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Physical Education, Exercise, and Sport for a Sustainable Environment and Lifestyle

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Education and Approaches".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (26 March 2023) | Viewed by 67713

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Guest Editor
Department of Translational Biomedicine and Neuroscience (DiBraiN), University of Study of Bari, 70124 Bari, Italy
Interests: physical education; physical activity and sport; exercise; neuropsychology; motor development; physical fitness; psychological fitness; adapted physical activity
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Guest Editor
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, Università del Salento, Lecce, Italy
Interests: developmental coordination disorder; motor skills; exercise
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to collect and disseminate the most current research in the field of physical education, exercise, and sport dedicated to environmental sustainability and healthy lifestyles. Its aim is to take stock of how the practice of physical and motor activity can represent a healthy relationship between biological, psychological and social systems, and the environment from the perspective of sustainability, through the body dimension linked to healthy lifestyles.

This Special Issue invites papers that consider scientific fields that range from the physiology of physical exercise to the teaching and methodology of physical education adapted to health contexts. This involves clinical-scientific disciplines related to the area of physical exercise and sport pedagogy as well as clinical disciplines such as oncology, cardiology, physical and rehabilitative medicine, immunology, sports medicine, psychology, neuroscience, the psychobiology of relational systems, training methodology, and the organization and planning of physical exercise.

Authors are invited to contribute to this Special Issue by submitting reviews and descriptive or experimental studies that contribute new knowledge to this area. Papers selected for this Special Issue will be subject to a rigorous peer-review process, with the aim of rapid and wide dissemination of research results, developments, and applications.

Prof. Francesco Fischetti
Prof. Dario Colella
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sustainability
  • exercise
  • sport
  • adapted physical activity
  • environment
  • lifestyle
  • health
  • physical education
  • pedagogy

Published Papers (23 papers)

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12 pages, 871 KiB  
Article
Effect of Verbal Encouragement on Physical Fitness, Technical Skill and Physiological Response during Small-Sided Soccer Games
by Mohamed Ali Hammami, Maher Guerchi, Okba Selmi, Faten Sehli, Hatem Ghouili, Oana Ancuța Stângaciu, Marius Alin Marinău, Ovidiu Galeru and Dan Iulian Alexe
Sustainability 2023, 15(4), 3624; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15043624 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1889
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the impact of teacher verbal encouragement on physical fitness performance, technical skill, and physiological responses during small-sided soccer games (SSGs) of adolescent female students’ during a physical education session. Fifty-two adolescent female students were divided into a verbal [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the impact of teacher verbal encouragement on physical fitness performance, technical skill, and physiological responses during small-sided soccer games (SSGs) of adolescent female students’ during a physical education session. Fifty-two adolescent female students were divided into a verbal encouragement group (VEG, 15.57 ± 0.50 years) and a contrast group (CG, 15.50 ± 0.51 years). Anthropometric measurements, soccer-specific cardiorespiratory endurance (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1; YYIRT1), muscle power (countermovement jump (CMJ); 5-jump-test (5JT), agility (t-test), sprint speed (30 m)), technical skill, and heart rate (HR) responses during SSG were measured. Additionally, heart rate (HR) was recorded throughout the SSG, and video analysis was used to quantify technical actions. The independent samples Student’s t-test was used to compare the difference between the verbal encouragement group and the CG. There was no difference between the verbal encouragement group and the CG in anthropometric characteristics and 30 m speed (p > 0.05). The total distance measured with YO-YOIRT level 1, t-test performance, CMJ, and 5JT performance results of the verbal encouragement group were considerably higher than the CG (p = 0.001, ES = 1.8, large; p = 0.001, ES = 1.09, large; and p = 0.001, ES = 1.15, large, respectively). Furthermore, the ball contacts, successful balls, and average heart rate were higher in the verbal encouragement group compared with the CG (p = 0.001, ES = 3.69, large; p = 0.001, ES = 5.25, large; and p = 0.001, ES = 5.14, large, respectively). These results could inform teachers of the usefulness of verbal encouragement in the teaching-learning process in the school setting during small-sided soccer games. Full article
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11 pages, 1187 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Muscles Fatigue on the Knee’s Kinetics and Kinematics Characteristics
by Zhiyong Liu, Chen Yang, Jiabin Yu, Xiaoguang Zhao, Jinan Wu, Yu Zhang, Jianshe Li and Yaodong Gu
Sustainability 2023, 15(4), 3029; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15043029 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1594
Abstract
Badminton is very popular on college campuses. In badminton, the anterior cruciate ligament of the players has a higher risk of injury. There are many studies investigating the impact of fatigue on the injury of professional athletes, but few studies focused on college [...] Read more.
