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Sustainability, Volume 12, Issue 22 (November-2 2020) – 482 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Electronic toll collection (ETC) plays an important role in preventing traffic congestion and improving environmental conditions in urban and rural areas. An attempt is made in this paper to evaluate the overall performance of a toll station when a lane is dedicated to ETC. In total, 39 scenarios considered specific traffic characteristics, variable toll booth setups and different penetration rates of the ETC tag users for cars and heavy vehicles. Results showed that when the right lane of the toll station is converted to an ETC lane, its penetration rate must be greater than 15% for private vehicles and 20% for heavy goods vehicles (HGV) to reduce traffic congestion and to improve environmental conditions. Finally, the above outcomes were confirmed through a preliminary discounted cash flow analysis. View this paper
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Article
A Prototype Plant for Oilseed Extraction: Analysis of Mass and Energy Flows
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9786; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229786 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 586
Abstract
The focus of this study is to analyze the energy flows related to cardoon oil processing based on the estimated electricity consumption. It was carried out in a prototype oilseed extraction plant located in Umbria Region, Italy. This installation consists of the following [...] Read more.
The focus of this study is to analyze the energy flows related to cardoon oil processing based on the estimated electricity consumption. It was carried out in a prototype oilseed extraction plant located in Umbria Region, Italy. This installation consists of the following processes: seed weight-storage, transportation, sifting, milling, filtering, and oil storage. Approximately 49,000 kg dry basis (DB) of cardoon seeds (Cynara cardunculus) were processed. Cardoon seeds were chosen as a feedstock due to their sustainability characteristics. Before processing, samples of raw material were analyzed in terms of moisture, oil content, impurity, density, and lower heating value. The input–output flows were measured in terms of weight and energy consumption. Its data were used to perform the mass-energy balance and estimate the efficiency of processes. About 8505 kg of filtered oil was obtained from raw material. The efficiency of the process chain was 84.42% concerning the oil content in the seeds. For the same period, the plant required a total of 17,556 MJ of electric energy from the grid for its operation. 321,507 MJ were obtained from oil and 688,875 MJ from oilcake. About 5.48% of the energy produced by oil extraction was virtually used in the process. Full article
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Article
MultiDefectNet: Multi-Class Defect Detection of Building Façade Based on Deep Convolutional Neural Network
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9785; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229785 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1085
Abstract
Defects in residential building façades affect the structural integrity of buildings and degrade external appearances. Defects in a building façade are typically managed using manpower during maintenance. This approach is time-consuming, yields subjective results, and can lead to accidents or casualties. To address [...] Read more.
Defects in residential building façades affect the structural integrity of buildings and degrade external appearances. Defects in a building façade are typically managed using manpower during maintenance. This approach is time-consuming, yields subjective results, and can lead to accidents or casualties. To address this, we propose a building façade monitoring system that utilizes an object detection method based on deep learning to efficiently manage defects by minimizing the involvement of manpower. The dataset used for training a deep-learning-based network contains actual residential building façade images. Various building designs in these raw images make it difficult to detect defects because of their various types and complex backgrounds. We employed the faster regions with convolutional neural network (Faster R-CNN) structure for more accurate defect detection in such environments, achieving an average precision (intersection over union (IoU) = 0.5) of 62.7% for all types of trained defects. As it is difficult to detect defects in a training environment, it is necessary to improve the performance of the network. However, the object detection network employed in this study yields an excellent performance in complex real-world images, indicating the possibility of developing a system that would detect defects in more types of building façades. Full article
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Article
An Exploratory Study of Consumer Food Waste Attitudes, Social Norms, Behavioral Intentions, and Restaurant Plate Waste Behaviors in Taiwan
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9784; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229784 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 961
Abstract
The rising trend of people dining out has made food waste in restaurants become a significant issue because of sustainability. Consumers’ attitudes toward food waste in restaurants are still undergoing scrutiny. The main purpose of this study was to test the relationships among [...] Read more.
The rising trend of people dining out has made food waste in restaurants become a significant issue because of sustainability. Consumers’ attitudes toward food waste in restaurants are still undergoing scrutiny. The main purpose of this study was to test the relationships among consumers’ attitudes, social norms, behavioral intentions, and plate waste behaviors in restaurants in Taiwan. This paper contributes to the understanding of consumers’ food waste behaviors by examining a hypothesized research model. Based on a questionnaire with 464 restaurant customers, the hypothesized research model was examined by using structural equation modeling. Sequential mediation for examining the relationships of variables was conducted, and it was found that there was a significant serial mediation effect on the path of consumers’ attitudes, behavioral intentions, food waste behavior, and consumer plate waste. The results of this study can contribute to better engaging consumers in mitigating food waste in restaurants. Implications and suggestions for further research and recommendations for restaurant managers are provided based on sustainable management. Full article
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Article
Measurement and Verification of Zero Energy Settlements: Lessons Learned from Four Pilot Cases in Europe
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9783; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229783 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
Measurement and verification (M&V) has become necessary for ensuring intended design performance. Currently, M&V procedures and calculation methods exist for the assessment of Energy Conservation Measures (ECM) for existing buildings, with a focus on reliable baseline model creation and savings estimation, as well [...] Read more.
