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World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 14, Issue 6 (June 2023) – 29 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In the case of electric vehicle drives, faults in the drive system could lead to abrupt and unpredictable motions. In terms of functional safety, the typically existing permanent mechanical connection of the drive machine with the drive wheels poses a safety risk. In particular, unintended motions of the vehicle from a standstill are especially critical due to the risk of injuries of traffic participants. To reduce this risk, appropriate monitoring algorithms are suitable for the rapid detection of faulty operation. A corresponding algorithm for fault detection of an electric vehicle drive based on the torsion of side shafts is presented in this paper. In addition to the description of the algorithms, various driving maneuvers of an electric single-wheel drivetrain are simulated in fault-free and faulty operation on a HiL test bench. View this paper
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5 pages, 647 KiB  
Editorial
Advantages and Technological Progress of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles
by Tiande Mo, Yu Li and Yang Luo
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060162 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3794
Abstract
The automotive industry is undergoing a profound transformation driven by the need for sustainable and environmentally friendly transportation solutions [...] Full article
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13 pages, 6809 KiB  
Article
Technical Assessment of Reusing Retired Electric Vehicle Lithium-Ion Batteries in Thailand
by Teeraphon Phophongviwat, Sompob Polmai, Chaitouch Maneeinn, Komsan Hongesombut and Kanchana Sivalertporn
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060161 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2552
Abstract
A rapid growth in electric vehicles has led to a massive number of retired batteries in the transportation sector after 8–10 years of use. However, retired batteries retain over 60% of their original capacity and can be employed in less demanding electric vehicles [...] Read more.
A rapid growth in electric vehicles has led to a massive number of retired batteries in the transportation sector after 8–10 years of use. However, retired batteries retain over 60% of their original capacity and can be employed in less demanding electric vehicles or stationary energy storage systems. As a result, the management of end-of-life electric vehicles has received increased attention globally over the last decade due to their environmental and economic benefits. This work presents knowledge and technology for retired electric vehicle batteries that are applicable to the Thai context, with a particular focus on a case study of a retired lithium-ion battery from the Nissan X-Trail Hybrid car. The disassembled battery modules are designed for remanufacturing in small electric vehicles and repurposing in energy storage systems. The retired batteries were tested in a laboratory under high C-rate conditions (10C, 20C, and 30C) to examine the limitations of the batteries’ ability to deliver high current to electric vehicles during the driving operation. In addition, the electric motorcycle conversion has also been studied by converting the gasoline engine to an electric battery system. Finally, the prototypes were tested both in the laboratory and in real-world use. The findings of this study will serve as a guideline for the sorting and assessment of retired lithium-ion batteries from electric vehicles, as well as demonstrate the technical feasibility of reusing retired batteries in Thailand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Battery Design and Management)
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20 pages, 3249 KiB  
Article
Round-Trip Wireless Charging Infrastructure for Heterogeneous Electric Vehicles on Highways: Modelling and Optimization
by Mohammed Bourzik, Hassane Elbaz, Yousra Bouleft and Ahmed El Hilali Alaoui
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060160 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1676
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a new approach to dynamic wireless charging that allows electric vehicles to charge wirelessly while in motion in both lanes on highways. The challenge is to locate the charging infrastructure on a highway between origin O and destination [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a new approach to dynamic wireless charging that allows electric vehicles to charge wirelessly while in motion in both lanes on highways. The challenge is to locate the charging infrastructure on a highway between origin O and destination S (round trip) with heterogeneous battery vehicles, where each type of vehicle requires its allocation of charging segments on the road. We aim to ensure that each type of vehicle can complete a round trip without running out of battery charge while minimizing the number of charging segments and inverters on the road by studying both lanes simultaneously. We model the problem mathematically and validate it using a CPLEX optimizer for limited instances. Finally, we solve the problem using a hybrid approach that combines genetic algorithms and local search techniques to balance diversification and intensification. We have significantly improved the results found in the literature by reducing the number of inverters, which are expensive components in the charging infrastructure. Our approach takes advantage of utilizing a single inverter for both lanes of the highway, leading to cost savings and improved efficiency. Full article
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32 pages, 15393 KiB  
Article
Mixed Linear Model of a Safety Dispatch Model in an Active Distribution Network for Source–Grid–Load Interactions
by Peng Jiang, Jun Dong and Yuan Zhu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060159 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
There are a large number of plug-and-play loads in an active distribution network, such as EVs(Electric Vehicles), energy storage, solar power, etc. Due to the lack of security control methods for each terminal node and the lack of distributed power voltage control methods, [...] Read more.