Badminton is very popular on college campuses. In badminton, the anterior cruciate ligament of the players has a higher risk of injury. There are many studies investigating the impact of fatigue on the injury of professional athletes, but few studies focused on college students. We hypothesized that the knee joint would experience greater ground reaction forces, valgus moments, and flexion moments of lunge contact in amateur after fatigue than those indicators before fatigue. Ten male badminton amateurs were enrolled in this study. They performed a lunge to hit the shuttlecock at the designated position and then quickly returned to the starting position before and after fatigue. Fatigue was induced by repeated isokinetic flexion/extension of the knee. Lower body kinematics and ground reaction force (GRF) were collected and further used to calculate the lower body joint moments from initial contact to maximum knee flexion. Compared to the pre-fatigue condition, the peak flexion moment (p = 0.012) and peak abduction moment of knee joint (p = 0.01), and maximum horizontal ground reaction force (p = 0.027) increased significantly at the initial contact (p = 0.01). After muscle fatigue, the knee buckling moment and valgus moment increased significantly at initial contact, and the horizontal backward maximum GRF also increased significantly. These changes might increase the injury risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The fatigue of the muscles around the knee joint did not change the maximum GRF in the vertical direction at the moment of contact. Combined with the results of our study, badminton coaches and teachers should increase the training of lower extremity muscle strength and endurance in our daily class and training, and also should pay special attention to the coordinated development of muscles. Full article
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16 pages, 3238 KiB  
Article
The Sustainable Development of Psychological Education in Students’ Learning Concept in Physical Education Based on Machine Learning and the Internet of Things
by Xingxing Zong, Mariusz Lipowski, Taofeng Liu, Meng Qiao and Qi Bo
Sustainability 2022, 14(23), 15947; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142315947 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1875
Abstract
Aim: This paper aims to enhance the emphasis of college physical education (P.E.) in the psychological education of P.E. students and provide a reference for the innovation of P.E. teaching methods. Methodology and procedures: On the basis of the Internet of Things (IoT) [...] Read more.
Aim: This paper aims to enhance the emphasis of college physical education (P.E.) in the psychological education of P.E. students and provide a reference for the innovation of P.E. teaching methods. Methodology and procedures: On the basis of the Internet of Things (IoT) and a deep-learning algorithm, combined with psychological education, the teaching effect and the influence on learning philosophy are comprehensively evaluated through the construction of teaching evaluation index system for college P.E. students. Results: The theoretical courses of P.E. students in colleges and universities lack the integration of psychological-education concepts. It is found that the new teaching mode not only has a significant effect on improvement of training courses, but also promotes learning enthusiasm and theoretical courses. In the aspect of psychological quality evaluation, emotional-control ability significantly improved, the average score increased from below 60 to above 79, and self-challenge ability and adaptability to adversity also effectively improved. In the evaluation of deep-learning ability, students’ critical thinking ability improved most obviously, and their complex problem-solving ability also improved to some extent. Conclusions: Based on the IoT and machine learning, college P.E. teaching mode can effectively improve students’ psychological quality and ability, effectively improve students’ training and theoretical achievements, and significantly improve their academic achievements. It can also improve students’ self-learning ability. Practical applications: This paper reforms the traditional P.E. teaching mode, effectively demonstrates the hypothesis through practical teaching, designs the teaching evaluation index system of college P.E. students, and improves their learning ability and comprehensive achievements. Full article
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14 pages, 251 KiB  
Article
Insider Perspectives on Saudi Arabia’s Fakher Disability Sports Programme
by Majed M. Alhumaid, Mark Brooke and Selina Khoo
Sustainability 2022, 14(17), 10706; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141710706 - 28 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1413
Abstract
In recent years, Saudi Arabia has made many efforts to support people with disabilities. One of these efforts is the Fakher Programme Initiative. The programme provides substantial financial support and training for around 350 para-athletes with physical disabilities or cerebral palsy. This research [...] Read more.
In recent years, Saudi Arabia has made many efforts to support people with disabilities. One of these efforts is the Fakher Programme Initiative. The programme provides substantial financial support and training for around 350 para-athletes with physical disabilities or cerebral palsy. This research sought to provide a thick description of the programme’s aims, its successes, and the challenges faced, based on the reports of significant stakeholders. In-depth interviews with 26 participants from different stakeholder groups (para-athletes, coaches, administrators, para-athlete families, individuals interested in para-sports, and the CEO of the Fakher Programme) were conducted individually to provide rich insider perspectives. An interpretive phenomenological analysis approach was applied to analyse the interviews. Two main dimensions were identified: (i) the positive impacts of the Fakher Programme Initiative and (ii) further recommended improvements to the Fakher Programme Initiative. Although most of the participants expressed positive perspectives on the programme (e.g., developing collaboration, health benefits, infrastructural support, and raising awareness of people with disabilities), improvements can be made in the form of psychological support for elite para-athletes in training and more developed national and international media coverage of disability sports in Saudi Arabia. Full article
8 pages, 346 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Type and Intensity of Sports Activities and the Prevalence of Overweight in Serbian School Children
by Sead Malićević, Sanja Mazić, Stefania Cataldi, Francesco Fischetti and Gianpiero Greco
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7978; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137978 - 30 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1529
Abstract
This study aimed to explore the relationship between different forms and intensities of sports activities and the prevalence of overweight in primary school children. Using International Obesity Task Force BMI criteria, we have identified body weight status in a group of 2893 children [...] Read more.