Measurement and verification (M&V) has become necessary for ensuring intended design performance. Currently, M&V procedures and calculation methods exist for the assessment of Energy Conservation Measures (ECM) for existing buildings, with a focus on reliable baseline model creation and savings estimation, as well as for reducing the computation time, uncertainties, and M&V costs. There is limited application of rigorous M&V procedures in the design, delivery and operation of low/zero energy dwellings and settlements. In the present paper, M&V for four pilot net-zero energy settlements has been designed and implemented. The M&V has been planned, incorporating guidance from existing protocols, linked to the project development phases, and populated with lessons learned through implementation. The resulting framework demonstrates that M&V is not strictly linked to the operational phase of a project but is rather an integral part of the project management and development. Under this scope, M&V is an integrated, iterative process that is accompanied by quality control in every step. Quality control is a significant component of the M&V, and the proposed quality control procedures can support the preparation and implementation of automated M&V. The proposed framework can be useful to project managers for integrating M&V into the project management and development process and explicitly aligning it with the rest of the design and construction procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Smart Cities: Zero Energy Buildings)
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Article
Soil Organic Carbon and Labile Carbon Pools Attributed by Tillage, Crop Residue and Crop Rotation Management in Sweet Sorghum Cropping System
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9782; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229782 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 634
Abstract
Labile organic carbon (LOC) fractions are considered as sensitive indicators of change in soil quality and can serve as proxies for soil organic carbon (SOC). Although the impact of tillage, crop rotation and crop residue management on soil quality is well known, less [...] Read more.
Labile organic carbon (LOC) fractions are considered as sensitive indicators of change in soil quality and can serve as proxies for soil organic carbon (SOC). Although the impact of tillage, crop rotation and crop residue management on soil quality is well known, less is known about LOC and SOC dynamics in the sweet sorghum production systems in South Africa. This short-term study tested two tillage levels: no-till and conventional-tillage, two crop rotations: sweet-sorghum/winter grazing vetch/sweet sorghum and sweet-sorghum/winter fallow/sweet sorghum rotations and three crop residue retention levels: 30%, 15% and 0%. Tillage was the main factor to influence SOC and LOC fractions under the sweet sorghum cropping system in South Africa. NT increased SOC and all LOC fractions compared to CT, which concurs with previous findings. Cold water extractable organic carbon (CWEOC) and hot water extractable organic carbon (HWEOC) were found to be more sensitive to tillage and strongly positively correlated to SOC. An increase in residue retention led to an increase in microbial biomass carbon (MBC). This study concludes that CWEOC and HWEOC can serve as sensitive early indicators of change in soil quality and are an ideal proxy for SOC in the sweet-sorghum cropping system in South Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Soil Health Management)
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Article
A New Mindset for Circular Economy Strategies: Case Studies of Circularity in the Use of Water
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9781; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229781 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 792
Abstract
In a circular economy (CE) environment, it is important to make good and efficient use of resources and consider that the waste generated in production processes can be a valuable resource. However, the tools and methodologies conventionally used to analyze and evaluate production [...] Read more.
In a circular economy (CE) environment, it is important to make good and efficient use of resources and consider that the waste generated in production processes can be a valuable resource. However, the tools and methodologies conventionally used to analyze and evaluate production systems are based on techniques focused on linear production management models, where the primary purpose is to reduce the treatment and management of waste as much as possible and where productive and environmental efficiency are not evaluated simultaneously. Changing the paradigm from a linear to a circular economy requires that a new strategy for production systems be defined, one that makes production processes simultaneously circular and efficient (in terms of quality and productivity). In this context, a holistic vision is needed when implementing CE strategies. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to provide evidence, through two real case studies in the use of water, that the management of this resource without considering systemic thinking may not be the most circular solution. Main results showed that improvements based on the traditional approach of reducing resource use cannot provide the best results if they are supported only by current process consumption without considering the circularity of resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ensuring Sustainability towards the 2030 Mission)
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Article
The Perspective of E-Business Sustainability and Website Accessibility of Online Stores
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9780; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229780 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1566
Abstract
E-commerce’s latest trends, highlighted by the global phenomena of the COVID-19 pandemic, explicitly show substantial changes in the online consumers’ behavior as well. More and more specialists are talking about the emergence of a new paradigm in consumption, and of possible evolutions toward [...] Read more.
E-commerce’s latest trends, highlighted by the global phenomena of the COVID-19 pandemic, explicitly show substantial changes in the online consumers’ behavior as well. More and more specialists are talking about the emergence of a new paradigm in consumption, and of possible evolutions toward sustainable consumption. The purpose of this research is to investigate how the antecedents of e-loyalty have changed their effect on consumer attitudes and perceptions of e-commerce sites. The results, obtained through a structural model of 523 validated questionnaires of Romanian consumers of electronic and household appliances, show the importance of the effect of website accessibility, a factor that, until recently, exerted an influence mediated by other elements grouped either under the umbrella of site quality or site design. The model validated after the analysis shows the direct effect of the accessibility of the websites on e-loyalty, satisfaction and trust of the consumers. Based on the results, the value of this study lies in the fact that it presents arguments on how the boost of e-commerce systems leads to sales processes’ sustainability improvement and, to the same extent, the improvement of the ways for reporting sustainability using IT tools (online databases with customers, software integrated into e-commerce platforms, electronic financial management). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue E-business - The Perspective of Systems Thinking and Sustainability)
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Article
Influence of Characteristics of Metropolitan Areas on the Logistics Sprawl: A Case Study for Metropolitan Areas of the State of Paraná (Brazil)
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9779; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229779 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 654
Abstract
The concentration of warehouses in peripheral regions of metropolitan areas in a time period is called logistics sprawl (LS). Identifying this phenomenon could help to reduce externalities related to urban freight transport, mainly, the distance traveled. This paper examines the contribution of the [...] Read more.