There are a large number of plug-and-play loads in an active distribution network, such as EVs(Electric Vehicles), energy storage, solar power, etc. Due to the lack of security control methods for each terminal node and the lack of distributed power voltage control methods, the large number of loads brings a huge challenge to the security of the distribution network. At present, some regional distribution networks dominated by new energy in China have long-standing problems, such as high voltage impact and frequency flickering, which are extremely harmful to electric equipment, and the resulting load-side accidents have brought huge economic losses. Therefore, research on an optimization model of the source–grid–load interaction in the active distribution network considering the safety characteristics, especially the voltage of the system, will help to improve the quality of the grid dispatch. In this paper, the safety limits of the independent operation of a source network loaded on three sides are used as the operating constraints of the system, and the social welfare of the interaction is maximized as the goal. A joint optimization modeling after the independent solution of the three sides is used as the core means, a heuristic algorithm is used to solve the overall optimization of the whole system, a scheduling optimization model that meets the system security goals is constructed, and this model is used to guide the operation strategy of each node in the system. The Lagrangian relaxation factor is introduced for structural optimization, and finally, the simplified 36-node model of the actual power grid is used for verification. The results show that under the goal of ensuring the economy of the system, the system voltage is controlled within the specified range of the safe operation of the system, which can meet the safety needs of the interaction. Full article
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22 pages, 8972 KiB  
Article
Personalized Collision Avoidance Control for Intelligent Vehicles Based on Driving Characteristics
by Haiqing Li, Lina Gao, Xiaoyu Cai and Taixiong Zheng
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060158 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
Collision avoidance has been widely researched in the field of intelligent vehicles (IV). However, the majority of research neglects the individual driver differences. This paper introduced a novel personalized collision avoidance control (PCAC) strategy for IV based on driving characteristics (DC), which can [...] Read more.
Collision avoidance has been widely researched in the field of intelligent vehicles (IV). However, the majority of research neglects the individual driver differences. This paper introduced a novel personalized collision avoidance control (PCAC) strategy for IV based on driving characteristics (DC), which can better satisfy various scenarios and improve drivers’ acceptance. First, the driver’s DC is initially classified into four types using K-means clustering, followed by the application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to construct the DC identification model for the PCAC design. Then, a novel PCAC is integrated with a preview-follower control (PFC) module, an active rear steering (ARS) module, and a forward collision control (FCC) module to ensure individual requirements and driving stability. Moreover, simulations verified the validity of the developed PCAC in terms of path tracking, lateral acceleration, and yaw rate. The research results indicate that DC can be identified effectively through APH, and PCAC based on DC can facilitate the development of intelligent driving vehicles with superior human acceptance performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design Theory, Method and Control of Intelligent and Safe Vehicles)
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16 pages, 5044 KiB  
Article
Optimized Synchronous SPWM Modulation Strategy for Traction Inverters Based on Non-Equally Spaced Carriers
by Xuefeng Jin, Shiwei Li, Wenbo Sun, Wei Chen, Xin Gu and Guozheng Zhang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060157 - 13 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1582
Abstract
The switching frequency of high-power inverters, such as those used in rail transit traction systems, is low, due to switching loss and heat dissipation limitations. This can result in considerable output voltage harmonics. This paper proposes an optimal SPWM strategy for traction inverters [...] Read more.
The switching frequency of high-power inverters, such as those used in rail transit traction systems, is low, due to switching loss and heat dissipation limitations. This can result in considerable output voltage harmonics. This paper proposes an optimal SPWM strategy for traction inverters based on non-equally spaced carriers to address this issue. By dividing the fundamental wave cycle into regions according to the principle of three-phase, half-wave, and quarter-wave symmetry, the carrier width is symmetrically changed in each region, and a switching angle sequence is generated by comparing the fundamental wave with the non-isometric carrier. The proposed optimal modulation strategy has lower harmonic content than traditional strategies within a specific modulation range. Enhancing the inverter output waveform leads to increased torque accuracy, lowering additional losses in the motor and avoiding overheating. This results in improved performance, enhanced efficiency, and extended service life of the motor system. To further reduce voltage harmonics across the full-speed range, a multi-mode segmented synchronous modulation strategy is designed based on the optimal modulation strategy for different modulation ranges. Appropriate switching points are selected to improve the stability of the traction drive system across the full-speed range. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through simulation and experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Machines Design and Control in Electric Vehicles)
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26 pages, 56618 KiB  
Review
Challenges and Solutions of Hydrogen Fuel Cells in Transportation Systems: A Review and Prospects
by Omar Fakhreddine, Yousef Gharbia, Javad Farrokhi Derakhshandeh and A. M. Amer
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060156 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 10275
Abstract
Conventional transportation systems are facing many challenges related to reducing fuel consumption, noise, and pollutants to satisfy rising environmental and economic criteria. These requirements have prompted many researchers and manufacturers in the transportation sector to look for cleaner, more efficient, and more sustainable [...] Read more.
Conventional transportation systems are facing many challenges related to reducing fuel consumption, noise, and pollutants to satisfy rising environmental and economic criteria. These requirements have prompted many researchers and manufacturers in the transportation sector to look for cleaner, more efficient, and more sustainable alternatives. Powertrains based on fuel cell systems could partially or completely replace their conventional counterparts used in all modes of transport, starting from small ones, such as scooters, to large mechanisms such as commercial airplanes. Since hydrogen fuel cells (HFCs) emit only water and heat as byproducts and have higher energy conversion efficiency in comparison with other conventional systems, it has become tempting for many scholars to explore their potential for resolving the environmental and economic concerns associated with the transportation sector. This paper thoroughly reviews the principles and applications of fuel cell systems for the main transportation schemes, including scooters, bicycles, motorcycles, cars, buses, trains, and aerial vehicles. The review showed that fuel cells would soon become the powertrain of choice for most modes of transportation. For commercial long-rage airplanes, however, employing fuel cells will be limited due to the replacement of the axillary power unit (APU) in the foreseeable future. Using fuel cells to propel such large airplanes would necessitate redesigning the airplane structure to accommodate the required hydrogen tanks, which could take a bit more time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Transportation in Sustainable Energy Systems)
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24 pages, 4646 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Constant-Current/Constant-Voltage Charging of a Battery Cell Based on Cell Open-Circuit Voltage Estimation
by Danijel Pavković, Josip Kasać, Matija Krznar and Mihael Cipek
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060155 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2645
Abstract
This paper presents the novel design of a constant-current/constant-voltage charging control strategy for a battery cell. The proposed control system represents an extension of the conventional constant-current/constant-voltage charging based on the so-called cascade control system arrangement with the adaptation of the battery charging [...] Read more.