This study aimed to explore the relationship between different forms and intensities of sports activities and the prevalence of overweight in primary school children. Using International Obesity Task Force BMI criteria, we have identified body weight status in a group of 2893 children aged 9–15 years participating in 27 different sports and within a group of 4987 non-active children of the same age. We have compared the prevalence of overweight and obesity between these groups, as well as between genders and different forms and intensities of sports, within the group of active children. We have found lower prevalence of overweight (Χ2 = 41.689, DF = 1, p < 0.001), as well as prevalence of obesity (Χ2 = 175.184, DF = 1, p < 0.001) in physically active children compared with their non-active counterparts, as expected. Overweight (including obesity) had the highest prevalence in mixed sports of the Classification of Sports of the European Association of Preventive Cardiology, in boys (p = 0.003), as well as in girls (p = 0.043). A lower prevalence of overweight was noted in boys (p = 0.001), as well as in girls (p = 0.025) with more than 7 years of training. Regarding the number of hours of training per week, a lower prevalence of overweight was noted only in girls with 4 and more hours of training per week (p = 0.025). Concerning intensity, we have found a significant drop in the prevalence of overweight in children with sports activities whose intensity is more than 60 MET-hours per week. We conclude that a significant relationship between sports and the prevalence of overweight is found in children with more than 60 MET-hours of sports activities per week, as well as among children involved in mixed sports, and after more than 7 years spent in regular sports training. Full article
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22 pages, 916 KiB  
Article
Common Issues and Differences in Motivational Support and the Effects of Rugby for the U-15 and U-16 National Teams
by George Danut Mocanu, Gabriel Murariu and Dan Munteanu
Sustainability 2022, 14(8), 4535; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14084535 - 11 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1402
Abstract
This study determines the differences in opinion of U-15 (20 boys) and U-16 (29 boys) rugby players from Romanian national teams, regarding motivational support (MS) and the effects/benefits (EB) of the sport. The evaluation questionnaire (based on 21 items with closed answers and [...] Read more.
This study determines the differences in opinion of U-15 (20 boys) and U-16 (29 boys) rugby players from Romanian national teams, regarding motivational support (MS) and the effects/benefits (EB) of the sport. The evaluation questionnaire (based on 21 items with closed answers and 7 items with free answers) was applied between 29 November 2019 and 13 December 2019. The statistical calculation indicates the absence of significant differences between the groups for most items, with the exception of financial motivation (where the U-16 group has a higher score, p < 0.05) and the usefulness of rugby for the population as a variant of active leisure (where the U-15 group has a higher score). However, U-15 athletes are more motivated by the examples of elite players, have increased involvement in terms of passion in training and competitions, and assign high scores to their relationships with the coach and teammates, while U-16 players are more optimistic about self-perceived skills as the basis of success in rugby. The U-15 team is more confident regarding most of the benefits of a rugby game, and those in the U-16 team have superior values in the context of favorable effects on attitude, as well as a better ability to concentrate at the levels of academics and sports. Masculine characteristics, the uniqueness, and physical contact are the main factors of attraction for rugby. Over 56% of the players practiced or practice other sports and sports games, with contact sports being at the top. A total of 96% of players suffered injuries, with the legs and arms being the most affected, but 25% of the U-15 group also suffered injuries to the head, with the main causes being physical contact with opponents and the superficiality of the warm-up. Workouts associated with physical training are the most difficult to bear, and the U-15 group is more bored with routine and monotony. A higher level of physical training/self-perceived fitness is the main strength of players, followed by technical and tactical knowledge. Full article
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11 pages, 937 KiB  
Article
Paralympic Powerlifting as a Sustainable Way to Improve Strength in Athletes with Spinal Cord Injury and Other Disabilities
by Felipe J. Aidar, Stefania Cataldi, Georgian Badicu, Ana Filipa Silva, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Francesca Latino, Gianpiero Greco and Francesco Fischetti
Sustainability 2022, 14(4), 2017; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042017 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1961
Abstract
Background: in Paralympic Powerlifting (PP), athletes with a spinal cord injury (SCI) and other disabilities (OD) compete together. However, athletes with SCI are at a disadvantage in terms of force production and transfer. Objective: to analyze the strength and the dynamic and static [...] Read more.
Background: in Paralympic Powerlifting (PP), athletes with a spinal cord injury (SCI) and other disabilities (OD) compete together. However, athletes with SCI are at a disadvantage in terms of force production and transfer. Objective: to analyze the strength and the dynamic and static indicators, at different intensities, tied and untied in athletes with SCI and OD. Methods: the sample presented 10 OD (28.30 ± 4.92 years) and 10 SCI (30.00 ± 4.27 years), classified competitors, and eligible to compete in the sport (all males). Maximum isometric force (MIF); time to MIF (Time); rate of force development (RFD); impulse, variability, and fatigue index (FI); and the dynamic tests of Mean Propulsive Velocity (MPV), Velocity Maximum (Vmax), and Power with loads of 40, 60, and 80% of 1 Repetition Maximum (1 RM), respectively. Results: there were no differences between OD and SCI in dynamic and isometric strength indicators. In MPV, there was an 80% difference between tethered and untethered SCI (p = 0.041). In VMax, there were differences in SCI between tethered and untethered, 40% (p = 0.004) and 80% (p = 0.023), respectively. There were no differences in the other intensities. Conclusion: PP training seems to be a sustainable way to promote strength gains in SCI, since there were no differences between athletes with SCI and OD, as practitioners of Paralympic Powerlifting. Full article
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9 pages, 568 KiB  
Article
Primary School Physical Education at the Time of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Could Online Teaching Undermine Teachers’ Self-Efficacy and Work Engagement?
