Advanced X-by-Wire Technologies in Design, Control and Measurement for Vehicular Electrified Chassis

A special issue of World Electric Vehicle Journal (ISSN 2032-6653).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 34882

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Special Issue Editors

Automotive Engineering Research Institute, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China
Interests: motor control and thermal management; vehicle dynamics and control
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Automotive Engineering Research Institute, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China
Interests: vehicle dynamics and control

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Guest Editor
College of Automotive Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
Interests: automated vehicle planning and control system

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Guest Editor
School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
Interests: vehicle dynamics; autonomous vehicle

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Guest Editor
School of Vehicle and Mobility, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
Interests: vehicle dynamics control; driver-automation collaboration control

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advanced X-by-wire technologies for vehicular electrified chassis play an essential role in the development of new energy intelligent vehicles, which is the inevitable choice for intelligent vehicles in the future. This technology is involved in mechanical engineering, electronic and electrical engineering, computer technology, control engineering, signal processing, and artificial intelligence. Advanced electrified chassis control technology transmits control signals through cables and acts directly on the actuator to implement corresponding actions. The application of X-by-wire technologies for vehicular electrified chassis has changed the complex mechanical connections among actuators and hydraulic and pneumatic equipment in the past, greatly promoting energy efficiency, integration, and intelligence. 

This Special Issue focuses on advanced X-by-wire technologies in strong reliability design, modeling, integration control, thermal management, energy management, fault diagnosis, and fault-tolerant control with the vehicular electrified chassis. Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue is to solicit recent advanced X-by-wire technologies for vehicular electrified chassis. 

Topics of interest include but are not limited to: 

  • Modeling, analysis, control, and management of electrified chassis; 
  • Coordinated control of integrated chassis;  
  • Highly integrated design technology of electronic control suspension, steering by wire, braking by wire;  
  • High-efficiency motor drive control, thermal management, electric drive system design; 
  • Autonomous driving and intelligent linearization control technology; 
  • Testing and signal analysis technology of electrified chassis; 
  • Vibration and noise suppression; 
  • Reliability design and evaluation;
  • System operation condition monitoring and fault diagnosis technology;
  • Highly reliable fault-tolerant control technology. 

Dr. Yong Li
Prof. Dr. Xing Xu
Dr. Lin Zhang
Dr. Yechen Qin
Dr. Yang Lu
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 189 KiB  
Editorial
Advanced X-by-Wire Technologies in Design, Control and Measurement for Vehicular Electrified Chassis
by Yong Li
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060136 - 25 May 2023
Viewed by 1036
Abstract
Advanced X-by-wire technologies for vehicular electrified chassis play an essential role in developing new energy-intelligent vehicles, which is the inevitable choice for intelligent vehicles in the future [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