This paper presents the novel design of a constant-current/constant-voltage charging control strategy for a battery cell. The proposed control system represents an extension of the conventional constant-current/constant-voltage charging based on the so-called cascade control system arrangement with the adaptation of the battery charging current based on the open-circuit voltage parameter estimation. The proposed control strategy features two feedback controllers of the proportional-integral type responsible for: (i) controlling the battery open-circuit voltage towards its fully charged state, and (ii) simultaneously limiting the battery terminal voltage to avoid the battery terminal voltage constraint violation. The open-circuit voltage on-line estimation is implemented by using the system reference adaptive model approach to estimate the linear time-invariant battery equivalent circuit model parameters, whose asymptotic convergence is guaranteed according to Lyapunov stability theory. The proposed concept of the battery charging control is verified by means of simulations using the experimentally obtained model of a lithium iron phosphate battery cell, and it is also compared to other charging methods with respect to charging speed-up potential compared to conventional charging. The proposed method, which can be easily extended to conventional chargers, results in 23.9% faster charging compared to conventional charging, thus representing an inexpensive and straightforward upgrade to conventional battery charging systems. Full article
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18 pages, 3848 KiB  
Review
Investigation of Effective Factors on Vehicles Integrated Photovoltaic (VIPV) Performance: A Review
by Hamid Samadi, Guido Ala, Valerio Lo Brano, Pietro Romano and Fabio Viola
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060154 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2242
Abstract
Integrating photovoltaic technology has undergone significant development in recent years, owing to its manifold advantages. One of the most recent domains where this technology has found application is within the transportation sector. The utilization of this technology possesses the potential to initiate a [...] Read more.
Integrating photovoltaic technology has undergone significant development in recent years, owing to its manifold advantages. One of the most recent domains where this technology has found application is within the transportation sector. The utilization of this technology possesses the potential to initiate a new revolution in transportation by enhancing the range and reducing fuel consumption in vehicles. The performance of these systems is influenced by numerous factors, which have been thoroughly examined in this study. These factors have been categorized into three broad groups: installation site, solar cell characteristics, and environmental conditions. It is important to note that these conditions are inherently interdependent, so this study reveals that the radiation incident on the roof of a van can be 1.09–3.85 times greater than the radiation incident on its sides, according to varying meteorological conditions and different seasons. The current research serves as a valuable foundation for future investigations in this field, offering a targeted and practical overview of the work conducted thus far and summarizing the current state of research. Full article
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13 pages, 2318 KiB  
Article
An Improved Gaussian Process Regression Based Aging Prediction Method for Lithium-Ion Battery
by Weiwei Qu, Hu Deng, Yi Pang and Zhanfeng Li
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060153 - 9 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1650
Abstract
A reliable aging-prediction method is significant for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) to prolong the service life and increase the efficiency of operation. In this paper, an improved Gaussian-process regression (GPR) is proposed to predict the degradation rate of LIBs under coupled aging stress to [...] Read more.
A reliable aging-prediction method is significant for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) to prolong the service life and increase the efficiency of operation. In this paper, an improved Gaussian-process regression (GPR) is proposed to predict the degradation rate of LIBs under coupled aging stress to simulate working conditions. The complicated degradation processes at different ranges of the state of charge (SOC) under different discharge rates were analyzed. A composed kernel function was conducted to optimize the hyperparameter. The inputs for the kernel function of GPR were improved by coupling the constant and variant characteristics. Moreover, previous aging information was employed as a characteristic to improve the reliability of the prediction. Experiments were conducted on a lithium–cobalt battery at three different SOC ranges under three discharge rates to verify the performance of the proposed method. Some tips to slow the aging process based on the coupled stress were discovered. Results show that the proposed method accurately estimated the degradation rate with a maximum estimation root-mean-square error of 0.14% and regression coefficient of 0.9851. Because of the proposed method’s superiority to the exponential equation and GPR by fitting all cells under a different operating mode, it is better for reflecting the true degradation in actual EV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicle)
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13 pages, 805 KiB  
Article
Optimal Electric Vehicle Fleet Charging Management with a Frequency Regulation Service
by Yassir Dahmane, Raphaël Chenouard, Malek Ghanes and Mario Alvarado Ruiz
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060152 - 9 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1642
Abstract
Electric vehicles are able to provide immediate power through the vehicle-to-grid function, and they can adjust their charging power level when in the grid-to-vehicle mode. This allows them to provide ancillary services such as frequency control. Their batteries differ from conventional energy storage [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles are able to provide immediate power through the vehicle-to-grid function, and they can adjust their charging power level when in the grid-to-vehicle mode. This allows them to provide ancillary services such as frequency control. Their batteries differ from conventional energy storage systems in that the owner’s energy requirement constraint must be met when the vehicles participate in a frequency control system. An optimization problem was defined by considering both the owner satisfaction and frequency control performance. The main contribution of the proposed paper, compared to the literature, are (1) to keep the total available energy stored in the batteries connected to a charging station in an optimal region that favors the frequency regulation capability of the station and the proposed QoS and (2) to consider the optimal region bounded by the efficiency thresholds of the charger to allow for maximum regulation power. The problem is expressed as a multi-criteria optimization problem with time-dependent references. The paper presents an energy management strategy for frequency control, describes a concept of an optimal time-dependent state of charge for electric vehicle charging demands, and considers the power dependence of the electric vehicle charger efficiency. Finally, the simulation results are presented via Matlab/Simulink to prove the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electric Vehicles Energy Management)
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18 pages, 5903 KiB  
Article
Detection of Torque Security Problems Based on the Torsion of Side Shafts in Electrified Vehicles
by Andreas Koch, Jonas Brauer and Jens Falkenstein
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060151 - 6 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
In the case of electric vehicle drives, faults in the drive system or in the traction inverter, which controls the vehicle drive unit, could lead to abrupt and unpredictable motion as well as acceleration of the vehicle. In terms of functional safety, the [...] Read more.
