Next Article in Journal
The Salivary IgA Flow Rate Is Increased by High Concentrations of Short-Chain Fatty Acids in the Cecum of Rats Ingesting Fructooligosaccharides
Next Article in Special Issue
Temporal Changes of Protein Composition in Breast Milk of Chinese Urban Mothers and Impact of Caesarean Section Delivery
Previous Article in Journal
Is Cancer Cachexia Attributed to Impairments in Basal or Postprandial Muscle Protein Metabolism?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Probiotics and Time to Achieve Full Enteral Feeding in Human Milk-Fed and Formula-Fed Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 501;

A Comparison by Milk Feeding Method of the Nutrient Intake of a Cohort of Australian Toddlers

Collaboration for Evidence, Research and Impact in Public Health (CERIPH), School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth 6102, Australia
School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth 6102, Australia
Australian Research Centre for Population Oral Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5000, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 June 2016 / Revised: 7 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 16 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1714 KB, uploaded 16 August 2016]   |  


Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a birth cohort study in Adelaide, Australia. Dietary intake data were collected when children were approximately 1 year of age by an interviewer-administered multi-pass 24 h recall and a mother-completed 2 days food diary. Children were categorized according to their milk feeding method, i.e., breastmilk, infant formula, combination or other, and their nutrient intakes compared with recommended nutrient reference values. Complete data were available for 832 children, of which 714 had plausible energy intakes. Breastmilk and formula made a substantial contribution to the nutrient intake of those toddlers, contributing 28% and 34% of total energy, and 16% and 26% of protein intake, respectively when not drunk in combination. In general, Australian toddlers transitioning to the family diet consumed nutritionally adequate diets, although almost one quarter of all children and half of breastfed children with plausible intakes had iron intakes below the estimated average requirement, placing them at risk of iron deficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutritional adequacy; diet; toddler; breastmilk; formula; iron nutritional adequacy; diet; toddler; breastmilk; formula; iron

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Scott, J.; Davey, K.; Ahwong, E.; Devenish, G.; Ha, D.; Do, L. A Comparison by Milk Feeding Method of the Nutrient Intake of a Cohort of Australian Toddlers. Nutrients 2016, 8, 501.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top