The concentration of warehouses in peripheral regions of metropolitan areas in a time period is called logistics sprawl (LS). Identifying this phenomenon could help to reduce externalities related to urban freight transport, mainly, the distance traveled. This paper examines the contribution of the characteristics of metropolitan areas on the logistics sprawl indicator. A case study was carried out considering data from eight metropolitan areas of the state of Paraná (Brazil). The research method is based on the data collection procedure proposed, centrographic method, and linear regression. The results of the centrographic method reveal a positive LS in four metropolitan areas and a negative LS in three metropolitan areas. In general, the warehouses are close to the highways that cross the metropolitan area. In addition, the size of the metropolitan area has a negative relationship with the number of warehouses and the logistics sprawl indicator. The findings highlight the importance of public policies relating to urban freight transport and land use at a metropolitan level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green City Logistics)
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Article
Investigating the Complexity of Spatial Interactions between Different Administrative Units in China Using Flickr Data
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9778; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229778 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 639
Abstract
Location-based social media have facilitated us to bridge the gap between virtual and physical worlds through the exploration of human online dynamics from a geographic perspective. This study uses a large collection of geotagged photos from Flickr to investigate the complexity of spatial [...] Read more.
Location-based social media have facilitated us to bridge the gap between virtual and physical worlds through the exploration of human online dynamics from a geographic perspective. This study uses a large collection of geotagged photos from Flickr to investigate the complexity of spatial interactions at the country level. We adopted three levels of administrative divisions in mainland China—province, city, and county—as basic geographic units and established three types of topology—province–province network, city–city network, and county–county network—from the extracted user movement trajectories. We conducted the scaling analysis based on heavy-tailed distribution statistics including power law exponents, goodness of fit index, and ht-index, by which we characterized a great complexity of the trajectory lengths, spatial distribution of geotagged photos, and the related metrics of built networks. The great complexity indicates the highly imbalanced ratio of populated-to-unpopulated areas or large-to-small flows between areas. More interestingly, all power law exponents were around 2 for the networks at various spatial and temporal scales. Such a recurrence of scaling statistics at multiple resolutions can be regarded a statistical self-similarity and could thus help us to reveal the fractal nature of human mobility patterns. Full article
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Article
Citizen Scientists Showed a Four-Fold Increase of Lynx Numbers in Lithuania
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9777; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229777 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 574
Abstract
By the early 2000s, Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) were nearly extirpated in Lithuania. To determine their status, we used snow-track counts in 2006–2012 and volunteer monitoring in 1999–2005 and 2015–2018. Using simple questionnaires, we collected incidental observations from hunters, foresters, and [...] Read more.
By the early 2000s, Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) were nearly extirpated in Lithuania. To determine their status, we used snow-track counts in 2006–2012 and volunteer monitoring in 1999–2005 and 2015–2018. Using simple questionnaires, we collected incidental observations from hunters, foresters, and other interested citizens to estimate lynx distribution, abundance and extent of breeding. Citizen scientists provided 206 reports of 278 individual lynx that suggested expanding lynx distributions in central, western, southwestern, and southern parts of Lithuania. A decrease in range fragmentation has also been observed since 2015. Nationwide, the lynx population quadrupled from 2010 to 162 individuals in 2018. The number of breeding individuals reported was just seven in both 2007 and 2008, limited to two forests in the very north and central part of the country. This increased to 46 in 2015–2018. Our results indicate that the lynx population in Lithuania has increased and its conservation status should be reconsidered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mammal Status: Diversity, Abundance and Dynamics)
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Article
Reflecting on Partnerships of Sustainability Learning: Enacting a Lewin–Deleuze–Guattari Rhizome
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9776; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229776 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 669
Abstract
This paper works towards the enactment of a Lewin–Deleuze–Guattari rhizome. We assemble Deleuze and Guattari’s principles of the rhizome, Lewin’s idea of re-education, and reflections on the performance of one of the authors in the lecture hall, bringing into being what could be [...] Read more.