by Erica Gobbi, Maurizio Bertollo, Alessandra Colangelo, Attilio Carraro and Selenia di Fronso
Sustainability 2021, 13(17), 9830; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179830 - 01 Sep 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3209
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate whether primary school classroom teachers reported changes in physical education teaching self-efficacy (SE-PE) and work engagement (WE) during the first COVID-19 wave. A total of 622 classroom teachers filled in an online questionnaire on SE-PE and WE, referring [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate whether primary school classroom teachers reported changes in physical education teaching self-efficacy (SE-PE) and work engagement (WE) during the first COVID-19 wave. A total of 622 classroom teachers filled in an online questionnaire on SE-PE and WE, referring to before and during the lockdown, and on perceived digital competence. While controlling for perceived digital competence, a mixed between-within Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (RM-MANCOVA) was performed, using a factorial design with two time categories (before vs. during the lockdown) and three age categories (≤40 vs. 41–50 vs. ≥51 years). The RM-MANCOVA revealed that perceived digital competence significantly adjusted teachers’ SE-PE and WE values (p < 0.001). The analysis yielded a significant multivariate main effect by time (p < 0.001) and by time × age categories (p = 0.001). Follow-up univariate ANCOVA showed significant differences by time in teachers’ SE-PE (p < 0.001) and WE (p < 0.001), with a reduction in both values from before to during the lockdown. A Bonferroni post hoc pairwise comparison showed teachers’ SE-PE significantly decreased in all age categories (p < 0.001). The present findings confirm the importance of promoting SE-PE among primary school teachers, regardless of the crisis due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Teachers’ self-efficacy and WE are essential to master the challenges of PE teaching. Full article
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15 pages, 303 KiB  
Article
Effects of an 8-Week Yoga-Based Physical Exercise Intervention on Teachers’ Burnout
by Francesca Latino, Stefania Cataldi and Francesco Fischetti
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 2104; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042104 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4692
Abstract
The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to investigate the efficacy of an 8-week yoga-based physical exercise program to improve mental and emotional well-being and consequently reduce burnout among teachers. We considered yoga because it is a discipline that enhances body awareness and [...] Read more.
The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to investigate the efficacy of an 8-week yoga-based physical exercise program to improve mental and emotional well-being and consequently reduce burnout among teachers. We considered yoga because it is a discipline that enhances body awareness and encourages the contact with nature and the respect for every form of life, with a view to a more sustainable and greener global system. We recruited 40 professional educators (40–47 years), teachers in a public high school who reported perceiving signs of stress and emotional discomfort. We randomly assigned the 40 professional educators to either an experimental yoga practice (~60 min, twice a week) group (n = 20) or a control group (n = 20) that received a nonspecific training program (~60 min, twice a week). At baseline and after training we administered the Maslach Burnout Inventory: Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the State Mindfulness Scale (SMS) to assess teachers’ perceived level of awareness and professional burnout. We found a significant Time × Group interaction for the MBI-ES and SMS, reflecting a meaningful experimental group improvement (p < 0.001). No significant pre–post changes were found in the control group. The results suggest that an 8-week yoga practice could aid teachers to achieve a greater body and emotional awareness and prevent professional burnout. Full article
14 pages, 286 KiB  
Article
Effect of Physical Activity on Obesity in Second Stage Pupils of Elementary Schools in Northwest Bohemia
by Jana Pyšná, Ladislav Pyšný, David Cihlář, Dominika Petrů and Martin Škopek
Sustainability 2020, 12(23), 10042; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122310042 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2095
Abstract
Obesity is a serious problem in our society. An evaluation of obesity development performed in the second half of the previous century already indicated a long-term positive trend in terms of body weight increase in children and the youth, which still persists today. [...] Read more.
Obesity is a serious problem in our society. An evaluation of obesity development performed in the second half of the previous century already indicated a long-term positive trend in terms of body weight increase in children and the youth, which still persists today. Paediatric obesity arises from a changed lifestyle of children, characterised by an important restriction of their spontaneous physical activity. A lack of physical activity is one of the most important causes of paediatric obesity, which associated with a number of serious disorders. In the current study, the incidence of obesity and overweight as well as the relationship between physical activity and obesity in second stage pupils of elementary schools in northwest Bohemia is presented. The data collection was based on questions from the NAS 2001 questionnaire (nationwide anthropological survey) and BMI-for-age. 2001. NAS 2001 is a questionnaire for children and evaluates areas focused on engagement in physical activities and other daily activities, eating habits, drinking regime and care of the body habitus. Problems with obesity and overweight are present, particularly in boys. Only a third of boys and girls engage in sufficient physical activity. Differences were shown in the study group, where groups with higher BMI values had lower values of physical activity. Subsequently, a relationship was shown between those who use their bicycle as a means of transport and spend their leisure time bicycling at the same time. More than two-thirds of the study subjects reported using a bicycle as a means of transport and using their bicycle in their leisure time as a means of being active; 93% of these subjects had normal body weight. Our results confirm the continued pandemic prevalence of obesity and indicate that appropriate physical activity should be included in the everyday life of children both at school and outside of school. Full article
10 pages, 7514 KiB  
Article
Environment for Preschool Children to Learn Fundamental Motor Skills: The Role of Teaching Venue and Class Size
by Peggy Cheung and Li Zhang
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9774; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229774 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3369
Abstract
The development of children’s fundamental motor skills (FMS) is shaped by the environment surrounding them. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the changes of children’s FMS after an intervention program differed between classes conducted in different schooling conditions. Participants were [...] Read more.
