, GT + ISE, and C groups consumed three GT capsules daily. The ISE and GT + ISE groups completed 36 ISE sessions over 12 weeks. Forty eight overweight males with a mean BMI of 28.5 ± 0.92 kg/m2 and age of 26 ± 0.7 years acted as participants. There was a significant reduction in total and abdominal fat mass for the ISE and GT + ISE groups, p < 0.05, however, total and abdominal fat mass did not significantly change in the GT and C groups. There was a significant increase in total lean mass, p < 0.05, after the intervention for the ISE and GT + ISE groups only. There was a significant increase in fat oxidation during submaximal aerobic exercise, p < 0.05, after the intervention for the ISE, GT + ISE, and GT groups with no change for the C group. Following the 12-week intervention the ISE and GT + ISE groups, compared to C, recorded a significantly greater decrease in body and abdominal fat, and a significant increase in total lean mass. Ingestion of green tea by itself, however, did not result in a significant decrease in body or abdominal fat, but increased fat utilization during submaximal exercise. The combination of 12 weeks of GT ingestion and ISE did not result in greater total and abdominal fat reduction compared to 12 weeks of ISE alone. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Assessment of the Dietary Intake of Schoolchildren in South Africa: 15 Years after the First National Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080509 - 19 Aug 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2376
Abstract
There has not been a national dietary study in children in South Africa since 1999. Fortification of flour and maize meal became mandatory in October 2003 to address micronutrient deficiencies found in the national study in 1999. The purpose of this review was [...] Read more.
There has not been a national dietary study in children in South Africa since 1999. Fortification of flour and maize meal became mandatory in October 2003 to address micronutrient deficiencies found in the national study in 1999. The purpose of this review was to identify studies done after 1999 in schoolchildren, 6–15 years old, in order to determine whether dietary intakes reflected improvements in micronutrients, namely: iron, zinc, vitamin A, folate, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and niacin. An electronic and hand search was done to identify all studies complying with relevant inclusion criteria. The search yielded 10 studies. Overall, there is a paucity of dietary studies which have included the fortified nutrients; only four, of which only one, reported on all micronutrients; making it difficult to determine whether fortification has improved the micronutrient intake of schoolchildren. This is further complicated by the fact that different dietary methods were used and that studies were only done in three of the nine provinces and thus are not generalizable. The results of these studies clearly point to the importance of doing a national study on the dietary intake of schoolchildren in order to confirm the outcomes of the fortification process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fortification to Combat Micronutrient Deficiencies)
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Open AccessArticle
Serum Retinol Concentrations, Race, and Socioeconomic Status in of Women of Childbearing Age in the United States
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080508 - 19 Aug 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1827
Abstract
Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing [...] Read more.
Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing marginal vitamin A reserves are at increased risk of vitamin A inadequacy as pregnancy progresses. Few studies have assessed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and retinol status in women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess the relationship between serum retinol concentrations and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Women 14–45 years of age (n = 3170) from NHANES cycles 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included. Serum retinol concentrations were divided into categories according to World Health Organization criteria. All statistical procedures accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The poverty score and race were significantly associated with vitamin A status after adjustment for confounders. Odds of retinol concentrations of <1.05 µmol/L were 1.85 times higher for those of lower socioeconomic status when compared to those of higher status (95% CI: 1.12–3.03, p = 0.02), and 3.1 times higher for non-Hispanic blacks when compared to non-Hispanic whites (95% CI: 1.50–6.41, p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of retinol activity equivalents were significantly lower in groups with higher poverty scores (p = 0.004). Conclusion There appear to be disparities in serum vitamin A levels in women of childbearing age related to income and race in the United States. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update 2016)
Open AccessArticle
Post-Intake of S-Ethyl Cysteine and S-Methyl Cysteine Improved LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080507 - 19 Aug 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2181 | Retraction
Abstract
The effects of S-ethyl cysteine (SEC) and S-methyl cysteine (SMC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in mice were examined. Eight hours after LPS challenge, SEC or SMC was supplied in drinking water at 0.5% or 1% for 3 days. LPS [...] Read more.