This paper works towards the enactment of a Lewin–Deleuze–Guattari rhizome. We assemble Deleuze and Guattari’s principles of the rhizome, Lewin’s idea of re-education, and reflections on the performance of one of the authors in the lecture hall, bringing into being what could be a rhizomatic partnership approach to sustainability learning in a higher education setting. The reflections are based on experiences delivering a sustainability module within a business education context, mainly for international students in Germany. The purpose of this paper is to illuminate possibilities of student–teacher partnership assemblages, aiming to motivate sustainability change agency on “people-yet-to-come”: those who are open to enacting difference, or multifaceted, heterogeneous, and often partial transformations addressing the current plethora of contemporary crises. Full article
Article
Data-Driven Approach to Understand the Mobility Patterns of the Portuguese Population during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9775; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229775 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 emerged in late 2019. Since then, it has spread to several countries, becoming classified as a pandemic. So far, there is no definitive treatment or vaccine, so the best solution is to prevent transmission between individuals through social distancing. However, it is [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2 emerged in late 2019. Since then, it has spread to several countries, becoming classified as a pandemic. So far, there is no definitive treatment or vaccine, so the best solution is to prevent transmission between individuals through social distancing. However, it is not easy to measure the effectiveness of these distance measures. Therefore, this study uses data from Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports to understand the Portuguese population’s mobility patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, the Rt value was modeled for Portugal. In addition, the changepoint was calculated for the population mobility patterns. Thus, the mobility pattern change was used to understand the impact of social distance measures on the dissemination of COVID-19. As a result, it can be stated that the initial Rt value in Portugal was very close to 3, falling to values close to 1 after 25 days. Social isolation measures were adopted quickly. Furthermore, it was observed that public transport was avoided during the pandemic. Finally, until the emergence of a vaccine or an effective treatment, this is the new normal, and it must be understood that new patterns of mobility, social interaction, and hygiene must be adapted to this reality. Full article
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Article
Environment for Preschool Children to Learn Fundamental Motor Skills: The Role of Teaching Venue and Class Size
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9774; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229774 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 754
Abstract
The development of children’s fundamental motor skills (FMS) is shaped by the environment surrounding them. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the changes of children’s FMS after an intervention program differed between classes conducted in different schooling conditions. Participants were [...] Read more.
The development of children’s fundamental motor skills (FMS) is shaped by the environment surrounding them. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the changes of children’s FMS after an intervention program differed between classes conducted in different schooling conditions. Participants were 295 preschool children (62 boys, 133 girls; M = 5.4 years; SD = 0.28) from eight preschools in Hong Kong. Children participated in an 8-week FMS program and their FMS were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2). A linear mixed model was used to analyze the association on the changes of FMS score between children in different schooling conditions: (1) teaching venue size (large or small); and (2) class size (large, medium, or small), while accounting for the clustering of participants within preschools. The changes of object control skills were significantly different between groups with different teaching venue size (p = 0.000) (small: 5.54 (SD = 5.84) vs. large: 2.46 (SD = 6.42)) and different class size (p = 0.000) (small: 8.12 (SD = 6.34) vs. medium: 2.92 (SD = 6.26) vs. large: 4.00 (SD = 5.79)). The findings have practical implications for the teaching of FMS in that the social and physical environment in preschools should be considered for the design of FMS intervention programs. Full article
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Article
Trait Optimism and Work from Home Adjustment in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Considering the Mediating Role of Situational Optimism and the Moderating Role of Cultural Optimism
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9773; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229773 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1487
Abstract
An organization’s capacity to sustain a crisis, and to benefit from work-from-home (WFH) arrangements in routine times, is dependent on its employees’ ability to successfully adjust to WFH conditions. The COVID-19 pandemic, which forced vast numbers of employees worldwide to WFH, provides an [...] Read more.
An organization’s capacity to sustain a crisis, and to benefit from work-from-home (WFH) arrangements in routine times, is dependent on its employees’ ability to successfully adjust to WFH conditions. The COVID-19 pandemic, which forced vast numbers of employees worldwide to WFH, provides an unprecedented opportunity to identify factors that facilitate WFH adjustment. Leveraging this opportunity and drawing from theories on person-environment fit and work adjustment, we consider trait optimism as a possible facilitator of WFH adjustment during the pandemic. We further investigate how situational optimism and cultural (country-level) optimism contribute to the relationship between trait optimism and WFH adjustment. Using data from 388 employees in five countries, we find that trait optimism positively relates to WFH adjustment. This relationship is partly mediated by situational expectations regarding health/financial benefits of WFH amid the pandemic. Moreover, trait optimism is more strongly related to WFH adjustment in countries with high (vs. low) cultural optimism. This study addresses the call to investigate whether and how personality traits relate to WFH adjustment. Our findings can improve organizations’ ability to select and train employees who WFH, and to enhance operational resilience to future crises. Managers in global firms can draw from our results to understand how cultural differences affect the ease with which WFH is adopted, and to develop country-specific WFH practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Implications of Anywhere Working)
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Article
Effect of a Sustainable Air Heat Pump System on Energy Efficiency, Housing Environment, and Productivity Traits in a Pig Farm
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9772; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229772 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 722
Abstract
High electricity consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), and elevated noxious gas emission in the global livestock sector have a negative influence on environmental sustainability. This study examined the effects of a heating system using an air heat pump (AHP) on the energy [...] Read more.