11 pages, 4231 KiB  
Article
Improvement of the Vehicle Seat Suspension System Incorporating the Mechatronic Inerter Element
by Chengqun Qiu, Xiaofu Liu and Yujie Shen
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14020029 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1605
Abstract
A mechatronic inerter can simulate the equivalent mechanical network through the external electrical network and can be used in a wide range of mechanical device design applications. In this paper, we study the use of a mechatronic inerter to enhance vibration isolation in [...] Read more.
A mechatronic inerter can simulate the equivalent mechanical network through the external electrical network and can be used in a wide range of mechanical device design applications. In this paper, we study the use of a mechatronic inerter to enhance vibration isolation in vehicle seat suspensions. Firstly, the vertical and pitch movements of the vehicle’s sprung mass and the vertical vibration of the seat are considered in a half vehicle model. Then, the mechatronic inerter is introduced and the external electrical network is presented. The particle swarm optimization algorithm was used to optimize the seat suspension layout parameters with different transfer function-orders. Numerical simulations under different speeds were performed, and the results show that the application of the used mechatronic inerter’s seat suspension vibration isolation performance outperforms passive suspension. In addition, with an increase in the external electrical network transfer function-order, the seat acceleration and pitch acceleration RMS values will be further reduced. The results of the study will contribute to a new approach to vehicle seat suspension design. Full article
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13 pages, 10966 KiB  
Article
Regenerative Braking Strategy of Dual-Motor EV Considering Energy Recovery and Brake Stability
by Tonglie Wu, Feng Wang and Peng Ye
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010019 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2749
Abstract
The dual-motor EV (Electric Vehicle) is increasingly favored by manufacturers for its excellent performance in terms of power and economy. How to further reduce its energy consumption and make full use of the dual-motor energy recovery is an important support to improve the [...] Read more.
The dual-motor EV (Electric Vehicle) is increasingly favored by manufacturers for its excellent performance in terms of power and economy. How to further reduce its energy consumption and make full use of the dual-motor energy recovery is an important support to improve the overall vehicle economy and realize the “dual carbon” strategy. For the dual-motor EV architecture, the motor model, power battery loss model and vehicle longitudinal braking force model are established and the energy recovery-dominated regenerative braking torque distribution (RBD) rule of the dual motors is designed. Based on genetic algorithm (GA) theory and taking into account SOC, vehicle speed and braking intensity, a regenerative-braking torque optimization method is proposed that integrates energy recovery and braking stability. The braking intensity of 0.3 and the initial vehicle speed of 90 km/h are selected for verification. Compared with the rule method, the energy recovery and stability are improved by 22.8% and 4.8%, respectively, under the genetic algorithm-based and energy recovery-dominated regenerative-braking torque distribution (GA-RBD) strategy. A variety of conditions are selected for further strategy validation and the result shows that compared with the rule-based method, both energy recovery and braking stability are improved as braking speed and braking intensity increase under the GA-RBD strategy. Full article
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15 pages, 3704 KiB  
Article
Research on Active Collision Avoidance and Hysteresis Reduction of Intelligent Vehicle Based on Multi-Agent Coordinated Control System
by Chaochun Yuan, Yongfeng Lin, Jie Shen, Long Chen, Yingfeng Cai, Youguo He, Shuofeng Weng, Xinkai Wu, Yuqi Yuan, Yuxuan Gong and Qiuye Yu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010016 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2025
Abstract
This paper provides a multi-agent coordinated control system to improve the real-time performance of intelligent vehicle active collision avoidance. At first, the functions and characteristics of longitudinal and lateral collision avoidance agents are analyzed, which are the main components of the multi-agent. Then, [...] Read more.
This paper provides a multi-agent coordinated control system to improve the real-time performance of intelligent vehicle active collision avoidance. At first, the functions and characteristics of longitudinal and lateral collision avoidance agents are analyzed, which are the main components of the multi-agent. Then, a coordinated solution mechanism of an intelligent vehicle collision avoidance system is established based on hierarchical control and blackboard model methods to provide a reasonable way to avoid collision in complex situations. The multi-agent coordinated control system can handle the conflict between the decisions of different agents according to the rules. Comparing with existing control strategies, the proposed system can realize multi decisions and planning at the same time; thus, it will reduce the operation time lag during active collision avoidance. Additionally, fuzzy sliding mode control theory is introduced to guarantee accurate path tracking in lateral collision avoidance. Finally, co-simulation of Carsim and Simulink are taken, and the results show that the real-time behavior of intelligent vehicle collision avoidance can be improved by 25% through the system proposed. Full article
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12 pages, 3850 KiB  
Article
Optimal Design of Fractional-Order Electrical Network for Vehicle Mechatronic ISD Suspension Using the Structure-Immittance Approach