The effects of S-ethyl cysteine (SEC) and S-methyl cysteine (SMC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in mice were examined. Eight hours after LPS challenge, SEC or SMC was supplied in drinking water at 0.5% or 1% for 3 days. LPS increased lung myeloperoxidase activity, neutrophil counts and edema. SEC or SMC post-intake attenuated these events. SEC or SMC suppressed LPS-induced lung expression of cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase, and lowered the generation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and prostaglandin E2. LPS enhanced the expression of p47phox, gp91phox, Bax and cleaved caspase-3, and increased the production of reactive oxygen species in the lung. SEC or SMC post-intake reversed these alterations. These findings suggest that these agents could protect the lung through their anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Beetroot Juice on Recovery of Muscle Function and Performance between Bouts of Repeated Sprint Exercise
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080506 - 18 Aug 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4580
Abstract
This study examined the effects of beetroot juice (BTJ) on recovery between two repeated-sprint tests. In an independent groups design, 20 male, team-sports players were randomized to receive either BTJ or a placebo (PLA) (2 × 250 mL) for 3 days after an [...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of beetroot juice (BTJ) on recovery between two repeated-sprint tests. In an independent groups design, 20 male, team-sports players were randomized to receive either BTJ or a placebo (PLA) (2 × 250 mL) for 3 days after an initial repeated sprint test (20 × 30 m; RST1) and after a second repeated sprint test (RST2), performed 72 h later. Maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MIVC), countermovement jumps (CMJ), reactive strength index (RI), pressure-pain threshold (PPT), creatine kinase (CK), C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), protein carbonyls (PC), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and the ascorbyl free radical (A•−) were measured before, after, and at set times between RST1 and RST2. CMJ and RI recovered quicker in BTJ compared to PLA after RST1: at 72 h post, CMJ and RI were 7.6% and 13.8% higher in BTJ vs. PLA, respectively (p < 0.05). PPT was 10.4% higher in BTJ compared to PLA 24 h post RST2 (p = 0.012) but similar at other time points. No group differences were detected for mean and fastest sprint time or fatigue index. MIVC, or the biochemical markers measured (p > 0.05). BTJ reduced the decrement in CMJ and RI following and RST but had no effect on sprint performance or oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Associations of Pre-Defined Dietary Patterns with Obesity Associated Phenotypes in Tehranian Adolescents
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080505 - 18 Aug 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1716
Abstract
Obesity has become a public health problem in adolescents and could be a risk factor for both short-term and long-term health consequences. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship of Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adherence Index (DGAI), Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) and Healthy [...] Read more.
Obesity has become a public health problem in adolescents and could be a risk factor for both short-term and long-term health consequences. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship of Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adherence Index (DGAI), Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) and Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) with risk of obesity associated phenotypes in Tehranian adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, on 722 adolescents, aged 10–19 years. Usual dietary intakes were assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, and diet quality scores were obtained based on DGAI, HEI-2005 and HEI-2010. General obesity and cardio metabolic risk factors were defined according to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention and de’Ferranti cut-offs, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, energy intake and physical activity, compared to those in the lowest quartile, participants in the highest quartile of HEI-2010 had lower risk of general obesity (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.38–0.93; Ptrend = 0.03) and central obesity (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.44–0.95; Ptrend = 0.04). No association was observed between different types of obesity and scores of other diet quality indices. In conclusions, considering the role of HEI-2010 in decreasing the risk of obesity, these findings suggest that HEI-2010 may be useful for assessing diet-related progress in obesity prevention efforts. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Temporal Changes of Protein Composition in Breast Milk of Chinese Urban Mothers and Impact of Caesarean Section Delivery
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080504 - 17 Aug 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2254
Abstract
Human breast milk (BM) protein composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present study aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BM major proteins over lactation stages and the impact of mode of delivery on immune [...] Read more.