High electricity consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), and elevated noxious gas emission in the global livestock sector have a negative influence on environmental sustainability. This study examined the effects of a heating system using an air heat pump (AHP) on the energy saving, housing environment, and productivity traits of pigs. During the experimental period of 16 weeks, the internal temperature was found to be higher (p < 0.05) in the AHP house than in the conventional house. Moreover, the average electricity consumption and CO2 emission decreased by approximately 40 kWh and 19.32 kg, respectively, in the AHP house compared to the house with the conventional heating system. The average NH3 and H2S emissions were significantly lower in the AHP house (p < 0.05) during the growth stages. The AHP and conventional heating systems did not have a significant influence (p > 0.05) on the average ultra-fine dust (PM2.5) and formaldehyde level fluctuations. Furthermore, both heating systems did not show a significant difference in the average growth performance of pigs (p > 0.05), but the weight gain tended to increase in the AHP house. In conclusion, the AHP system has great potential to reduce energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and noxious gas emissions by providing economic benefits and an eco-friendly renewable energy source. Full article
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Article
On the Settlement of the Floating Population in the Pearl River Delta: Understanding the Factors of Permanent Settlement Intention versus Housing Purchase Actions
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9771; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229771 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 672
Abstract
Previous investigations of the settlement intentions of China’s floating population have been undermined by an oversimplification of the concepts and measurements related to settlement intentions. More attention should be paid to influencing factors from the theoretical framework of “place utility” in new periods. [...] Read more.
Previous investigations of the settlement intentions of China’s floating population have been undermined by an oversimplification of the concepts and measurements related to settlement intentions. More attention should be paid to influencing factors from the theoretical framework of “place utility” in new periods. Based on this framework, we use a multinormal logistic regression model to explore the impact of economic, human capital, and social factors on migration intentions and housing purchase actions of the floating population in the Pearl River Delta. The results revealed that the floating population’s purchasing ability is generally lower than its willingness to settle down, and this population experiences an incomplete citizenization problem. Among the economic and human capital factors, family economic factors have become an important basis for the housing purchase actions of the floating population and may even be more important than their own economic income and education level. After the State Council implemented the “Notice of Further Promoting the Reform of the Hukou System”, the decision of whether to pass restrictions of urban hukou (household registration) acquisition threshold has played an important role in the settlement decisions of the floating population. The government should formulate settlement policies according to the characteristics of the floating population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geography and Sustainability)
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Article
Reusing Newspaper Kiosks for Last-Mile Delivery in Urban Areas
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9770; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229770 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1022
Abstract
The current increase in e-commerce is generating growing problems in urban areas in terms of both traffic flow (increasing traffic, no parking spaces) and environmental issues (noise, atmospheric pollution, etc.). In parallel, an iconic element of historic districts is disappearing: more and more [...] Read more.
The current increase in e-commerce is generating growing problems in urban areas in terms of both traffic flow (increasing traffic, no parking spaces) and environmental issues (noise, atmospheric pollution, etc.). In parallel, an iconic element of historic districts is disappearing: more and more newspaper kiosks are closing their business as their work dwindles. In this scenario, the objective of this paper is to propose a model for last-mile parcel delivery that exploits the current available newspaper kiosk network by using them as parcel lockers. To demonstrate the benefits of this proposal, we map the kiosk network of the city of Valladolid (Spain), and compare the environmental impact of a traditional (door-to-door) delivery and the proposed model which reuses old kiosks as parcel lockers. The necessary steps to carry out simulations are described in detail so that experiments can be replicated in other cities that face the same issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Re)Designing Processes for Improving Supply Chain Sustainability)
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Review
Knowledge Structures and Components of Rural Resilience in the 2010s: Conceptual Development and Implications
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9769; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229769 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Resilience is being widely adopted as a comprehensive analytical framework for understanding sustainability dynamics, despite the conceptual challenges in developing proxies and indicators for researchers and policy makers. In our study, we observed how the concept of resilience undergoes continued extension within the [...] Read more.
Resilience is being widely adopted as a comprehensive analytical framework for understanding sustainability dynamics, despite the conceptual challenges in developing proxies and indicators for researchers and policy makers. In our study, we observed how the concept of resilience undergoes continued extension within the rural resilience literature. We comprehensively reviewed rural resilience literature using keyword co-occurrence network (KCN) analysis and a systematic review of shortlisted papers. We conducted the KCN analysis for 1186 papers to characterize the state of the rural resilience literature, and systematically reviewed 36 shortlisted papers to further examine how rural resilience analysis and its assessment tools are helping understand the complexity and interdependence of rural social-ecological systems, over three three-year periods from 2010 to 2018. The results show that the knowledge structure built by the high frequency of co-occurrence keywords remains similar over the three-year periods, including climate change, resilience, vulnerability, adaptation, and management, whereas the components of knowledge have greatly expanded, indicating an increased understanding of rural system dynamics. Through the systematic review, we found that developing resilience assessment tools is often designed as a process to strengthen adaptive capacity at the household or community level in response to global processes of climate change and economic globalization. Furthermore, community resilience is found to be an interesting knowledge component that has characterized rural resilience literature in the 2010s. Based on our study, we summarized conceptual characteristics of rural resilience and discussed the challenges and implications for researchers and policy makers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Article
Do Corporate Environmental Sustainability Practices Influence Firm Value? The Role of Independent Directors: Evidence from Saudi Arabia
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9768; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229768 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 740
Abstract
Environmental sustainability has become a significant approach for firms to enhance their competitive advantage and reputation. This study examines the association between environmental sustainability disclosures and firm value, in addition to the moderating impact of independent board directors on this association. Using data [...] Read more.