In the case of electric vehicle drives, faults in the drive system or in the traction inverter, which controls the vehicle drive unit, could lead to abrupt and unpredictable motion as well as acceleration of the vehicle. In terms of functional safety, the typically existing, permanent mechanical connection of the drive machine with the drive wheels poses a high safety risk. In particular, unintended motion of the vehicle from a standstill is especially critical due to the high risk of injury to traffic participants. To reduce this risk, appropriate monitoring algorithms can be applied for the rapid detection of faulty operation. A corresponding algorithm for fault detection in the electric drive of a vehicle is presented in this paper. In addition to the description of the algorithms, various driving maneuvers of an electric single-wheel drivetrain are simulated in fault-free and faulty operation on a hardware-in-the-loop test bench. The focus here is on the consideration of driving-off operations. Full article
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19 pages, 3188 KiB  
Article
Research on Collision Avoidance Systems for Intelligent Vehicles Considering Driver Collision Avoidance Behaviour
by Guosi Liu, Shaoyi Bei, Bo Li, Tao Liu, Walid Daoud, Haoran Tang, Jinfei Guo and Zhaoxin Zhu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060150 - 6 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2502
Abstract
In this paper, a new collision avoidance switching system is proposed to address the lack of adaptability of intelligent vehicles under different collision avoidance operating conditions. To ensure the rationality of the collision avoidance switching strategy for intelligent vehicles, the NGSIM road dataset [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new collision avoidance switching system is proposed to address the lack of adaptability of intelligent vehicles under different collision avoidance operating conditions. To ensure the rationality of the collision avoidance switching strategy for intelligent vehicles, the NGSIM road dataset is introduced to analyse the driver’s collision avoidance behaviour, and a two-layer fuzzy controller considering the overlap rate is established to design the collision avoidance switching strategy. In order to achieve real-time collision avoidance system activation, a lane change collision avoidance model based on MPC control is also developed. Finally, a simulation environment was created using Matlab/CarSim for simulation verification. The simulation results show that the collision avoidance switching system is more responsive and has a shorter start-up distance and is more adaptable to different driving conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design Theory, Method and Control of Intelligent and Safe Vehicles)
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4 pages, 189 KiB  
Editorial
Design, Analysis and Optimization of Electrical Machines and Drives for Electric Vehicles
by Syed Sabir Hussain Bukhari
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060149 - 4 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1616
Abstract
Electrical machines are the key components in the ongoing energy transition and electrification and will be an integral part of people’s lives in a future low-carbon society [...] Full article
18 pages, 1162 KiB  
Article
A Critical Comparison of the Cuk and the Sheppard–Taylor Converter
by Alfredo Alvarez-Diazcomas, Juvenal Rodríguez-Reséndiz, Roberto V. Carrillo-Serrano, Adyr A. Estévez-Bén and José Manuel Álvarez-Alvarado
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060148 - 4 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
The use of and interest in renewable energy have increased in recent years due to the environmental impact of the technologies currently used to generate electricity. Switched converters play a fundamental role in renewable energy systems. The main goal is to manipulate the [...] Read more.
