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Pharmaceutics, Volume 11, Issue 8 (August 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The encapsulation of flavonoids into lipid nanoemulsions (LN) overcomes their limitations, such as [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Therapeutic Potential of 47Sc in Comparison to 177Lu and 90Y: Preclinical Investigations
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080424 - 20 Aug 2019
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Abstract
Targeted radionuclide therapy with 177Lu- and 90Y-labeled radioconjugates is a clinically-established treatment modality for metastasized cancer. 47Sc is a therapeutic radionuclide that decays with a half-life of 3.35 days and emits medium-energy β-particles. In this study, 47Sc [...] Read more.
Targeted radionuclide therapy with 177Lu- and 90Y-labeled radioconjugates is a clinically-established treatment modality for metastasized cancer. 47Sc is a therapeutic radionuclide that decays with a half-life of 3.35 days and emits medium-energy β-particles. In this study, 47Sc was investigated, in combination with a DOTA-folate conjugate, and compared to the therapeutic properties of 177Lu-folate and 90Y-folate, respectively. In vitro, 47Sc-folate demonstrated effective reduction of folate receptor-positive ovarian tumor cell viability similar to 177Lu-folate, but 90Y-folate was more potent at equal activities due to the higher energy of emitted β-particles. Comparable tumor growth inhibition was observed in mice that obtained the same estimated absorbed tumor dose (~21 Gy) when treated with 47Sc-folate (12.5 MBq), 177Lu-folate (10 MBq), and 90Y-folate (5 MBq), respectively. The treatment resulted in increased median survival of 39, 43, and 41 days, respectively, as compared to 26 days in untreated controls. There were no statistically significant differences among the therapeutic effects observed in treated groups. Histological assessment revealed no severe side effects two weeks after application of the radiofolates, even at double the activity used for therapy. Based on the decay properties and our results, 47Sc is likely to be comparable to 177Lu when employed for targeted radionuclide therapy. It may, therefore, have potential for clinical translation and be of particular interest in tandem with 44Sc or 43Sc as a diagnostic match, enabling the realization of radiotheragnostics in future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Radionuclide Tumor Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Subcellular Trafficking of Resveratrol Using Mitochondriotropic Liposomes in Cancer Cells
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080423 - 20 Aug 2019
Viewed by 450
Abstract
Mitochondria are membrane-enclosed organelles present in most eukaryotic cells, described as “power houses of the cell”. The mitochondria can be a target for inducing cancer cell death and for developing strategies to bypass multi drug resistance (MDR) mechanisms. 4-Carboxybutyl triphenylphosphonium bromide-polyethylene glycol-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (TPP-DSPE-PEG) [...] Read more.
Mitochondria are membrane-enclosed organelles present in most eukaryotic cells, described as “power houses of the cell”. The mitochondria can be a target for inducing cancer cell death and for developing strategies to bypass multi drug resistance (MDR) mechanisms. 4-Carboxybutyl triphenylphosphonium bromide-polyethylene glycol-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (TPP-DSPE-PEG) and dequalinium-polyethylene glycol-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DQA-DSPE-PEG) were synthesized as mitochondriotropic molecules. Mitochondria-targeting liposomes carrying resveratrol were constructed by modifying the liposome’s surface with TPP-PEG or DQA-PEG, resulting in TLS (Res) and DLS (Res), respectively, with the aim to obtain longer blood circulation and enhanced permeability and retention (EPR). Both TLS (Res) and DLS (Res) showed dimensions of approximately 120 nm and a slightly positive zeta potential. The enhanced cellular uptake and selective accumulation of TLS (Res) and DLS (Res) into the mitochondria were demonstrated by behavioral observation of rhodamine-labeled TLS or DLS, using confocal microscopy, and by resveratrol quantification in the intracellular organelle, using LC–MS/MS. Furthermore, TLS (Res) and DLS (Res) induced cytotoxicity of cancer cells by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and by dissipating the mitochondrial membrane potential. Our results demonstrated that TLS (Res) and DLS (Res) could provide a potential strategy to treat cancers by mitochondrial targeting delivery of therapeutics and stimulation of the mitochondrial signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Formulation Approaches for Targeted Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle
Nanolipid-Trehalose Conjugates and Nano-Assemblies as Putative Autophagy Inducers
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080422 - 20 Aug 2019
Viewed by 464
Abstract
The disaccharide trehalose is an autophagy inducer, but its pharmacological application is severely limited by its poor pharmacokinetics properties. Thus, trehalose was coupled via suitable spacers with squalene (in 1:2 and 1:1 stoichiometry) and with betulinic acid (1:2 stoichiometry), in order to yield [...] Read more.