by Jie Hua, Yujie Shen, Xiaofeng Yang, Ying Zhang and Yanling Liu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010012 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1632
Abstract
In order to more effectively design the structure of vehicle ISD (Inerter Spring Damper) suspension system using the inerter, this paper proposed a design method using a fractional-order electrical network structure of a mechatronic inerter for fractional-order electrical network components, according to the [...] Read more.
In order to more effectively design the structure of vehicle ISD (Inerter Spring Damper) suspension system using the inerter, this paper proposed a design method using a fractional-order electrical network structure of a mechatronic inerter for fractional-order electrical network components, according to the characteristics that the external electrical network of a mechatronic inerter can simulate the corresponding mechanical network structure equivalently. First, the 1/4 dynamic model of the suspension is constructed. The improved Oustaloup filtering algorithm is used to simulate fractional calculus, and the fractional order components are simulated. Then, the simulation model of the vehicle mechatronic ISD suspension is established. In order to simplify the electrical network, one resistance, one fractional inductance and one fractional capacitance are limited in the design of the fractional electrical network at the outer end of the mechatronic inerter. The structure-immittance approach is used to obtain two general layouts of all possible structures of three elements. At the same time, the optimal fractional electrical network structure and parameters are obtained by combining the optimization algorithm. The simulation results verify the performance of the fractional ISD suspension with the optimized structure, which can provide a new idea for the structural design of a fractional-order electrical network applied in vehicle mechatronic ISD suspension. Full article
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15 pages, 2255 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Robust Path Tracking Control for Autonomous Vehicles Considering Multi-Dimensional System Uncertainty
by Mengyuan Chen, Yue Ren and Minghui Ou
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010011 - 2 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1810
Abstract
As the bottom layer of the autonomous vehicle, path tracking control is a crucial element that provides accurate control command to the X-by-wire chassis and guarantees the vehicle safety. To overcome the deterioration of control performance for autonomous vehicle path-tracking controllers caused by [...] Read more.
As the bottom layer of the autonomous vehicle, path tracking control is a crucial element that provides accurate control command to the X-by-wire chassis and guarantees the vehicle safety. To overcome the deterioration of control performance for autonomous vehicle path-tracking controllers caused by modeling errors and parameter perturbation, an adaptive robust control framework is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the 2-DOF vehicle dynamic model is established and the non-singular fast terminal sliding mode control algorithm is adopted to formulate the control law. The unmeasured model disturbance and parameter perturbation is regarded as the system uncertainty. To enhance the control accuracy, the radial basis forward neural network is introduced to estimate such uncertainty in real time. Then, the dynamic model of an active front steering system is established. The model reference control algorithm is applied for the steering torque control considering model uncertainty brought by the dissipation of manufacturing and mechanical wear. Finally, the Simulink–CarSim co-simulation platform is used and the proposed control framework is validated in two test scenarios. The simulation results demonstrate the proposed adaptive robust control algorithm has satisfactory control performance and good robustness against the system uncertainty. Full article
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16 pages, 4817 KiB  
Article
Performance Enhancement of Vehicle Mechatronic Inertial Suspension, Employing a Bridge Electrical Network
by Tianyi Zhang, Xiaofeng Yang, Yujie Shen, Xiaofu Liu and Tao He
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(12), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13120229 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1748
Abstract
Inerters, a new type of mass element, have been successfully applied in various fields, such as in automotive and civil engineering. The development of a new element, named a mechatronic inerter, which consists of a ball-screw inerter and permanent magnet electric machinery, proves [...] Read more.
Inerters, a new type of mass element, have been successfully applied in various fields, such as in automotive and civil engineering. The development of a new element, named a mechatronic inerter, which consists of a ball-screw inerter and permanent magnet electric machinery, proves the feasibility of adopting electrical element impedances to simulate corresponding mechanical elements. In this paper, the structures of the bridge electrical network and series-parallel electrical network and their impedance characteristics are first introduced. Then, a seven-degree-of-freedom vehicle model is established. In addition, by comparison with passive suspension, a bridge network and a series-parallel network with various basic topologies are used to improve the vibration isolation performance of mechatronic inertial suspension, and the advantages of the bridge network (a) are demonstrated. Finally, a bridge electrical network (a) was designed and a real vehicle test was carried out. The test results showed that the mechatronic inertial suspension based on the bridge network (a) was superior to the passive suspension; the RMS (root-mean-square) values of the suspension working space and dynamic tire load of the left rear wheel suspension were reduced by 21.1% and 6.3%, respectively; and the RMS value of the centroid acceleration was improved by 1.8%. Full article