The use of and interest in renewable energy have increased in recent years due to the environmental impact of the technologies currently used to generate electricity. Switched converters play a fundamental role in renewable energy systems. The main goal is to manipulate the output signal of the renewable energy source to meet the requirements of different loads. Therefore, the increase in research on renewable energy sources has resulted in an increase in studies on switched converters. However, many DC–DC converters can be used in a particular application, and there is no clear guidance on which converter to use. The choice of whether to use one converter over another is highly reliant on the expertise of the researcher. Two examples of DC–DC converters are the Sheppard–Taylor converter and the Cuk converter. In this work, a critical comparison is made between these converters. The parameters considered in this comparison are the number of components, gain, stress on parts, and others. The simulation results were obtained to evaluate the performance of the converters in different scenarios. Finally, we conclude that the only application for which the use of the Sheppard–Taylor converter is justified are those that require high specific power and power density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Converters and Electric Motor Drives)
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17 pages, 607 KiB  
Article
Robust H Output Feedback Trajectory Tracking Control for Steer-by-Wire Four-Wheel Independent Actuated Electric Vehicles
by Zhiwen Li, Xiaohong Jiao and Ting Zhang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060147 - 3 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1300
Abstract
This paper investigates the trajectory tracking control issue of four-wheel independently actuated electric vehicles (FWIA EVs) with steer-by-wire devices concerning parameter uncertainties, external disturbances, input saturation, and vehicle sideslip angle not easily obtained. A robust H dynamic output feedback control strategy is [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the trajectory tracking control issue of four-wheel independently actuated electric vehicles (FWIA EVs) with steer-by-wire devices concerning parameter uncertainties, external disturbances, input saturation, and vehicle sideslip angle not easily obtained. A robust H dynamic output feedback control strategy is proposed for the integrated control of the steering motor current and direct yaw moment without using sideslip angle information to ensure the reference trajectory tracking and the improvement of handling performance and yaw stability. In the proposed integration control framework, the steer-by-wire device dynamic is involved in the polyhedral linear parameter-varying (LPV) trajectory tracking error model considering the time-varying longitudinal velocity, and the norm-bounded parameter uncertainties such as road adhesion coefficient, tire cornering stiffness, vehicle mass, and vehicle moment of inertia. With the help of the LPV model of all the states of the steer-by-wire FWIA EV, a dynamic output feedback trajectory tracking controller is designed using the robust H technique. The controller gain matrices are obtained by solving the linear matrix inequalities. Finally, the high-fidelity full-vehicle model based on the CarSim-MATLAB/Simulink joint simulation platform verifies the robustness and advantages of the designed control strategy in the accelerated lane-change scenario. Full article
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14 pages, 8612 KiB  
Article
A Two-Stage Pillar Feature-Encoding Network for Pillar-Based 3D Object Detection
by Hao Xu, Xiang Dong, Wenxuan Wu, Biao Yu and Hui Zhu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060146 - 3 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1727
Abstract
Three-dimensional object detection plays a vital role in the field of environment perception in autonomous driving, and its results are crucial for the subsequent processes. Pillar-based 3D object detection is a method to detect objects in 3D by dividing point cloud data into [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional object detection plays a vital role in the field of environment perception in autonomous driving, and its results are crucial for the subsequent processes. Pillar-based 3D object detection is a method to detect objects in 3D by dividing point cloud data into pillars and extracting features from each pillar. However, the current pillar-based 3D object-detection methods suffer from problems such as “under-segmentation” and false detections in overlapping and occluded scenes. To address these challenges, we propose an improved pillar-based 3D object-detection network with a two-stage pillar feature-encoding (Ts-PFE) module that considers both inter- and intra-relational features among and in the pillars. This novel approach enhances the model’s ability to identify the local structure and global distribution of the data, which improves the distinction between objects in occluded and overlapping scenes and ultimately reduces under-segmentation and false detection problems. Furthermore, we use the attention mechanism to improve the backbone and make it focus on important features. The proposed approach is evaluated on the KITTI dataset. The experimental results show that the detection accuracy of the proposed approach are significantly improved on the benchmarks of BEV and 3D. The improvement of AP for car, pedestrian, and cyclist 3D detection are 1.1%, 3.78%, and 2.23% over PointPillars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Intelligent Vehicle)
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22 pages, 1816 KiB  
Review
Research Progress on Data-Driven Methods for Battery States Estimation of Electric Buses
by Dengfeng Zhao, Haiyang Li, Fang Zhou, Yudong Zhong, Guosheng Zhang, Zhaohui Liu and Junjian Hou
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060145 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2245
Abstract
Battery states are very important for the safe and reliable use of new energy vehicles. The estimation of power battery states has become a research hotspot in the development of electric buses and transportation safety management. This paper summarizes the basic workflow of [...] Read more.
Battery states are very important for the safe and reliable use of new energy vehicles. The estimation of power battery states has become a research hotspot in the development of electric buses and transportation safety management. This paper summarizes the basic workflow of battery states estimation tasks, compares, and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of three types of data sources for battery states estimation, summarizes the characteristics and research progress of the three main models used for estimating power battery states such as machine learning models, deep learning models, and hybrid models, and prospects the development trend of estimation methods. It can be concluded that there are many data sources used for battery states estimation, and the onboard sensor data under natural driving conditions has the characteristics of objectivity and authenticity, making it the main data source for accurate power battery states estimation; Artificial neural network promotes the rapid development of deep learning methods, and deep learning models are increasingly applied in power battery states estimation, demonstrating advantages in accuracy and robustness; Hybrid models estimate the states of power batteries more accurately and reliably by comprehensively utilizing the characteristics of different types of models, which is an important development trend of battery states estimation methods. Higher accuracy, real-time performance, and robustness are the development goals of power battery states estimation methods. Full article
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23 pages, 4292 KiB  
Article
Understanding Travel Behavior of Electric Car-Sharing Users under Impact of COVID-19
by Qiuyue Sai, Jun Bi, Xiaomei Zhao, Wei Guan and Chaoru Lu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060144 - 1 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1578
Abstract
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has raised concerns about the use of public transport, with a surge in people considering personal car usage. However, owning private cars is costly and wasteful of resources. Electric car-sharing (ECS) is considered a safer and more [...] Read more.
