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Modeling Cross-National Differences in Automated Vehicle Acceptance

Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3200003, Israel
Department of Transport Technology and Economics, Faculty of Transportation Engineering and Vehicle Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME), 1111 Budapest, Hungary
Infrastructure Management Consultants, 8008 Zürich, Switzerland
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Montenegro, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
Department of Engineering, School of Sciences and Engineering, University of Nicosia (UNIC), Nicosia 1700, Cyprus
ICT Department, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Department of Shipping, Trade and Transport, Business School, University of the Aegean, 82 100 Chios, Greece
Interuniversity Department of Regional and Urban Studies and Planning, Politecnico di Torino, 10125 Torino, Italy
Sorbonne Universités-Université de Technologie de Compiègne, 60200 Compiègne, France
WISE-ACT Chair and Department of Tourism and Transport, School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9765;
Received: 31 August 2020 / Revised: 15 November 2020 / Accepted: 17 November 2020 / Published: 23 November 2020
The technology that allows fully automated driving already exists and it may gradually enter the market over the forthcoming decades. Technology assimilation and automated vehicle acceptance in different countries is of high interest to many scholars, manufacturers, and policymakers worldwide. We model the mode choice between automated vehicles and conventional cars using a mixed multinomial logit heteroskedastic error component type model. Specifically, we capture preference heterogeneity assuming a continuous distribution across individuals. Different choice scenarios, based on respondents’ reported trip, were presented to respondents from six European countries: Cyprus, Hungary, Iceland, Montenegro, Slovenia, and the UK. We found that large reservations towards automated vehicles exist in all countries with 70% conventional private car choices, and 30% automated vehicles choices. We found that men, under the age of 60, with a high income who currently use private car, are more likely to be early adopters of automated vehicles. We found significant differences in automated vehicles acceptance in different countries. Individuals from Slovenia and Cyprus show higher automated vehicles acceptance while individuals from wealthier countries, UK, and Iceland, show more reservations towards them. Nontrading mode choice behaviors, value of travel time, and differences in model parameters among the different countries are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: automated vehicles; mixed logit model; panel data; discrete choice; user preferences; user acceptance; cross-national survey automated vehicles; mixed logit model; panel data; discrete choice; user preferences; user acceptance; cross-national survey
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MDPI and ACS Style

Etzioni, S.; Hamadneh, J.; Elvarsson, A.B.; Esztergár-Kiss, D.; Djukanovic, M.; Neophytou, S.N.; Sodnik, J.; Polydoropoulou, A.; Tsouros, I.; Pronello, C.; Thomopoulos, N.; Shiftan, Y. Modeling Cross-National Differences in Automated Vehicle Acceptance. Sustainability 2020, 12, 9765.

AMA Style

Etzioni S, Hamadneh J, Elvarsson AB, Esztergár-Kiss D, Djukanovic M, Neophytou SN, Sodnik J, Polydoropoulou A, Tsouros I, Pronello C, Thomopoulos N, Shiftan Y. Modeling Cross-National Differences in Automated Vehicle Acceptance. Sustainability. 2020; 12(22):9765.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Etzioni, Shelly, Jamil Hamadneh, Arnór B. Elvarsson, Domokos Esztergár-Kiss, Milena Djukanovic, Stelios N. Neophytou, Jaka Sodnik, Amalia Polydoropoulou, Ioannis Tsouros, Cristina Pronello, Nikolas Thomopoulos, and Yoram Shiftan. 2020. "Modeling Cross-National Differences in Automated Vehicle Acceptance" Sustainability 12, no. 22: 9765.

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