Environmental sustainability has become a significant approach for firms to enhance their competitive advantage and reputation. This study examines the association between environmental sustainability disclosures and firm value, in addition to the moderating impact of independent board directors on this association. Using data from Saudi listed firms, we find that reporting environmental sustainability practices has a positive and significant impact on firm value, suggesting that enhanced responsibility and transparency in addition to improved stakeholder trust are important in promoting firm value. We also find that the influence of the reported environmental sustainability practices on firm value is strongly and positively moderated by the presence of independent directors on firms’ boards, signifying that stakeholders relate environmental reporting by firms to more independent directors providing better accountability to environmental practices. The implications of this study will be of great importance for policymakers, firm management, academia, and investors in considering the adoption and importance of firms’ environmental practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
Article
Sustainable Tourism and Facilities Preferences: The Sustainable Tourist Stay Scale (STSS) Validation
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9767; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229767 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1052
Abstract
This study aims to start the development of the Sustainable Tourist Stay Scale (STSS), a self-report instrument designed to measure tourists’ preferences regarding the degree to which they accept accommodation and programs in tourism facilities with sustainable characteristics. The research involved a total [...] Read more.
This study aims to start the development of the Sustainable Tourist Stay Scale (STSS), a self-report instrument designed to measure tourists’ preferences regarding the degree to which they accept accommodation and programs in tourism facilities with sustainable characteristics. The research involved a total sample of 621 participants aged 18 to 74 (m = 41.75%; f = 58.25%). According to the literature and the available data, we considered the possibility that young people (millennials) and adults within the same sample may show peculiarities concerning the sustainability issues. We carried out three subsequent analyses: (1) an explorative factor analysis; (2) a confirmatory factor analysis via structural equation modelling; (3) the test of the structural invariance between young people and adults. The results supported a three-factor scale solution and they are discussed with reference to their potential practical applications to better understanding the preference for a sustainable stay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Hospitality in Tourism Experiences)
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Article
Construction Project Change Management in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Status, Causes, and Impacts
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9766; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229766 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 646
Abstract
Changes in construction projects are very frequent and are expected to occur at any stage of the project. These changes modify the original scope of work and affect the project in various aspects. To minimize these effects, there is a need to implement [...] Read more.
Changes in construction projects are very frequent and are expected to occur at any stage of the project. These changes modify the original scope of work and affect the project in various aspects. To minimize these effects, there is a need to implement a systematic change management system during the construction process. This study aimed to investigate the current situation of change management implementation, identify the main causes of change management, and assess their impacts in the Congolese construction industry. A comprehensive literature review was conducted for a thorough understanding of change management, and a structured survey was conducted. The collected survey data were analyzed using the relative importance index (RII), and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) methods. The results conclude that the change management implementation situation in the Congolese construction industry is significantly high, and the project cost and the project type play a major role in the implementation of change management in the construction projects. The study further revealed that the main causes of changes were the project, contractor, materials, equipment, and other causes. These changes impact the project significantly in terms of organization, owner and contractor, project, materials, and equipment. Full article
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Article
Modeling Cross-National Differences in Automated Vehicle Acceptance
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9765; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229765 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
The technology that allows fully automated driving already exists and it may gradually enter the market over the forthcoming decades. Technology assimilation and automated vehicle acceptance in different countries is of high interest to many scholars, manufacturers, and policymakers worldwide. We model the [...] Read more.
The technology that allows fully automated driving already exists and it may gradually enter the market over the forthcoming decades. Technology assimilation and automated vehicle acceptance in different countries is of high interest to many scholars, manufacturers, and policymakers worldwide. We model the mode choice between automated vehicles and conventional cars using a mixed multinomial logit heteroskedastic error component type model. Specifically, we capture preference heterogeneity assuming a continuous distribution across individuals. Different choice scenarios, based on respondents’ reported trip, were presented to respondents from six European countries: Cyprus, Hungary, Iceland, Montenegro, Slovenia, and the UK. We found that large reservations towards automated vehicles exist in all countries with 70% conventional private car choices, and 30% automated vehicles choices. We found that men, under the age of 60, with a high income who currently use private car, are more likely to be early adopters of automated vehicles. We found significant differences in automated vehicles acceptance in different countries. Individuals from Slovenia and Cyprus show higher automated vehicles acceptance while individuals from wealthier countries, UK, and Iceland, show more reservations towards them. Nontrading mode choice behaviors, value of travel time, and differences in model parameters among the different countries are discussed. Full article
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Article
Feasibility Study for Sustainable Use of Lithium-Ion Batteries Considering Different Positive Electrode Active Materials under Various Driving Cycles by Using Cell to Electric Vehicle (EV) Simulation
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9764; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229764 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 831
Abstract