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has raised concerns about the use of public transport, with a surge in people considering personal car usage. However, owning private cars is costly and wasteful of resources. Electric car-sharing (ECS) is considered a safer and more private mode of transportation compared with public transportation. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected transport on transportation policies and travel willingness. What is the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on CS travel, especially considering the safety issues during the COVID-19 pandemic? This study analyses the differences in the travel characteristics of private car owners and nonowners while using CS under the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Quantitative analysis during four months before and four months after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic is conducted based on CS order data in Lanzhou, China. It was found that the number of CS orders fell by 55.8% during the COVID-19 pandemic. Travel behavior during the pandemic is different from that before the outbreak of the pandemic. Additionally, both private car owners and nonowners use CS while having differences in travel characteristics. Based on the results, business suggestions are introduced on the distribution of vehicles to help improve the profit of CS operators. Full article
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19 pages, 3906 KiB  
Article
Collaborative Planning of Community Charging Facilities and Distribution Networks
by Xiao-Hong Diao, Jing Zhang, Rui-Yu Wang, Jiang-Wei Jia, Zhi-Liang Chang, Bin Li and Xuan Zhao
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060143 - 28 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1594
Abstract
The construction of community charging facilities and supporting distribution networks based on the predicted results of electric vehicle (EV) charging power in saturation year has resulted in a large initial idleness of the distribution network and a serious waste of assets. To solve [...] Read more.
The construction of community charging facilities and supporting distribution networks based on the predicted results of electric vehicle (EV) charging power in saturation year has resulted in a large initial idleness of the distribution network and a serious waste of assets. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a collaborative planning method for urban community charging facilities and distribution networks. First, based on the load density method and occupancy rate to predict the base electricity load in the community, the Bass model and charging probability are used to predict the community’s electric vehicle charging load. Taking the minimum annual construction and operation costs of the community distribution network as the objective function, the power supply topology of the distribution network for a new community is optimized by using Prim and single-parent genetic algorithms. Finally, the proposed scheme is verified by using the actual community data of a certain city in China as an analysis example, and the scheme of one-time planning of the distribution network and yearly construction of charging facilities is given. Full article
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31 pages, 4601 KiB  
Article
Experimental Design of an Adaptive LQG Controller for Battery Charger/Dischargers Featuring Low Computational Requirements
by Jhoan Alejandro Montenegro-Oviedo, Carlos Andres Ramos-Paja, Martha Lucia Orozco-Gutierrez, Edinson Franco-Mejía and Sergio Ignacio Serna-Garcés
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060142 - 28 May 2023
Viewed by 1560
Abstract
The growing use of DC/DC power converters has resulted in the requirement that their complex controllers be cheaper and smaller, thus using cost-effective implementations. For this purpose, it is necessary to decrease the computational burden in controller implementation to minimize the hardware requirements. [...] Read more.
The growing use of DC/DC power converters has resulted in the requirement that their complex controllers be cheaper and smaller, thus using cost-effective implementations. For this purpose, it is necessary to decrease the computational burden in controller implementation to minimize the hardware requirements. This manuscript presents two methods for tuning an adaptive linear–quadratic–Gaussian voltage controller for a battery charger/discharger, implemented with a Sepic/Zeta converter, to work at any operating point. The first method is based on a lookup table to select, using the nearest method, both the state feedback vector and the observer gain vector, solving the Riccati’s differential equation offline for each practical operating point. The second method defines a polynomial function for each controller element that is based on the previous data corresponding to the system operating points. The adaptability of the two controllers to fixed voltage regulation and reference tracking was validated using simulations and experimental tests. The overshoot and settling time results were lower than 11% and 3.7 ms, which are in the same orders of magnitude of a control approach in which the equations are solved online. Likewise, three indices were evaluated: central processing unit capacity, cost, and performance. This evaluation confirms that the controller based on polynomial interpolation is the best option of the two examined methods due to the satisfactory balance between dynamic performance and cost. Despite the advantages of the controllers in being based on a lookup table and polynomial interpolation, the adaptive linear–quadratic–Gaussian has the benefit of not requiring an offline training campaign; however, the cost saving obtained with the lookup table controllers and polynomial interpolation controllers, due to the possible implementation on small-size microcontrollers with development tool simple and easy maintenance, will surely be desirable for a large number of deployed units, ensuring that those solutions are highly cost-effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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17 pages, 3047 KiB  
Article
Temperature Field Calculation of the Hybrid Heat Pipe Cooled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for Electric Vehicles Based on Equivalent Thermal Network Method
by Huimin Wang, Chujie Zhang, Liyan Guo, Wei Chen and Zhen Zhang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060141 - 27 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2342
Abstract
A hybrid heat-pipe cooling structure for the permanent magnet synchronous motor for electric vehicles was analyzed in this paper to effectively equalize the axial temperature rise and reduce the average temperature of each heat-generating component in the motor. A temperature field calculation method [...] Read more.
A hybrid heat-pipe cooling structure for the permanent magnet synchronous motor for electric vehicles was analyzed in this paper to effectively equalize the axial temperature rise and reduce the average temperature of each heat-generating component in the motor. A temperature field calculation method for the hybrid heat-pipe cooling permanent magnet synchronous motor based on an equivalent thermal network method was proposed in this paper to save computing resources in temperature field analyses for hybrid heat-pipe cooling motors. The results were verified against the simulation results of the computational fluid dynamics method under three common operating conditions for electric vehicles. The error was proven to be within 5%. The calculation time of the proposed method was compared with the computational fluid dynamics method, which demonstrated that the calculation time of the proposed method was within 194 s. Full article
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18 pages, 20310 KiB  
Article
Direct Instantaneous Torque Control of SRM Based on a Novel Multilevel Converter for Low Torque Ripple
by Yan Cai, Zhongshan Dong, Hui Liu, Yunhu Liu and Yuhang Wu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060140 - 27 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1448
Abstract
The torque ripple of a switched reluctance motor (SRM) limits its application in electric vehicles. This paper proposes a DITC system for SRMs based on a novel multilevel converter (MLC), which aims at the problem that the torque ripple cannot be effectively suppressed [...] Read more.