The disaccharide trehalose is an autophagy inducer, but its pharmacological application is severely limited by its poor pharmacokinetics properties. Thus, trehalose was coupled via suitable spacers with squalene (in 1:2 and 1:1 stoichiometry) and with betulinic acid (1:2 stoichiometry), in order to yield the corresponding nanolipid-trehalose conjugates 1-Sq-mono, 2-Sq-bis and 3-Be-mono. The conjugates were assembled to produce the corresponding nano-assemblies (NAs) Sq-NA1, Sq-NA2 and Be-NA3. The synthetic and assembly protocols are described in detail. The resulting NAs were characterized in terms of loading and structure, and tested in vitro for their capability to induce autophagy. Our results are presented and thoroughly commented upon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-Organizing Nanovectors for Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle
Doxycycline-Eluting Core-Shell Type Nanofiber-Covered Trachea Stent for Inhibition of Cellular Metalloproteinase and Its Related Fibrotic Stenosis
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080421 - 19 Aug 2019
Viewed by 469
Abstract
In this study, we fabricated a doxycycline (doxy)-eluting nanofiber-covered endotracheal stent for the prevention of stent intubation-related tissue fibrosis and re-stenosis. The nanofiber was deposited directly on the outer surface of the stent using a coaxial electrospinning method to form a doxy-eluting cover [...] Read more.
In this study, we fabricated a doxycycline (doxy)-eluting nanofiber-covered endotracheal stent for the prevention of stent intubation-related tissue fibrosis and re-stenosis. The nanofiber was deposited directly on the outer surface of the stent using a coaxial electrospinning method to form a doxy-eluting cover sleeve. Poly(d,l-lactide) was used as the shell-forming polymer and dedicated drug release-control membrane. Polyurethane was selected as the drug-loading core polymer. The compositional ratio of the core to shell was adjusted to 1:0, 1:2, and 1:4 by changing the electro-spray rate of each polymeric solution and microscopic observation of nanofibers using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the fluorescence microscopy proved core-shell structure of nanofibers. The in vitro release study suggested that the release of doxy could be controlled by increasing the compositional ratio of the shell. The growth of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells was inhibited by the 10% doxy-containing nanofiber. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in HT1080 cells and xenografted tissue models indicated that the doxy-releasing nanofiber inhibited mRNA expression of metalloproteinases (MT1-MMP, MMP-2, and MMP-9). Overall, our study demonstrates that a doxy-eluting core-shell nanofiber stent can be successfully fabricated using coaxial electrospinning and displays the potential to prevent fibrotic re-stenosis, which is the most problematic clinical complication of tracheal stent intubation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug-Loaded Nanofibers: Controlled and Sustained Release)
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Open AccessArticle
The Investigation of Flory–Huggins Interaction Parameters for Amorphous Solid Dispersion Across the Entire Temperature and Composition Range
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080420 - 19 Aug 2019
Viewed by 469
Abstract
Amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) is one of the most promising enabling formulations featuring significant water solubility and bioavailability enhancements for biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) class II and IV drugs. An accurate thermodynamic understanding of the ASD should be established for the ease of [...] Read more.
Amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) is one of the most promising enabling formulations featuring significant water solubility and bioavailability enhancements for biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) class II and IV drugs. An accurate thermodynamic understanding of the ASD should be established for the ease of development of stable formulation with desired product performances. In this study, we report a first experimental approach combined with classic Flory–Huggins (F–H) modelling to understand the performances of ASD across the entire temperature and drug composition range. At low temperature and drug loading, water (moisture) was induced into the system to increase the mobility and accelerate the amorphous drug-amorphous polymer phase separation (AAPS). The binodal line indicating the boundary between one phase and AAPS of felodipine, PVPK15 and water ternary system was successfully measured, and the corresponding F–H interaction parameters (χ) for FD-PVPK15 binary system were derived. By combining dissolution/melting depression with AAPS approach, the relationship between temperature and drug loading with χ (Φ, T) for FD-PVPK15 system was modelled across the entire range as χ = 1.72 − 852/T + 5.17·Φ − 7.85·Φ2. This empirical equation can provide better understanding and prediction for the miscibility and stability of drug-polymer ASD at all conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design and In Vivo Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Triamcinolone Acetonide Microcrystals-Loaded PLGA Microsphere for Increased Drug Retention in Knees after Intra-Articular Injection
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080419 - 19 Aug 2019
Viewed by 495
Abstract
A novel polymeric microsphere (MS) containing micronized triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in a crystalline state was structured to provide extended drug retention in joints after intra-articular (IA) injection. Microcrystals with a median diameter of 1.7 μm were prepared by ultra-sonication method, and incorporated into [...] Read more.