The development of children’s fundamental motor skills (FMS) is shaped by the environment surrounding them. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the changes of children’s FMS after an intervention program differed between classes conducted in different schooling conditions. Participants were 295 preschool children (62 boys, 133 girls; M = 5.4 years; SD = 0.28) from eight preschools in Hong Kong. Children participated in an 8-week FMS program and their FMS were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2). A linear mixed model was used to analyze the association on the changes of FMS score between children in different schooling conditions: (1) teaching venue size (large or small); and (2) class size (large, medium, or small), while accounting for the clustering of participants within preschools. The changes of object control skills were significantly different between groups with different teaching venue size (p = 0.000) (small: 5.54 (SD = 5.84) vs. large: 2.46 (SD = 6.42)) and different class size (p = 0.000) (small: 8.12 (SD = 6.34) vs. medium: 2.92 (SD = 6.26) vs. large: 4.00 (SD = 5.79)). The findings have practical implications for the teaching of FMS in that the social and physical environment in preschools should be considered for the design of FMS intervention programs. Full article
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12 pages, 601 KiB  
Article
Emotional Intelligence and Psychobiosocial States: Mediating Effects of Intra-Team Communication and Role Ambiguity
by Rachele Nateri, Claudio Robazza, Asko Tolvanen, Laura Bortoli, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis and Montse C. Ruiz
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 9019; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219019 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3546
Abstract
Emotional intelligence is an important variable related to the interaction and functioning of sports teams. The present study examined the relationship between players’ trait emotional intelligence and functional and dysfunctional psychobiosocial states. In particular, we examined the mediating effects of intra-team communication efficacy [...] Read more.
Emotional intelligence is an important variable related to the interaction and functioning of sports teams. The present study examined the relationship between players’ trait emotional intelligence and functional and dysfunctional psychobiosocial states. In particular, we examined the mediating effects of intra-team communication efficacy and role ambiguity in this relationship. The participants were 291 (174 men and 117 women) Italian players involved in various team sports (i.e., futsal, soccer, volleyball, handball, and rugby). They completed a multi-section questionnaire assessing the study variables during the early/middle part of their competitive seasons. Structural equation modeling (SEM) showed trait emotional intelligence to positively predict functional psychobiosocial states and negatively predict dysfunctional psychobiosocial states. Effective intra-team communication mediated the relationship between emotional intelligence and functional states, while role ambiguity was a mediator of the relationship between trait emotional intelligence and dysfunctional states. Overall, the results highlight the importance of examining trait emotional intelligence as an antecedent of players’ psychobiosocial states in applied sport contexts both in terms of team functioning and individual optimal sport experience. Full article
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19 pages, 1977 KiB  
Article
Circuit Training during Physical Education Classes to Prepare Cadets for Military Academies Tests: Analysis of an Educational Project
by Pietro Luigi Invernizzi, Gabriele Signorini, Maurizio Pizzoli, Giampietro Alberti, Damiano Formenti and Andrea Bosio
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 5126; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125126 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2136
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of an eight-week physical education program based on circuit training to better improve the overall physical and military-specific performance compared to a conventional physical education program in military high school students. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of an eight-week physical education program based on circuit training to better improve the overall physical and military-specific performance compared to a conventional physical education program in military high school students. Methods: Sixty-four students were enrolled in this study and randomly assigned to an experimental (EG, circuit training) or a control group (CG, traditional physical education program). Immediately before and after the eight-week training period, participants were tested on strength and endurance performance, circuit training tests, and military tests. Moreover, the acquisition of the educational objectives and the pleasantness of the experimental intervention were tested using a qualitative approach. Results: Despite the higher workload in EG than CG during the training period, the effect of the experimental intervention compared to the control was only possibly to likely positive for a few strength and endurance performances and circuit training tests, respectively. A trivial effect was shown in the military tests. On the contrary, the high percentage of motivation (76%), understanding (78%) and collaboration (86%) showed by the students suggests the achievement of acquisition of the educational objectives and a fair pleasantness of the lessons. Conclusions: A lack of clear and marked effect of the experimental intervention could be ascribed to an insufficient exposure time to the training and a high subjective overall workload encountered in military high school students. Full article
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13 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
Relationships between Players’ Physical Performance and Small-Sided Game External Responses in a Youth Soccer Training Context
by Daniel Castillo, Angel Lago-Rodríguez, Marta Domínguez-Díez, Silvia Sánchez-Díaz, Tara Rendo-Urteaga, María Soto-Célix and Javier Raya-González
Sustainability 2020, 12(11), 4482; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114482 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2487
Abstract
The aim of this study was twofold: 1) To compare players’ physical performance and small-sided game (SSG) external responses among three young soccer age categories (i.e., under 14 (U14), under 16 (U16), and under 18 (U18)); and 2) to examine their relationships among [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was twofold: 1) To compare players’ physical performance and small-sided game (SSG) external responses among three young soccer age categories (i.e., under 14 (U14), under 16 (U16), and under 18 (U18)); and 2) to examine their relationships among physical performance and SSG external responses in each age category. Players’ physical performance was evaluated via several tests and external responses were collected during a four vs. four plus goalkeepers SSG. Main results showed that while older players presented better linear straight sprinting tests (LSSTs) (U18 and U16 vs. U14, p < 0.01), repeated sprint ability (RSA) (U18 vs. U16 and U14 p < 0.01), and change of direction ability (CODA) (U18 and U16 vs. U14, p < 0.01, ES = 2.34−2.72) performances, these differences were not consistent with their SSG external responses (U16 vs. U14, p < 0.01; U18 vs. U16, p < 0.01). Conversely, higher number of associations between players’ physical performance and SSG external responses were found in younger players in comparison to the older ones. These results suggest that while greater physical performance in younger players (i.e., U14) could allow them to exhibit higher external responses, greater physical performance did not influence older players’ (i.e., U18) SSG external responses. Full article
10 pages, 672 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Postural Features and Muscle Strength between Children with Idiopathic Short Stature and Healthy Peers in Relation to Physical Exercise
by Jessica Brusa, Maria Cristina Maggio, Daniele Zangla, Valerio Giustino, Ewan Thomas, Romilda Palma, Giuseppe Messina, Antonio Palma, Giovanni Corsello and Marianna Bellafiore
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3639; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093639 - 01 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2383
Abstract
Previous research has reported that children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) showed functional and cognitive impairments. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle strength and body posture between children with ISS treated with growth hormone (GH) and healthy peers (healthy children, [...] Read more.