Electric vehicles have been issued to achieve sustainable mobility. Main factors to sustainable electric vehicle (EV) are that lithium-ion battery (LIB) has to maintain lower cost, lighter weight, SOC (state of charge), thermal stability, and driving ranges. In this study, nickel-cobalt-manganese (NCM), lithium [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles have been issued to achieve sustainable mobility. Main factors to sustainable electric vehicle (EV) are that lithium-ion battery (LIB) has to maintain lower cost, lighter weight, SOC (state of charge), thermal stability, and driving ranges. In this study, nickel-cobalt-manganese (NCM), lithium iron phosphate (LFP), and lithium manganese oxide (LMO), which are used as representative positive electrode materials, were applied to battery cells. Then, the battery characteristics at the system level, according to the application of different positive electrode materials, were compared and analyzed. To this end, each of the 18650 cylindrical battery cells was modeled by applying different positive electrode active materials. The battery modeling was based on a database provided by GT(Gamma Technologies)-AutoLion. To analyze the thermal stability and capacity loss according to the temperature of the battery cell by applying different C-rate discharge and temperature conditions for each positive electrode active material, an electrochemical-based zero-dimensional (0D) analysis was performed. A test was also performed to determine the model feasibility by using a MACCOR 4300 battery charger/discharger. Moreover, a lumped battery pack modeling was performed to extend the modeled battery cell to an EV battery pack. By combining the pack and one-dimensional (1D) EV models, various driving cycles were described to investigate the battery performance at the vehicle level. It was found that the 0D electrochemistry-coupled 1D vehicle model could well predict the feasible tendencies considering various positive electrode materials of the LIB battery cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Transportation)
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Article
Assessing Collaborative Capabilities for Sustainability in Interorganizational Networks
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9763; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229763 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 611
Abstract
Sustainability in interorganizational networks depends on developing collaborative capabilities for this purpose. However, to improve their collaborative capabilities for sustainability (CCS), companies in interorganizational networks need methods to assess them. The existing CCS assessment approaches in the literature do not indicate what capabilities [...] Read more.
Sustainability in interorganizational networks depends on developing collaborative capabilities for this purpose. However, to improve their collaborative capabilities for sustainability (CCS), companies in interorganizational networks need methods to assess them. The existing CCS assessment approaches in the literature do not indicate what capabilities should be improved in an individual company to support collaborative strategies. Addressing this gap, the main contribution of this paper is providing a framework to assess CCS in interorganizational networks, providing support for improving firm-level capabilities. To attain this aim, the framework was based on the graph-theoretic approach (GTA), a multi-attribute technique that captures the interrelationships between elements of a system, providing multi-level and overall assessment. We tested the framework in three hotels from a tourism cluster in Brazil, where sustainability has been an unsettling issue. By applying the assessment framework, it was possible to generate a CCS index for each company and, thereby, to compare the results. Findings from the field confirmed the benefits of using the framework and its utility in assessing CCS and setting priorities for improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
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Article
Implications of Network Diversity for Venture Growth: The Mediation Effect of Entrepreneurial Alertness
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9762; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229762 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 556
Abstract
This paper extends the conventional wisdom of social networks and entrepreneurship by clarifying the relationship between network diversity and venture growth as well as by studying the mediation effect of entrepreneurial alertness on network diversity. It highlights the importance of diverse networks for [...] Read more.
This paper extends the conventional wisdom of social networks and entrepreneurship by clarifying the relationship between network diversity and venture growth as well as by studying the mediation effect of entrepreneurial alertness on network diversity. It highlights the importance of diverse networks for providing heterogeneous information and resources, which is the antecedent of entrepreneurial alertness. In this paper, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data from 44 countries are used in our analysis, considering the country’s impact. Overall, we concluded that network diversity can significantly predict entrepreneurial alertness, and a venture’s growth. Furthermore, an entrepreneur’s educational level and entrepreneurial experience have positive moderating effects on the relationship between network diversity and entrepreneurial alertness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Management)
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Article
Sustainability in Mineral Exploration—Exploring Less Invasive Technologies via Patent Analysis
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9761; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229761 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1047
Abstract
This paper presents a bibliometric study on patents and scientific publications related to airborne electromagnetic methods used as less invasive technologies in mineral exploration. A statistical analysis of the documents reveals the main players, technology trends, and collaboration patterns via bibliometric techniques. The [...] Read more.
This paper presents a bibliometric study on patents and scientific publications related to airborne electromagnetic methods used as less invasive technologies in mineral exploration. A statistical analysis of the documents reveals the main players, technology trends, and collaboration patterns via bibliometric techniques. The article aims to analyse the gap between the model of sustainable less invasive innovations and the concrete implementation of the technology pull. Special attention is paid to the enablers of sustainable development and their presence in the technology landscape for less invasive exploration technologies. Full article
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Review
Egyptian and Greek Water Cultures and Hydro-Technologies in Ancient Times
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9760; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229760 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 938
Abstract
Egyptian and Greek ancient civilizations prevailed in eastern Mediterranean since prehistoric times. The Egyptian civilization is thought to have been begun in about 3150 BC until 31 BC. For the ancient Greek civilization, it started in the period of Minoan (ca. 3200 BC) [...] Read more.