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15 pages, 4439 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Active Suspension Control Based on Improved Fuzzy Neural Network PID
by Mei Li, Jiapeng Li, Guisheng Li and Jie Xu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(12), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13120226 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2405
Abstract
To improve the comfort and smoothness of vehicle driving and reduce the vehicle vibration caused by uneven road surface. In this paper, a new active suspension control strategy is pro-posed by combining a fuzzy neural network and a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, taking body [...] Read more.
To improve the comfort and smoothness of vehicle driving and reduce the vehicle vibration caused by uneven road surface. In this paper, a new active suspension control strategy is pro-posed by combining a fuzzy neural network and a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, taking body acceleration as the main optimization target and adjusting the parameters of the PID controller in real time. Meanwhile, a fuzzy neural network parameter optimization algorithm combining a particle swarm optimization algorithm and gradient descent method is proposed to realize offline optimization and online fine-tuning of fuzzy neural network parameters. Finally, the active suspension model of a 2-degree-of-freedom 1/4 vehicle is established using MATLAB/Simulink, and the proposed control scheme is verified through simulation studies. The results show that the active suspension system with a particle swarm-optimized fuzzy neural network control method improves the spring mass acceleration, dynamic deflection of suspension, and dynamic tire deformation by 30.4%, 17.8%, and 15.5%, respectively, compared with the passive suspension. In addition, there are also 14.6%, 12.1%, and 11.2% performance improvements, respectively, compared to the PID-controlled active suspension system. These results indicate that the control strategy proposed in this paper can improve the vehicle driving performance and can support the design and development of active suspension systems. Full article
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14 pages, 3946 KiB  
Article
MPC-Based Obstacle Avoidance Path Tracking Control for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles
by Hongchao Wu, Huanhuan Zhang and Yixuan Feng
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(12), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13120221 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2023
Abstract
A path tracking controller based on front wheel steering angle and additional yaw moment control is designed to achieve safe obstacle avoidance of distributed drive electric vehicles. Using sixth-degree polynomial at a given time with anti-collision and anti-rollover conditions, the path planning of [...] Read more.
A path tracking controller based on front wheel steering angle and additional yaw moment control is designed to achieve safe obstacle avoidance of distributed drive electric vehicles. Using sixth-degree polynomial at a given time with anti-collision and anti-rollover conditions, the path planning of obstacle avoidance is proposed. The front wheel steering angle and additional yaw moment are output by the Model Predictive Control (MPC) controller. The wheel torque is distributed by the torque distribution controller. Through additional yaw moment and the vertical force ratio of the wheel, the obstacle avoidance path tracking control is realized. The co-simulation platform is established with Carsim/Simulink. The obstacle avoidance path, model predictive controller and torque distribution controller designed in this paper are simulated. The results show that obstacle avoidance path and tracking controller for the distributed drive electric vehicles effectively meet the requirements of safe obstacle avoidance. Full article
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21 pages, 9723 KiB  
Article
Model-Based Fault Diagnosis of Actuators in Electronically Controlled Air Suspension System
by Xinwei Jiang, Xing Xu and Haiqiang Shan
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(11), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13110219 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1989
Abstract
The air suspension adjusts the height of the vehicle body through charging and bleeding air to meet the high performance of the vehicle, which needs a reliable electronic control system. Through fault tree analysis of the electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS) system and [...] Read more.
The air suspension adjusts the height of the vehicle body through charging and bleeding air to meet the high performance of the vehicle, which needs a reliable electronic control system. Through fault tree analysis of the electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS) system and considering the correlation between the duty cycle and flow rate of the air spring solenoid valve, the fault model of the solenoid valve is constructed, and the fault diagnosis design method of the ECAS system solenoid valve based on multiple extended Kalman filter banks (EKFs) is proposed. An adaptive threshold is used to realize fault diagnosis, and active fault-tolerant control is carried out based on an analytical model. The real controller based on d2p rapid prototyping technology and the vehicle model based on AMESim are further verified on the hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) simulation test platform and compared with the pure simulation results. The test results show that the fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control algorithm can work normally in the actual controller, and can effectively realize the fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control of the actuator in the vehicle ECAS system. Full article
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20 pages, 3115 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Roll Prevention Control for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles
by Xiaoyu Chang, Huanhuan Zhang, Shuai Yan, Shengli Hu and Youming Meng
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(11), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13110210 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2097
Abstract
This work presents an approach to improve the roll stability of distributed drive electric vehicles (DDEV). The effect of the reaction torque from the in-wheel motor exerts additional roll moment, which is different from traditional vehicles. The additional roll moment can be achieved [...] Read more.
This work presents an approach to improve the roll stability of distributed drive electric vehicles (DDEV). The effect of the reaction torque from the in-wheel motor exerts additional roll moment, which is different from traditional vehicles. The additional roll moment can be achieved by active control of the wheel torque adjustment, which achieves a control effect similar to the active suspension. The anti-roll control strategy of decoupling control of roll motion and yaw motion are proposed. The direct yaw moment is calculated by the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) algorithm while the additional rolling moment is calculated by the sliding mode variable structure. For maneuvering rollover caused by excessive lateral acceleration, an anti-rollover control strategy is designed based on differential braking. A fuzzy control theory is used to decide the yaw moment to be compensated. The distribution method of the braking torque applied to the outer wheel alone, and the lateral load transfer rate is the main evaluation index for simulation verification of typical working conditions. The simulation results show that the proposed control strategy for DDEV is effective. Full article
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17 pages, 3418 KiB  
Article
Trajectory Tracking Control of Intelligent X-by-Wire Vehicles
by Zixu Wang, Yong Li, Chuyo Kaku and Hongyu Zheng
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(11), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13110205 - 1 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1845
Abstract
Vehicle intelligence is an effective way to improve driving safety and comfort and reduce traffic accidents. The trajectory tracking control of unmanned vehicles is the core module of intelligent vehicles. As a redundant system, the X-by-wire electric vehicle has the advantage that the [...] Read more.
Vehicle intelligence is an effective way to improve driving safety and comfort and reduce traffic accidents. The trajectory tracking control of unmanned vehicles is the core module of intelligent vehicles. As a redundant system, the X-by-wire electric vehicle has the advantage that the turning angles and driving torque of the four wheels can be precisely controlled and it has a higher degree of controllability and flexibility. In this paper, a trajectory tracking control algorithm based on a hierarchical control architecture is designed based on x-by-wire vehicles. The hierarchical control algorithm architecture includes the trajectory tracking layer, tire force distribution layer, and actuator control layer. The trajectory tracking layer uses the longitudinal force, lateral force, and yaw moment as the control variables; the model predictive control algorithm controls the vehicle to follow the desired trajectory. The tire force distribution layer is solved by transforming the tire force distribution problem into a quadratic programming problem with constraints. Based on the expected resultant force and resultant moment, the longitudinal force and lateral force of each tire in the vehicle coordinate system are obtained. The actuator control layer converts the coordinate system to obtain the longitudinal force and lateral force in the tire coordinate system, which uses the arctangent function tire model to solve the desired tire slip angle, and then obtains the vehicle steer angle and driving torque. To verify the effectiveness of the trajectory tracking control algorithm of the hierarchical control architecture, the proposed trajectory tracking control algorithm is simulated and verified through the variable speed double line change condition and the low road friction coefficient double line change condition. The simulation results show that the control algorithm proposed in this paper has the accuracy to follow the desired trajectory.Definition: Full article
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18 pages, 5992 KiB  
Article
Vehicle Safety Planning Control Method Based on Variable Gauss Safety Field
by Zixuan Zhu, Chenglong Teng, Yingfeng Cai, Long Chen, Yubo Lian and Hai Wang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(11), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13110203 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
The existing intelligent vehicle trajectory-planning methods have limitations in terms of efficiency and safety. To overcome these limitations, this paper proposes an automatic driving trajectory-planning method based on a variable Gaussian safety field. Firstly, the time series bird’s-eye view is used as the [...] Read more.
The existing intelligent vehicle trajectory-planning methods have limitations in terms of efficiency and safety. To overcome these limitations, this paper proposes an automatic driving trajectory-planning method based on a variable Gaussian safety field. Firstly, the time series bird’s-eye view is used as the input state quantity of the network, which improves the effectiveness of the trajectory planning policy network in extracting the features of the surrounding traffic environment. Then, the policy gradient algorithm is used to generate the planned trajectory of the autonomous vehicle, which improves the planning efficiency. The variable Gaussian safety field is used as the reward function of the trajectory planning part and the evaluation index of the control part, which improves the safety of the reinforcement learning vehicle tracking algorithm. The proposed algorithm is verified using the simulator. The obtained results show that the proposed algorithm has excellent trajectory planning ability in the highway scene and can achieve high safety and high precision tracking control. Full article