The torque ripple of a switched reluctance motor (SRM) limits its application in electric vehicles. This paper proposes a DITC system for SRMs based on a novel multilevel converter (MLC), which aims at the problem that the torque ripple cannot be effectively suppressed for the conventional direct instantaneous torque control (DITC) of an SRM due to the limitation of the DC bus voltage in the asymmetric half-bridge converter (AHBC) and the single control strategy formulated in the commutation region. Based on the advantages of fast excitation and fast demagnetization for the proposed MLC and the torque distribution characteristics for each phase winding in the commutation region, a novel torque hysteresis control strategy is developed to improve the torque-following ability of the DITC and achieve the purpose of minimizing the torque ripple in the commutation region. In addition, multiobjective optimization control of the motor is carried out to improve the efficiency of the DITC system while suppressing the torque ripple. The effectiveness of the proposed SRM drive scheme is verified by experiment, which is of great significance for the application of SRMs in electric vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Machines Design and Control in Electric Vehicles)
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21 pages, 11567 KiB  
Article
Performance Evaluation of Stator/Rotor-PM Flux-Switching Machines and Interior Rotor-PM Machine for Hybrid Electric Vehicles
by Wenfei Yu, Zhongze Wu and Wei Hua
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060139 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1569
Abstract
A three-phase interior permanent magnet (IPM) machine with 18-stator-slots/12-rotor-poles and concentrated armature winding is commercially employed as a 10 kW integrated-starter-generator in a commercial hybrid electric vehicle. For comprehensive and fair evaluation, a pair of flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) brushless machines, namely one [...] Read more.
A three-phase interior permanent magnet (IPM) machine with 18-stator-slots/12-rotor-poles and concentrated armature winding is commercially employed as a 10 kW integrated-starter-generator in a commercial hybrid electric vehicle. For comprehensive and fair evaluation, a pair of flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) brushless machines, namely one stator permanent magnet flux-switching (SPM-FS) machine, and one rotor permanent magnet flux-switching (RPM-FS) machine, are designed and compared under the same DC-link voltage and armature current density. Firstly, a SPM-FS machine is designed and compared with an IPM machine under the same torque requirement, and the performance indicates that they exhibit similar torque density; however, the former suffers from magnetic saturation and low utilization of permanent magnets (PMs). Thus, to eliminate significant stator iron saturation and improve the ratio of torque per PM mass, an RPM-machine is designed with the same overall volume of the IPM machine, where the PMs are moved from stator to rotor and a multi-objective optimization algorithm is applied in the machine optimization. Then, the electromagnetic performance of the three machines, considering end-effect, is compared, including air-gap flux density, torque ripple, overload capacity and flux-weakening ability. The predicted results indicate that the RPM-FS machine exhibits the best performance as a promising candidate for hybrid electric vehicles. Experimental results of both the IPM and SPM-FS machines are provided for validation. Full article
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20 pages, 5652 KiB  
Article
Critical Performance Analysis of Four-Wheel Drive Hybrid Electric Vehicles Subjected to Dynamic Operating Conditions
by Darsy John Pradeep, Yellapragada Venkata Pavan Kumar, Bollineni Raja Siddharth, Challa Pradeep Reddy, Mohammad Amir and Haris M. Khalid
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060138 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2719
Abstract
Hybrid electric vehicle technology (HEVT) is emerging as a reliable alternative to reduce the constraints of battery-only driven pure electric vehicles (EVs). HVET utilizes an electric motor as well as an internal combustion engine for its operation. These components would work on battery [...] Read more.
Hybrid electric vehicle technology (HEVT) is emerging as a reliable alternative to reduce the constraints of battery-only driven pure electric vehicles (EVs). HVET utilizes an electric motor as well as an internal combustion engine for its operation. These components would work on battery power and fossil fuels, respectively, as a source of energy for vehicle mobility. The power is delivered either from battery or fuel or both sources based on user requirements, road conditions, etc. HEVT uses three major propelling systems, namely, front-wheel drive (FWD), rear-wheel drive (RWD), and four-wheel drive (4WD). In these propelling systems, the 4WD model provides torque to all four wheels at the same time. It uses all four wheels to propel thereby offering better driving capability, better traction, and a strong grip on the surface. The 4WD-based HEVs comprise four architectures, namely, series, parallel, series-parallel, and complex. The literature focuses primarily on any one type of architecture for analysis in the context of component optimization, fuel reduction, and energy management. However, a focus on dynamic analysis that gives a real performance insight was not conducted, which is the main motivation for this paper. The proposed work provides an extensive critical performance analysis of all four 4WD architectures subjected to various dynamic operating conditions (continuous, pulse, and step-up accelerations). Under these conditions, various performance parameters such as speed (of vehicle, engine, and motor), power (of engine and battery), battery electrical losses, charge patterns, and fuel consumption are measured and compared. Further, the 4WD architecture performance is validated with FWD and RWD architectures. From MATLAB/Simulink-based evaluation, 4WD HEV architectures have shown superior performance in most of the cases when compared to FWD type and RWD type HEVs. Moreover, 4WD parallel HEV architecture has shown superior performance compared to 4WD series, 4WD series-parallel, and 4WD complex architectures. Full article
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20 pages, 6909 KiB  
Article
Direct Torque Control of an Induction Motor Using Fractional-Order Sliding Mode Control Technique for Quick Response and Reduced Torque Ripple
by Satish Kumar Gudey, Mohan Malla, Kiran Jasthi and Srinivasa Rao Gampa
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060137 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
The performance of electric drive propulsion systems is often degraded by the high torque and flux ripples of an electric drive. Traditional control methods, such as proportional plus integral (PI) controllers and classical sliding mode controllers (SMCs), have shown good response and reduced [...] Read more.