Human breast milk (BM) protein composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present study aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BM major proteins over lactation stages and the impact of mode of delivery on immune factors, in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. 450 BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities, covering 8 months of lactation were analyzed for α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, serum albumin, total caseins, immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM and IgG) and transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 and β2 content by microfluidic chip- or ELISA-based quantitative methods. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, IgA, IgM and TGF-β1 contents followed similar variations characterized by highest concentrations in early lactation that rapidly decreased before remaining stable up to end of lactation. TGF-β2 content displayed same early dynamics before increasing again. Total caseins followed a different pattern, showing initial increase before decreasing back to starting values. Serum albumin and IgG levels appeared stable throughout lactation. In conclusion, BM content in major proteins of urban mothers in China was comparable with previous studies carried out in other parts of the world and C-section delivery had only very limited impact on BM immune factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Intakes and Patterns of Cooked Oatmeal Consumption in the U.S. Using Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080503 - 17 Aug 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1646
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to characterize the consumption of cooked oatmeal in the United States (U.S.) and to determine whether oatmeal consumption is associated with body mass index (BMI). To estimate current intakes of cooked oatmeal in the various age [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to characterize the consumption of cooked oatmeal in the United States (U.S.) and to determine whether oatmeal consumption is associated with body mass index (BMI). To estimate current intakes of cooked oatmeal in the various age and gender population groups, we used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2009–2010 and 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). We also used dietary intake data from Day 1 of the U.S. 2003–2012 NHANES to assess associations between intakes of cooked oatmeal (in g/kg body weight) and NHANES cycle (2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, 2009–2010, 2011–2012), age category (3–11 years, 12–18 years, 19–44 years, 45 years+), gender, and BMI classification (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese), using a multiple linear regression model. A consumer of oatmeal was defined as any individual who reported the consumption of any amount of oatmeal on Day 1 of the survey. Approximately 6% of the total population consumed oatmeal, with an average intake of 238 g/day of cooked oatmeal among consumers. The greatest prevalence of oatmeal consumption was in infants (14.3%) and older female adults (11.1%). Amongst oatmeal consumers, underweight, normal weight, and overweight individuals consumed significantly more oatmeal than obese individuals. Oatmeal was consumed almost exclusively at breakfast and, among consumers, contributed an average of 54.3% of the energy consumed at breakfast across all age groups examined. The association between oatmeal consumption and BMI is interesting and requires confirmation in future clinical studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Partial Enteral Nutrition Mitigated Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Damage of Rat Small Intestinal Barrier
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080502 - 17 Aug 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2042
Abstract
Background and Aims: This study was designed to investigate a relatively optimum dose of partial enteral nutrition (PEN) which effectively attenuates intestinal barrier dysfunction initiated by ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Methods: In experiment 1, 60 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to [...] Read more.
Background and Aims: This study was designed to investigate a relatively optimum dose of partial enteral nutrition (PEN) which effectively attenuates intestinal barrier dysfunction initiated by ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Methods: In experiment 1, 60 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to intestinal IRI and assigned to six groups according to the different proportion of EN administrations: namely total parenteral nutrition (TPN or 0%EN), 10%EN, 20%EN, 40%EN, 60%EN, and total enteral nutrition (TEN or 100%) groups, the deficits of intraluminal calorie were supplemented by PN. In experiment 2, 50 male SD rats were subjected to intestinal IRI and divided into five groups based on the results of experiment 1: TPN, TEN, 20%EN, TPN plus pretreatment with NF-κB antagonist 30 min before IRI (TPN+PDTC), and TPN plus pretreatment with HIF-1α antagonist 30 min before IRI (TPN+YC-1) groups. Results: In experiment 1, previous IRI combined with subsequent EN shortage disrupted the structure of intestinal epithelial cell and tight junctions (TJs). While 20% dose of EN had an obviously protective effect on these detrimental consequences. In experiment 2, compared with TPN only, 20%EN exerted a significant protection of barrier function of intestinal epithelium. Analogous results were observed when TPN combined with specific NF-κB/HIF-1α inhibitors (PDTC and YC-1). Meanwhile, the expression of NF-κB/HIF-1α had a similar trend among the groups. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that 20%EN is the minimally effective dosage of EN which promotes the recovery of intestinal barrier function after IRI in a rat model. Furthermore, we discreetly speculate that this benefit is, at least partly, related to NF-κB/HIF-1α pathway expression. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Salivary IgA Flow Rate Is Increased by High Concentrations of Short-Chain Fatty Acids in the Cecum of Rats Ingesting Fructooligosaccharides
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080500 - 17 Aug 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2204
Abstract
Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) serves as a major effector in mucosal immunity by preventing submucosal invasion of pathogens. However, the mechanism by which consumption of fermentable fibers increases IgA in saliva was not fully elucidated. This study investigated the effects of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) [...] Read more.
Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) serves as a major effector in mucosal immunity by preventing submucosal invasion of pathogens. However, the mechanism by which consumption of fermentable fibers increases IgA in saliva was not fully elucidated. This study investigated the effects of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) intake and time after feeding on IgA levels in the saliva and cecal digesta and on the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the cecum in rats. Five-week-old rats were fed a fiber-free diet or a diet with 50 g/kg FOS for zero, one, four, and eight weeks. Ingestion of FOS at one and eight weeks led to a higher IgA flow rate of saliva per weight of submandibular gland tissue (p < 0.05), which positively correlated with the concentration of SCFA in the cecal digesta (rs = 0.86, p = 0.0006, n = 12), but showed no correlation with the concentration of IgA in the cecal digesta (rs = 0.15, p = 0.3, n = 48). These results suggested that ingestion of FOS increased salivary IgA secretion through high levels of SCFA in the large intestine, which was produced by fermentation of FOS. Thus, continuously ingesting FOS for more than one week could increase secretion of salivary IgA. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Comparison by Milk Feeding Method of the Nutrient Intake of a Cohort of Australian Toddlers
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080501 - 16 Aug 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2051
Abstract
Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a [...] Read more.
Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a birth cohort study in Adelaide, Australia. Dietary intake data were collected when children were approximately 1 year of age by an interviewer-administered multi-pass 24 h recall and a mother-completed 2 days food diary. Children were categorized according to their milk feeding method, i.e., breastmilk, infant formula, combination or other, and their nutrient intakes compared with recommended nutrient reference values. Complete data were available for 832 children, of which 714 had plausible energy intakes. Breastmilk and formula made a substantial contribution to the nutrient intake of those toddlers, contributing 28% and 34% of total energy, and 16% and 26% of protein intake, respectively when not drunk in combination. In general, Australian toddlers transitioning to the family diet consumed nutritionally adequate diets, although almost one quarter of all children and half of breastfed children with plausible intakes had iron intakes below the estimated average requirement, placing them at risk of iron deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommentary
Is Cancer Cachexia Attributed to Impairments in Basal or Postprandial Muscle Protein Metabolism?
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080499 - 16 Aug 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2780
Abstract
Cachexia is a significant clinical problem associated with very poor quality of life, reduced treatment tolerance and outcomes, and a high mortality rate. Mechanistically, any sizeable loss of skeletal muscle mass must be underpinned by a structural imbalance between muscle protein synthesis and [...] Read more.
Cachexia is a significant clinical problem associated with very poor quality of life, reduced treatment tolerance and outcomes, and a high mortality rate. Mechanistically, any sizeable loss of skeletal muscle mass must be underpinned by a structural imbalance between muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates. Recent data indicate that the loss of muscle mass with aging is, at least partly, attributed to a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to protein feeding. Whether such anabolic resistance is also evident in conditions where cachexia is present remains to be addressed. Only few data are available on muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates in vivo in cachectic cancer patients. When calculating the theoretical changes in basal or postprandial fractional muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates that would be required to lose 5% of body weight within a six-month period, we can define the changes that would need to occur to explain the muscle mass loss observed in cachectic patients. If changes in both post-absorptive and postprandial muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates contribute to the loss of muscle mass, it would take alterations as small as 1%–2% to induce a more than 5% decline in body weight. Therefore, when trying to define impairments in basal and/or postprandial muscle protein synthesis or breakdown rates using contemporary stable isotope methodology in cancer cachexia, we need to select large homogenous groups of cancer patients (>40 patients) to allow us to measure physiological and clinically relevant differences in muscle protein synthesis and/or breakdown rates. Insight into impairments in basal or postprandial muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates in cancer cachexia is needed to design more targeted nutritional, pharmaceutical and/or physical activity interventions to preserve skeletal muscle mass and, as such, to reduce the risk of complications, improve quality of life, and lower mortality rates during the various stages of the disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080493 - 15 Aug 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2278
Abstract
Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate [...] Read more.
Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these findings, additional investigations or trials with a large sample and the tracking of folate status throughout pregnancy are recommended. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of High Fat Dietary Intake during Maternal Gestation on Offspring Ovarian Health in a Pig Model
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080498 - 13 Aug 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2204
Abstract
Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest a high fat diet. We therefore determined the association of a maternal high fat diet in pregnancy with offspring ovarian health during the gestation and postnatal female offspring [...] Read more.
Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest a high fat diet. We therefore determined the association of a maternal high fat diet in pregnancy with offspring ovarian health during the gestation and postnatal female offspring in pig a model. Thirty-two Yorkshire gilts with similar bodyweights mated at the third estrus were randomly assigned to two nutrition levels of either a control (CON, crude fat: 7.27%) or a high fat diet (HFD, crude fat: 11.78%). Ovary samples were collected during the fetal (Day 55 (g55) and Day 90 of gestation (g90)) and offspring (prepuberty Day 160 (d160) and age at puberty) period to detect ovary development, antioxidant status and apoptosis cells. Maternal HFD did not influence notch signaling gene expression, which regulates primordial follicle formation and transformation, and ovarian histological effect at g55 and g90. However, maternal HFD reduced the numbers of large follicles at d160 and small follicle numbers upon puberty compared to CON in offspring. The results also revealed that the antioxidant index of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), cytoplasmic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and mRNA expression were higher in the CON than the HFD at g90 and d160, whereas, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was decreased in the CON. Maternal HFD increased the inhibitor of the apoptosis-related gene of B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl2) mRNA expression at g90 and d160, whereas, pro-apoptotic-related gene bcl-2 assaciated X protein (bax) was reduced. These data show that the maternal high fat diet does not delay fetal ovarian development, but it changes ovarian health by the induction of oxidative stress and accelerating cell apoptosis in offspring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Associations of Serum Manganese Levels with Prediabetes and Diabetes among ≥60-Year-Old Chinese Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Analysis
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080497 - 13 Aug 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
Older adults can experience glucose metabolism dysfunction, and although manganese may help regulate glucose metabolism, there is little information regarding this association among older people. This cross-sectional study included 2402 Chinese adults who were ≥60 years old in 2013 (Tianjin, China), and evaluated [...] Read more.
Older adults can experience glucose metabolism dysfunction, and although manganese may help regulate glucose metabolism, there is little information regarding this association among older people. This cross-sectional study included 2402 Chinese adults who were ≥60 years old in 2013 (Tianjin, China), and evaluated the associations of serum manganese with prediabetes and diabetes. Serum manganese levels were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the sex-specific associations of manganese levels with diabetes and prediabetes after adjusting for confounding factors (age, sex, life style factors, and health status). Based on the WHO criteria, prediabetes was observed in 15.1% of men and 13.4% of women, while diabetes was observed in 30.0% of men and 34.4% of women. In the final model, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for prediabetes according to manganese quartile were 1.000, 0.463 (0.269–0.798), 0.639 (0.383–1.065), and 0.614 (0.365–1.031) among men and 1.000, 0.773 (0.498–1.200), 0.602 (0.382–0.947), and 0.603 (0.381–0.953) among women (p for trend = 0.134 and 0.015, respectively). The lowest prevalence of diabetes among men occurred at a moderate range of serum manganese (p < 0.05). Therefore, appropriate serum manganese levels may help prevent and control prediabetes and diabetes. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Dietary Intake and Sources of Potassium and the Relationship to Dietary Sodium in a Sample of Australian Pre-School Children
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080496 - 13 Aug 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2146
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the intake and food sources of potassium and the molar sodium:potassium (Na:K) ratio in a sample of Australian pre-school children. Mothers provided dietary recalls of their 3.5 years old children (previous participants of Melbourne Infant [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the intake and food sources of potassium and the molar sodium:potassium (Na:K) ratio in a sample of Australian pre-school children. Mothers provided dietary recalls of their 3.5 years old children (previous participants of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial). The average daily potassium intake, the contribution of food groups to daily potassium intake, the Na:K ratio, and daily serves of fruit, dairy, and vegetables, were assessed via three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The sample included 251 Australian children (125 male), mean age 3.5 (0.19) (SD) years. Mean potassium intake was 1618 (267) mg/day, the Na:K ratio was 1.47 (0.5) and 54% of children did not meet the Australian recommended adequate intake (AI) of 2000 mg/day for potassium. Main food sources of potassium were milk (27%), fruit (19%), and vegetable (14%) products/dishes. Food groups with the highest Na:K ratio were processed meats (7.8), white bread/rolls (6.0), and savoury sauces and condiments (5.4). Children had a mean intake of 1.4 (0.75) serves of fruit, 1.4 (0.72) dairy, and 0.52 (0.32) serves of vegetables per day. The majority of children had potassium intakes below the recommended AI. The Na:K ratio exceeded the recommended level of 1 and the average intake of vegetables was 2 serves/day below the recommended 2.5 serves/day and only 20% of recommended intake. An increase in vegetable consumption in pre-school children is recommended to increase dietary potassium and has the potential to decrease the Na:K ratio which is likely to have long-term health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potassium and Human Health)
Open AccessReview
Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080495 - 12 Aug 2016
Cited by 65 | Viewed by 6555
Abstract
Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, [...] Read more.
Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Iron Fortification of Foods for Infants and Children in Low-Income Countries: Effects on the Gut Microbiome, Gut Inflammation, and Diarrhea
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080494 - 12 Aug 2016
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3008
Abstract
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is common among infants and children in Sub-Saharan Africa and is a leading contributor to the global burden of disease, as well as a hindrance to national development. In-home iron fortification of complementary foods using micronutrient powders (MNPs) effectively [...] Read more.
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is common among infants and children in Sub-Saharan Africa and is a leading contributor to the global burden of disease, as well as a hindrance to national development. In-home iron fortification of complementary foods using micronutrient powders (MNPs) effectively reduces the risk for IDA by ensuring that the iron needs of infants and young children are met without changing their traditional diet. However, the iron dose delivered by MNPs is high, and comparable on a mg iron per kg body weight to the supplemental doses (2 mg/kg) typically given to older children, which increases diarrhea risk. In controlled studies, iron-containing MNPs modestly increase risk for diarrhea in infants; in some cases, the diarrhea is severe and may require hospitalization. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies provide insights into the mechanism of this effect. Provision of iron fortificants to school-age children and iron-containing MNPs to weaning infants decreases the number of beneficial ‘barrier’ commensal gut bacteria (e.g., bifidobacteria), increases the enterobacteria to bifidobacteria ratio and abundances of opportunistic pathogens (e.g., pathogenic Escherichia coli), and induces gut inflammation. Thus, although iron-containing MNPs are highly effective in reducing IDA, they may increase gastrointestinal morbidity in infants, and safer formulations are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fortification to Combat Micronutrient Deficiencies)
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Open AccessReview
Protein Requirements during Aging
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080492 - 11 Aug 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4917
Abstract
Protein recommendations for elderly, both men and women, are based on nitrogen balance studies. They are set at 0.66 and 0.8 g/kg/day as the estimated average requirement (EAR) and recommended dietary allowance (RDA), respectively, similar to young adults. This recommendation is based on [...] Read more.
Protein recommendations for elderly, both men and women, are based on nitrogen balance studies. They are set at 0.66 and 0.8 g/kg/day as the estimated average requirement (EAR) and recommended dietary allowance (RDA), respectively, similar to young adults. This recommendation is based on single linear regression of available nitrogen balance data obtained at test protein intakes close to or below zero balance. Using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method, we estimated the protein requirement in young adults and in both elderly men and women to be 0.9 and 1.2 g/kg/day as the EAR and RDA, respectively. This suggests that there is no difference in requirement on a gender basis or on a per kg body weight basis between younger and older adults. The requirement estimates however are ~40% higher than the current protein recommendations on a body weight basis. They are also 40% higher than our estimates in young men when calculated on the basis of fat free mass. Thus, current recommendations may need to be re-assessed. Potential rationale for this difference includes a decreased sensitivity to dietary amino acids and increased insulin resistance in the elderly compared with younger individuals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improvement of Triglyceride Levels through the Intake of Enriched-β-Conglycinin Soybean (Nanahomare) Revealed in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080491 - 11 Aug 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1864
Abstract
Soybean is recognized as a beneficial food with various functional components, such as β-conglycinin, which improves lipid metabolism. We evaluated the effects of the β-conglycinin-rich soybean Nanahomare on triglyceride (TG) levels. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we divided 134 adult subjects into [...] Read more.