Previous research has reported that children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) showed functional and cognitive impairments. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle strength and body posture between children with ISS treated with growth hormone (GH) and healthy peers (healthy children, HC), and to analyze whether these parameters were affected by physical exercise. Eighteen children for the ISS group (mean age: 10.96 ± 1.68 years) and 26 children for the HC group (mean age: 10.19 ± 1.06 years) were recruited for the study. All participants performed the following assessments: handgrip and Sargent test for the muscle strength evaluation; baropodometric and stabilometric test for the posturographic measures. Data were analyzed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using height and weight as covariate. Groups were then stratified into active and inactive and independent t-tests were used to determine differences between variables. Significance level was set to p < 0.05. Our results showed a significantly lower performance for both hands (p < 0.01) and a greater difference of plantar loading distribution between feet in the ISS compared to the HC groups (p < 0.01). In relation to physical exercise, the HC active group showed the highest handgrip strength values for both hands among the analyzed groups and, moreover, handgrip strength of both ISS active and inactive groups was significantly lower than corresponding CH peers for both hands. Although ISS and HC inactive groups reported an unequal plantar loading distribution between feet (p < 0.05), this asymmetry was not present in both ISS and HC active groups. We assume that GH therapy integrated with physical exercise in young patients with ISS could be suggested to increase muscle strength and body posture improving their quality of life. Full article
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11 pages, 1064 KiB  
Article
The Influence of 24-Hour Sleep Deprivation on the Strength of Lower Limb Muscles in Young and Physically Fit Women and Men
by Karolina Kujawa, Marta Ołpińska-Lischka and Janusz Maciaszek
Sustainability 2020, 12(7), 2762; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072762 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2962
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of 24-h sleep deprivation on the muscle strength of young, healthy and physically fit people. The research material consisted of physical education students. In total, 67 people participated in the study, including 38 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of 24-h sleep deprivation on the muscle strength of young, healthy and physically fit people. The research material consisted of physical education students. In total, 67 people participated in the study, including 38 women and 29 men. Respondents were divided into an experimental group “E” of 44 persons subjected to 24-h sleep deprivation and a control group “C” of 23 persons. Students completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) measuring daytime sleepiness. Students performed measurements of the maximum strength of knee joint extensor and flexor muscles. Measurements of muscle strength of flexors and extensors of the knee were taken on a UPR-02 A/S chair with Moment II by Sumer software. ANOVA (analysis of variance) was used to determine the significance of differences between experimental “E” and control “C” group. Statistical significance was defined at the level of p ≤ 0.05. Statistically significant differences were observed in the change of strength levels between groups at the strength moments of right (p < 0.05, η2p = 0.16) and left (p < 0.05, η2p = 0.08) knee muscles extensor. Changes in extensor muscle strength are significant for students with left dominant legs. Full article
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9 pages, 488 KiB  
Article
Walking in Natural Environments as Geriatrician’s Recommendation for Fall Prevention: Preliminary Outcomes from the “Passiata Day” Model
by Giuseppe Battaglia, Valerio Giustino, Giuseppe Messina, Mariangela Faraone, Jessica Brusa, Anna Bordonali, Mario Barbagallo, Antonio Palma and Ligia-Juliana Dominguez
Sustainability 2020, 12(7), 2684; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072684 - 29 Mar 2020
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3158
Abstract
Background: The Geriatric Unit of the University of Palermo developed the “Passiata Day” model, a green exercise intervention consisting of a one-hour walk, once/week, in a city park. The purpose of this study was to assess body balance in older people who walked [...] Read more.