The performance of electric drive propulsion systems is often degraded by the high torque and flux ripples of an electric drive. Traditional control methods, such as proportional plus integral (PI) controllers and classical sliding mode controllers (SMCs), have shown good response and reduced torque ripple, but even lower ripple content at low voltage levels is required for its effective use in electric vehicle (EV) applications. In this paper, a new direct torque control (DTC) technique with space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) using fractional-order sliding mode control (FOSMC) for a two-level inverter (2LI) at constant switching frequency is proposed. The effectiveness of this proposed controller is compared with a conventional proportional-integral controller and a conventional sliding mode controller (SMC). Simulink models are developed using MATLAB version R2018a to analyze the robustness of the proposed control strategy. Simulation results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed controller in reducing the torque ripples at steady state with less settling time during sudden load change conditions. The proposed control technique also demonstrates better utilization of the stator flux through flux trajectory waveforms. Full article
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4 pages, 189 KiB  
Editorial
Advanced X-by-Wire Technologies in Design, Control and Measurement for Vehicular Electrified Chassis
by Yong Li
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060136 - 25 May 2023
Viewed by 1084
Abstract
Advanced X-by-wire technologies for vehicular electrified chassis play an essential role in developing new energy-intelligent vehicles, which is the inevitable choice for intelligent vehicles in the future [...] Full article
28 pages, 2909 KiB  
Article
Energy Management of P2 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Event-Triggered Nonlinear Model Predictive Control and Deep Q Network
by Cuneyt Haspolat and Yaprak Yalcin
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060135 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1994
Abstract
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are used as a bridge during the transition to battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and to make energy consumption more efficient. The main problem in improving the efficiency of HEV energy consumption is torque management. In this study, a novel [...] Read more.
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are used as a bridge during the transition to battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and to make energy consumption more efficient. The main problem in improving the efficiency of HEV energy consumption is torque management. In this study, a novel approach based on a nonlinear model predictive controller to solve the reference tracking and torque distribution problem is proposed. That is to say, in order to increase the efficiency of torque distribution, the weights of nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) are trained with a Deep Q Network (DQN), and an event-triggered mechanism is designed with DQN to reduce the computational cost of MPC. The considered torque distribution problem varies according to the type and structure of the HEV. In this study, a parallel type 2 hybrid electric vehicle (P2 HEV) is considered and modeled via publicly shared passenger vehicle data of the engine, motor, high-voltage battery, transmission, clutch, differential, and wheel characteristics. NMPC is formulated so that the torque values remain within the physical limits of the engine, and the battery also operates at its physical limits. Namely, it is guaranteed that the battery works according to a certain state of charge (SOC) window and current limits. The state of health (SOH) of the battery is also considered in the optimization. The motor and engine efficiencies increase by 3.61% and 2.86%, respectively, with the proposed control structure, while the computational cost is reduced by 52.01% when utilizing the proposed event-triggering mechanism in the NMPC controller. Full article
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21 pages, 4841 KiB  
Article
Data Driven Methods for Finding Coefficients of Aerodynamic Drag and Rolling Resistance of Electric Vehicles
by Ryan Van Greunen and Christiaan Oosthuizen
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060134 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2862
Abstract
This research investigated an alternate method for establishing the complex coefficients used in an electric vehicle’s mathematical energy consumption model. While other methods for creating electric vehicle energy models exist, it would be beneficial to have a rapid and inexpensive technique that remains [...] Read more.
This research investigated an alternate method for establishing the complex coefficients used in an electric vehicle’s mathematical energy consumption model. While other methods for creating electric vehicle energy models exist, it would be beneficial to have a rapid and inexpensive technique that remains accurate. Producing a mathematical energy model for such a vehicle has the challenge of determining its aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance coefficients. Currently and most often, expensive and tedious (time-consuming) methods are used to find these coefficients. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), wind tunnel testing, and extensive mathematics make this objective challenging. For this work, a solar-powered electric vehicle provided the source data to derive its coefficients cost-effectively and efficiently. Data were collected during a road test of the solar electric vehicle from South Africa to Namibia stretching over 2000 km, in which all required energy variables were recorded. The collected data were used in an optimisation routine to establish the two coefficients by minimising the actual and modelled energy consumption error and controlling the driving speed. The outcome of the optimisation routine produced accurate coefficients with a final error value of less than 5% when applied to a validation data set not used during optimisation. With minor modifications, this method may be integrated into any electric vehicle computer system to autonomously identify its two hard-to-find coefficients while driving, which can be used to provide an accurate and realistic driving range estimation to the driver. Full article
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