Soybean is recognized as a beneficial food with various functional components, such as β-conglycinin, which improves lipid metabolism. We evaluated the effects of the β-conglycinin-rich soybean Nanahomare on triglyceride (TG) levels. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we divided 134 adult subjects into test and placebo groups that consumed processed food containing enriched-β-conglycinin soybean or low-β-conglycinin soybean. Hematological tests and body composition measurements were performed at weeks 0 (baseline), 4, 8, and 12 of the study period. TG levels significantly decreased in the test group compared with the placebo group at weeks 4 (change from baseline to week 4, placebo: 0.27 ± 44.13 mg/dL, test: −20.31 ± 43.74 mg/dL, p = 0.035) and 12 (change from baseline to week 12, placebo: −0.14 ± 65.83 mg/dL, test: −21.30 ± 46.21 mg/dL, p = 0.041). In addition, among subjects whose baseline TG levels were ≥100 mg/dL, the levels significantly improved in the test group at weeks 4 (p = 0.010) and 12 (p = 0.030), whereas the levels were not different between the test and placebo groups among those whose baseline levels were <100 mg/dL. These results suggest that the ingestion of enriched-β-conglycinin soybean improves serum TG levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Soybean and other Grain Legumes)
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Open AccessArticle
Breakfast Macronutrient Composition Influences Thermic Effect of Feeding and Fat Oxidation in Young Women Who Habitually Skip Breakfast
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080490 - 10 Aug 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2818
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine if breakfast macronutrient composition improved thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and appetite after a one-week adaptation in young women who habitually skip breakfast. A randomized, controlled study was conducted in females (24.1 ± 2 years), [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to determine if breakfast macronutrient composition improved thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and appetite after a one-week adaptation in young women who habitually skip breakfast. A randomized, controlled study was conducted in females (24.1 ± 2 years), who skip breakfast (≥5 times/week). Participants were placed into one of three groups for eight days (n = 8 per group): breakfast skipping (SKP; no breakfast), carbohydrate (CHO; 351 kcal; 59 g CHO, 10 g PRO, 8 g fat) or protein (PRO; 350 kcal; 39 g CHO, 30 g PRO, 8 g fat). On days 1 (D1) and 8 (D8), TEF, substrate oxidation, appetite and blood glucose were measured. PRO had higher (p < 0.05) TEF compared to SKP and CHO on D1 and D8, with PRO having 29% higher TEF than CHO on D8. On D1, PRO had 30.6% higher fat oxidation than CHO and on D8, PRO had 40.6% higher fat oxidation than CHO. SKP had higher (p < 0.05) fat oxidation on D1 and D8 compared to PRO and CHO. There was an interaction (p < 0.0001) of time and breakfast on appetite response. In addition, CHO had a significant increase (p < 0.05) in PP hunger response on D8 vs. D1. CHO and PRO had similar PP (postprandial) glucose responses on D1 and D8. Consumption of PRO breakfast for 8 days increased TEF compared to CHO and SKP, while consumption of CHO for one week increased PP hunger response. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Accuracy of Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) during Continuous and High-Intensity Interval Exercise in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080489 - 10 Aug 2016
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2726
Abstract
Continuous exercise (CON) and high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) can be safely performed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Additionally, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems may serve as a tool to reduce the risk of exercise-induced hypoglycemia. It is unclear if CGM is accurate [...] Read more.
Continuous exercise (CON) and high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) can be safely performed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Additionally, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems may serve as a tool to reduce the risk of exercise-induced hypoglycemia. It is unclear if CGM is accurate during CON and HIIE at different mean workloads. Seven T1DM patients performed CON and HIIE at 5% below (L) and above (M) the first lactate turn point (LTP1), and 5% below the second lactate turn point (LTP2) (H) on a cycle ergometer. Glucose was measured via CGM and in capillary blood (BG). Differences were found in comparison of CGM vs. BG in three out of the six tests (p < 0.05). In CON, bias and levels of agreement for L, M, and H were found at: 0.85 (−3.44, 5.15) mmol·L−1, −0.45 (−3.95, 3.05) mmol·L−1, −0.31 (−8.83, 8.20) mmol·L−1 and at 1.17 (−2.06, 4.40) mmol·L−1, 0.11 (−5.79, 6.01) mmol·L−1, 1.48 (−2.60, 5.57) mmol·L−1 in HIIE for the same intensities. Clinically-acceptable results (except for CON H) were found. CGM estimated BG to be clinically acceptable, except for CON H. Additionally, using CGM may increase avoidance of exercise-induced hypoglycemia, but usual BG control should be performed during intense exercise. Full article
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