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19 pages, 6160 KiB  
Article
Nonlinear MPC-Based Acceleration Slip Regulation for Distributed Electric Vehicles
by Wentong Shi, Yuyao Jiang, Zuying Shen, Zhongjing Yu, Hongqing Chu and Dengcheng Liu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(11), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13110200 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1930
Abstract
To address the problem in which wheel longitudinal slip rate directly affects the dynamics and handling stability of a vehicle under driving conditions, front and rear dual-motor four-wheel drive electric vehicles (4WD EVs) were selected as the research object in this study. An [...] Read more.
To address the problem in which wheel longitudinal slip rate directly affects the dynamics and handling stability of a vehicle under driving conditions, front and rear dual-motor four-wheel drive electric vehicles (4WD EVs) were selected as the research object in this study. An acceleration slip regulation (ASR) control strategy based on nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) is proposed. First, the vehicle dynamics model and the Simulink/CarSim co-simulation platform were built. Second, an ASR controller with intervention and exit mechanisms was designed with the control objective of tracking reference speed or optimal slip rate. Then, considering the problem that the left and right wheels could not freely distribute torque under the condition of a split road surface, the motor output torque was determined in accordance with the wheel with the larger slip rate to enhance passibility. Finally, on the basis of the built Simulink/CarSim co-simulation platform, slip rate control simulation experiments were performed on a snow-covered road, a wet asphalt road, a docking road, and a split road. The designed controller can better track target slip rate and it exhibits better dynamic performance and stability than the method with PID control under different road conditions, especially under low speed and low adhesion road conditions, and its robustness can also meet the requirements. Full article
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24 pages, 11443 KiB  
Article
Torque Distribution Based on Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Four In-Wheel Motor Drive Electric Vehicle Considering Energy Efficiency Optimization
by Oluwatobi Pelumi Adeleke, Yong Li, Qiang Chen, Wentao Zhou, Xing Xu and Xiaoli Cui
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(10), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13100181 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4237
Abstract
The improvement of both the stability and economy of the four in-wheel motor drive (4IWMD) electric vehicle under complex drive cycles is currently a difficult problem in this field. A torque distribution method with the comprehensive goals of optimal torque distribution and energy [...] Read more.
The improvement of both the stability and economy of the four in-wheel motor drive (4IWMD) electric vehicle under complex drive cycles is currently a difficult problem in this field. A torque distribution method with the comprehensive goals of optimal torque distribution and energy efficiency, considering economy through energy efficiency for the 4IWMD electric vehicle, is proposed in this paper. Each component of the 4IWMD electric vehicle is modelled. The dynamic programming (DP) control algorithm is utilized for torque distribution between the front and rear in-wheel motors to obtain optimal torque distribution and energy efficiency in the 4IWMD electric vehicle. The simulation is performed on a co-simulation platform with the software of AVL Cruise and MATLAB/Simulink, considering a straight road. Compared to the fuzzy logic control algorithm, the simulation results are very promising, as the energy consumption of the electric vehicle was reduced by 22.68%, 20.73% and 21.84% under the WLTC, NEDC and customized IM240 driving cycle conditions, respectively, with the proposed DP control algorithm. The hardware-in-the loop (HIL) experimental results also indicate that the effectiveness of the proposed DP algorithm is verified under the NEDC, WLTC and IM240 driving cycles, when a straight road is considered. The proposed DP control algorithm not only reduces the vehicle energy consumption and guarantees the optimization of torque distribution, but also increases the driving range of the vehicle. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

17 pages, 5755 KiB  
Review
A Review of Position Sensorless Compound Control for PMSM Drives
by Yong Li, Han Hu and Peicheng Shi
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14020034 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2451
Abstract
As position sensorless control technology can avoid many disadvantages caused by mechanical position sensors, improve the reliability of the motor, reduce costs and other advantages, a large number of researchers have conducted research on compound control technology in order to achieve position sensorless [...] Read more.
As position sensorless control technology can avoid many disadvantages caused by mechanical position sensors, improve the reliability of the motor, reduce costs and other advantages, a large number of researchers have conducted research on compound control technology in order to achieve position sensorless control technology in a wide speed range. In this article, the position sensorless compound control technology of a permanent magnet synchronous motor is reviewed, and the compound control technology of a permanent magnet synchronous motor without a position sensor is elaborated. Finally, the existing problems and development trend of sensorless compound control technology are summarized and prospected. Full article
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