Background: The Geriatric Unit of the University of Palermo developed the “Passiata Day” model, a green exercise intervention consisting of a one-hour walk, once/week, in a city park. The purpose of this study was to assess body balance in older people who walked regularly compared to sedentary people. Methods: 106 older people (75 women and 31 men; mean age: 72.3 ± 8.2 years) without fall history were invited to participate voluntarily in this natural environment walking program. After six months, both the participants who had taken part regularly in the walk (i.e., the physical activity group (PAG; n = 72; 54 women and 18 men; mean age: 70.7 ± 7.2 years)), and who had not accepted to be included in the outdoor walking program (i.e., the sedentary group (SG; n = 34; 21 women and 13 men; mean age: 75.5 ± 9.4 years)), performed a stabilometric test with open eyes (OE) and with closed eyes (CE). Results: Our preliminary results showed significant differences between groups on the ellipse sway area both in the OE (p < 0.05) and in CE condition (p < 0.01). Moreover, we found a significant difference on sway along the frontal plane both in the OE (p < 0.05) and in the CE condition (p < 0.01), and on sway along the sagittal plane for the test with CE (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Based on our preliminary findings, we suggest that walking regularly in an outdoor setting could lead to a greater body balance in older people and could be recommended by geriatricians for preventing the risk of falls. The next step will be to investigate the effect of an experimental outdoor walking program structured in terms of intensity, frequency and volume. Full article
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11 pages, 1042 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Podalic Support and Monitoring of Balance Control in Children with and without Dyslexia: A Pilot Study
by Antonino Patti, Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Messina, Angelo Iovane, Marianna Alesi, Annamaria Pepi and Antonio Palma
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031191 - 07 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2685
Abstract
Background: The American Psychiatric Association has identified dyslexia as a neurobiological disorder. The aim of the study was to evaluate podalic support, balance control, and dyslexia’s effects on interpersonal relationships. Methods: Fifty-seven subjects were enrolled for this study. The subjects were divided into [...] Read more.
Background: The American Psychiatric Association has identified dyslexia as a neurobiological disorder. The aim of the study was to evaluate podalic support, balance control, and dyslexia’s effects on interpersonal relationships. Methods: Fifty-seven subjects were enrolled for this study. The subjects were divided into two groups. The experimental group was composed of children with diagnosis of dyslexia. The control group was composed of healthy subjects. Each subject underwent baropodometry and posturographic analysis. In addition, the Multidimensional Self-esteem Assessment test by Bracken was used for a precise measurement of self-esteem in both groups (TMA). Results: The static baropodometry and posturographic results of the experimental group were significantly higher compared to the control group. The analysis showed significant differences: Surface left and right, Surface forefoot left, Surface forefoot right, Retro foot surface left, Retro foot surface right, and the Ellipse surface area. The test for multidimensional self-esteem assessment (TMA) analysis showed a significant difference. The Pearson correlation index showed a high correlation between the following parameters: Surface ellipse vs. TMA; Length of sway path vs. average speed of movement. Conclusion: The dyslexic children showed a flat-footed trend and an unstable balance compared with healthy subjects. Furthermore, the Multidimensional Self-Esteem test showed significantly lower self-assessments in the experimental group compared to control group. Full article
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13 pages, 1331 KiB  
Article
Changes in Physical Activity, Motor Performance, and Psychosocial Determinants of Active Behavior in Children: A Pilot School-Based Obesity Program
by Milena Morano, Claudio Robazza, Irene Rutigliano, Laura Bortoli, Montse C. Ruiz and Angelo Campanozzi
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031128 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3444
Abstract
The obesity epidemic and the decline of fitness among children highlights the need for suitable interventions designed to promote Physical Activity (PA) and healthy habits. The purpose of our pilot study was to assess the feasibility of a school-based program among overweight and [...] Read more.
The obesity epidemic and the decline of fitness among children highlights the need for suitable interventions designed to promote Physical Activity (PA) and healthy habits. The purpose of our pilot study was to assess the feasibility of a school-based program among overweight and obese children, by examining changes in their body composition, PA, physical fitness, and some psychosocial determinants of active behavior. An additional objective was to investigate the reciprocal relationship over time between PA and body image. Self-reported PA and health-related fitness tests were administered to 18 overweight and obese children (11.3 ± 0.4 years), before and after a 6-month intervention including nutritional education, skill-learning, playful physical activities, and exercise training. Participants were assessed on body composition, perceived physical ability, body image, and pleasant and unpleasant psychobiosocial states towards PA. After treatment, children showed decreased body mass index, body fat percentage, arm and waist circumferences, and skinfold thickness. Actual and perceived physical abilities, body image, and PA also improved over six months. Cross-lagged correlations suggest body image to be an antecedent to being physically active. Results showed that the multi-component school program may have sustainable benefits in reducing adiposity indicators and improving exercise adherence, physical fitness, and psychological well-being. Full article
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15 pages, 5153 KiB  
Article
Physical Education, Quality of Breathable Air and Their Effects on the Formation of High School Students as Sustainability in Maintaining the Lifestyle. Is the Physical Education Lesson Enough to Create Such Valences?
by Camelia Plastoi, Ioana Butu, Diana-Mihaela Țîrcă, Bianca Ferrario, Ilie Mihai, Daniel Chivu and Eduard Leonard Guță
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031106 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2515
Abstract
This study was conducted to emphasize the correlation between the number of physical education lessons with effects on the formation of high school students and the importance of practicing physical activities during the extra-class time in sustainable spaces with quality breathable air. The [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to emphasize the correlation between the number of physical education lessons with effects on the formation of high school students and the importance of practicing physical activities during the extra-class time in sustainable spaces with quality breathable air. The values were recorded in this cross-sectional study; on a number of 208 high school students; grades 9–12; tested for the level of manifesting their effort capacity acquired during the physical education lessons. The statistical analysis of the processed data highlights the obtained values: Weak 59% and 31% satisfactory for boys; and 53.92% weak; 34% satisfactory for girls. In conclusion; the necessity to carry out extra-curricular physical activities in an unpolluted environment and to acquire useful physical skills in carrying out different activities in society, promotes and generates sustainability in maintaining the lifestyle. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

12 pages, 545 KiB  
Review
Physical Illiteracy and Obesity Barrier: How Physical Education Can Overpass Potential Adverse Effects? A Narrative Review
by Athos Trecroci, Pietro Luigi Invernizzi, Domenico Monacis and Dario Colella
Sustainability 2022, 14(1), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010419 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2884
Abstract
Environments lacking in stimuli together with ineffective physical education programs can lead to motor illiteracy, causing several adverse effects that could be worsened by unhealthy weight conditions (e.g., obesity). Obesity can be seen as an actual barrier for children and adolescents, especially for [...] Read more.