Egyptian and Greek ancient civilizations prevailed in eastern Mediterranean since prehistoric times. The Egyptian civilization is thought to have been begun in about 3150 BC until 31 BC. For the ancient Greek civilization, it started in the period of Minoan (ca. 3200 BC) up to the ending of the Hellenistic era. There are various parallels and dissimilarities between both civilizations. They co-existed during a certain timeframe (from ca. 2000 to ca. 146 BC); however, they were in two different geographic areas. Both civilizations were massive traders, subsequently, they deeply influenced the regional civilizations which have developed in that region. Various scientific and technological principles were established by both civilizations through their long histories. Water management was one of these major technologies. Accordingly, they have significantly influenced the ancient world’s hydro-technologies. In this review, a comparison of water culture issues and hydro-structures was adopted through the extended history of the ancient Egyptians and Greeks. The specific objectives of the work are to study the parallel historical cultures and hydro-technologies, assessing similarities and differences, and to analyze their progress since primitive times. The tools adopted for the research include visits to historical aeras and museums, comments, consultations, correlation and exhibitions available in the cyberspace. Review results herein showed that dams and canals were constructed in ancient Egypt to manage the flood of the Nile river and develop irrigation systems from ca. 6000 BC. In the second millennium BC, Minoans managed the flow of the streams via two dams, to protect arable land from destruction after intense rainfall and to irrigate their farms. Additional results showed that ancient Egyptians and Greeks invented many devices for lifting water for plant irrigation such as the shadouf, sakia and tympanum and pumps, of which some were already in use in Mesopotamia for irrigating small plots. The ancient Egyptians were the first who discovered the principle and the basis of coagulation (after ca. 1500 BC). They used the alum for accelerating the settlement of the particles. Additionally, the ancient Greeks developed several advanced water treatment technologies since the prehistoric times. To sum up, the study captured many similarities between two civilizations in water technologies. In addition, it confirmed the sustainability and durability of several of those hydro-technologies since they are still in use up to now in many places. Full article
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Article
Index of Satisfaction with Public Transport: A Fuzzy Clustering Approach
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9759; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229759 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 502
Abstract
Increasing public transport use is recognized by many countries as crucial to the pursuit of a global strategy for environmental sustainability and improving urban mobility. Understanding what users value in a public transport service is essential to carry out this strategy. Using fuzzy [...] Read more.
Increasing public transport use is recognized by many countries as crucial to the pursuit of a global strategy for environmental sustainability and improving urban mobility. Understanding what users value in a public transport service is essential to carry out this strategy. Using fuzzy clustering, we developed an index that measures individual user satisfaction with the public transport service in the metropolitan area of Lisbon and subsequently identified the possible determinants of satisfaction by means of a regression tree model. The results achieved unveil a hierarchical partition of the data, highlighting the diversified level of satisfaction among public transport users that is reflected in the distribution of the index. The managerial implications of the findings for the public transport service are addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Transportation)
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Article
Integrated Evaluation of Indoor Particulate Exposure: The VIEPI Project
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9758; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229758 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 856
Abstract
Despite the progress made in recent years, reliable modeling of indoor air quality is still far from being obtained. This requires better chemical characterization of the pollutants and airflow physics included in forecasting tools, for which field observations conducted simultaneously indoors and outdoors [...] Read more.
Despite the progress made in recent years, reliable modeling of indoor air quality is still far from being obtained. This requires better chemical characterization of the pollutants and airflow physics included in forecasting tools, for which field observations conducted simultaneously indoors and outdoors are essential. The project “Integrated Evaluation of Indoor Particulate Exposure” (VIEPI) aimed at evaluating indoor air quality and exposure to particulate matter (PM) of humans in workplaces. VIEPI ran from February 2016 to December 2019 and included both numerical simulations and field campaigns carried out in universities and research environments located in urban and non-urban sites in the metropolitan area of Rome (Italy). VIEPI focused on the role played by micrometeorology and indoor airflow characteristics in determining indoor PM concentration. Short- and long-term study periods captured diurnal, weekly, and seasonal variability of airflow and PM concentration. Chemical characterization of PM10, including the determination of elements, ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and bioaerosol, was also carried out. Large differences in the composition of PM10 were detected between inside and outside as well as between different periods of the day and year. Indoor PM composition was related to the presence of people, to the season, and to the ventilation regime. Full article
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Article
Mobile Learning for Sustainable Development and Environmental Teacher Education
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9757; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229757 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 740
Abstract
Outdoor learning has, for a long time, been an important instructional resource in school education, usually embedded in the natural sciences and social sciences curricula. Teaching geography, geology, or biology beyond the traditional classroom allows students to interact with physical and social environments [...] Read more.
Outdoor learning has, for a long time, been an important instructional resource in school education, usually embedded in the natural sciences and social sciences curricula. Teaching geography, geology, or biology beyond the traditional classroom allows students to interact with physical and social environments for meaningful learning. Mobile devices that are based on geospatial technologies have provided more accurate data, but also a combined instructional design with other WebGIS, map viewers, or geographic information system (GIS) layers, which are useful to foster education for sustainable development. This paper analyzes the applications of mobile learning based on citizen science and volunteer geographic information, but also on the growing awareness that citizens and educators need a set of digital competencies to enhance and innovate lifelong learning and active citizenship. The empirical research aims to measure teacher–training experience, highlighting the potential of mobile devices and their applications in environmental education. Data collected from the research and results prove the positive impact of mobile learning in environmental education. Finally, a discussion about mobile learning and education for sustainable development is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in the Era of Mobile Learning)
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