Environments lacking in stimuli together with ineffective physical education programs can lead to motor illiteracy, causing several adverse effects that could be worsened by unhealthy weight conditions (e.g., obesity). Obesity can be seen as an actual barrier for children and adolescents, especially for affective, behavioral, physical, and cognitive domains. In this context, condensing what the literature proposes could be useful in order to improve the understanding of the best intervention strategies (i.e., proper physical education programs) to manage the adverse effects of motor illiteracy in relation to the obesity barrier. The purpose of this narrative review is to improve the understanding on how physical education programs can counteract the adverse effects of physical illiteracy and obesity barrier across childhood and adolescence. Proper physical education programs should develop motor competence by fostering an individual’s awareness, self-perception, autonomous motivation, and muscular fitness on a realistic scenario (functional task difficulty related to his/her possibilities) in the attempt to counteract the adverse effects of the obesity barrier. Such programs should be designed without overlooking a proper multi teaching style approach. Full article
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21 pages, 803 KiB  
Review
Field-Based Tests for the Assessment of Physical Fitness in Children and Adolescents Practicing Sport: A Systematic Review within the ESA Program
by Garden Tabacchi, Guillermo F. Lopez Sanchez, Fatma Nese Sahin, Meltem Kizilyalli, Rosario Genchi, Michele Basile, Musa Kirkar, Carlos Silva, Nuno Loureiro, Eduardo Teixeira, Yolanda Demetriou, David Joseph Sturm, Simona Pajaujene, Ilona J. Zuoziene, Manuel Gómez-López, Ante Rada, Jelena Pausic, Nemanja Lakicevic, Luca Petrigna, Kaltrina Feka, Ana Ribeiro, Marianna Alesi and Antonino Biancoadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 7187; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11247187 - 15 Dec 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 8150
Abstract
High levels of physical fitness (PF) can positively affect both health and cognitive function, thus monitoring its levels in youth can help increase health and quality of life in adult populations later on. This systematic review aims to identify PF field-based tests used [...] Read more.
High levels of physical fitness (PF) can positively affect both health and cognitive function, thus monitoring its levels in youth can help increase health and quality of life in adult populations later on. This systematic review aims to identify PF field-based tests used in young European populations practicing sport to find tools that are adequate for the considered target involving a new battery within the Enriched Sport Activities (ESA) project. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was followed. In the 83 identified articles, the main tests used were: vertical/horizontal jumps (for muscular strength/power); push-ups, running at maximum effort, sit-ups (for muscular strength/endurance); multistage non-intermittent and intermittent tests (for aerobic endurance); sit and reach (for flexibility); sprinting and agility T-tests (for speed and agility, respectively); 10 × 5 m shuttle run (SR) (for both speed and agility). Few studies assessed coordination, reaction time, power, and balance. Although the selected tests are widely used and validated, they do not determine all PF aspects and do not reflect sport-specific features. A final decision was made for the inclusion of the following tests: standing broad jump, seated medicine ball throw, 20 m SR test, 30 m sprint, Illinois test, and a new test, i.e., the crunning test, to assess different skill-related components at once. The use of this combination of tests allows for the assessment of all PF components and can help planning effective training programs and cultivate sporting talent. Full article
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

17 pages, 680 KiB  
Systematic Review
Sustainable Development of Olympic Sport Participation Legacy: A Scoping Review Based on the PAGER Framework
by Pengfei Shi and Alan Bairner
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 8056; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14138056 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3402
Abstract
After the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics, Chinese officials claimed that the goal of “driving 300 million people to participate in ice and snow sports” had been achieved. Historically, the London 2012 Olympic Games had a similar goal: to increase sports participation for all [...] Read more.
After the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics, Chinese officials claimed that the goal of “driving 300 million people to participate in ice and snow sports” had been achieved. Historically, the London 2012 Olympic Games had a similar goal: to increase sports participation for all by hosting the Olympic Games. Given these goals, the impact of the Olympic Games on sports participation has clearly become significant. These impacts can be referred to as the Olympic sport participation legacy, an intangible Olympic legacy. The Olympic sport participation legacy has attracted a lot of researchers’ interest in the academic field in recent years. This paper aims to conduct a scoping review of Olympic sport participation legacy studies between 2000 and 2021 to identify the progress of studies on the sustainability of Olympic sport participation legacies. Unlike previous scoping reviews on sport participation legacies, this review adopts a Patterns, Advances, Gaps, Evidence of Practice, and Research Recommendations (PAGER) framework at the results analysis stage to improve the quality of the findings. The results from the scoping review contained 54 peer-reviewed articles on three levels of research: the population level, social level, and intervention processes. Many studies indicate that achieving a sustainable Olympic sport participation legacy requires joint collaboration and long-term planning between governments, community organisations, and other stakeholders. Full article
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