A novel polymeric microsphere (MS) containing micronized triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in a crystalline state was structured to provide extended drug retention in joints after intra-articular (IA) injection. Microcrystals with a median diameter of 1.7 μm were prepared by ultra-sonication method, and incorporated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly(lactic acid) (PLGA/PLA) MSs using spray-drying technique. Cross-sectional observation and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that drug microcrystals were evenly embedded in the MSs, with a distinctive crystalline nature of TA. In vitro drug release from the novel MSs was markedly decelerated compared to those from the marketed crystalline suspension (Triam inj.®), or even 7.2 μm-sized TA crystals-loaded MSs. The novel system offered prolonged drug retention in rat joints, providing quantifiable TA remains over 28 days. Whereas, over 95% of IA TA was removed from joints within seven days, after injection of the marketed product. Systemic exposure of the steroidal compound was drastically decreased with the MSs, with <50% systemic exposure compared to that with the marketed product. The novel MS was physicochemically stable, with no changes in drug crystallinity and release profile over 12 months. Therefore, the TA microcrystals-loaded MS is expected to be beneficial in patients especially with osteoarthritis, with reduced IA dosing frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PLGA Based Drug Carrier and Pharmaceutical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Rationally Designed Dendritic Silica Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery of Exenatide
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080418 - 19 Aug 2019
Viewed by 587
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes makes up approximately 85% of all diabetic cases and it is linked to approximately one-third of all hospitalisations. Newer therapies with long-acting biologics such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues have been promising in managing the disease, but they cannot reverse [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes makes up approximately 85% of all diabetic cases and it is linked to approximately one-third of all hospitalisations. Newer therapies with long-acting biologics such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues have been promising in managing the disease, but they cannot reverse the pathology of the disease. Additionally, their parenteral administration is often associated with high healthcare costs, risk of infections, and poor patient adherence associated with phobia of needles. Oral delivery of these compounds would significantly improve patient compliance; however, poor enzymatic stability and low permeability across the gastrointestinal tract makes this task challenging. In the present work, large pore dendritic silica nanoparticles (DSNPs) with a pore size of ~10 nm were prepared, functionalized, and optimized in order to achieve high peptide loading and improve intestinal permeation of exenatide, a GLP-1 analogue. Compared to the loading capacity of the most popular, Mobil Composition of Matter No. 41 (MCM-41) with small pores, DSNPs showed significantly high loading owing to their large and dendritic pore structure. Among the tested DSNPs, pristine and phosphonate-modified DSNPs (PDSNPs) displayed remarkable loading of 40 and 35% w/w, respectively. Furthermore, particles successfully coated with positively charged chitosan reduced the burst release of exenatide at both pH 1.2 and 6.8. Compared with free exenatide, both chitosan-coated and uncoated PDSNPs enhanced exenatide transport through the Caco-2 monolayer by 1.7 fold. Interestingly, when a triple co-culture model of intestinal permeation was used, chitosan-coated PDSNPs performed better compared to both PDSNPs and free exenatide, which corroborated our hypothesis behind using chitosan to interact with mucus and improve permeation. These results indicate the emerging role of large pore silica nanoparticles as promising platforms for oral delivery of biologics such as exenatide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Micro and Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle
Formulation and Characterization of Aceclofenac-Loaded Nanofiber Based Orally Dissolving Webs
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080417 - 17 Aug 2019
Viewed by 479
Abstract
Aceclofenac-loaded poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone)-based nanofiber formulations were prepared by electrospinning to obtain drug-loaded orally disintegrating webs to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of the poorly soluble anti-inflammatory active that belongs to the BCS Class-II. Triethanolamine-containing ternary composite of aceclofenac-poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) nanofibers were formulated to exert [...] Read more.
Aceclofenac-loaded poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone)-based nanofiber formulations were prepared by electrospinning to obtain drug-loaded orally disintegrating webs to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of the poorly soluble anti-inflammatory active that belongs to the BCS Class-II. Triethanolamine-containing ternary composite of aceclofenac-poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) nanofibers were formulated to exert the synergistic effect on the drug-dissolution improvement. The composition and the electrospinning parameters were changed to select the fibrous sample of optimum fiber characteristics. To determine the morphology of the nanofibers, scanning electron microscopy was used. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were applied for the solid-state characterization of the samples, while the drug release profile was followed by the in vitro dissolution test. The nanofibrous formulations had diameters in the range of few hundred nanometers. FT-IR spectra and DSC thermograms indicated the amorphization of aceclofenac, which resulted in a rapid release of the active substance. The characteristics of the selected ternary fiber composition (10 mg/g aceclofenac, 1% w/w triethanolamine, 15% w/w PVPK90) were found to be suitable for obtaining orally dissolving webs of fast dissolution and potential oral absorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Development of Electrospinning for Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessReview
In Vitro and In Vivo Test Methods for the Evaluation of Gastroretentive Dosage Forms
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080416 - 16 Aug 2019
Viewed by 446
Abstract
More than 50 years ago, the first concepts for gastroretentive drug delivery systems were developed. Despite extensive research in this field, there is no single formulation concept for which reliable gastroretention has been demonstrated under different prandial conditions. Thus, gastroretention remains the holy [...] Read more.
More than 50 years ago, the first concepts for gastroretentive drug delivery systems were developed. Despite extensive research in this field, there is no single formulation concept for which reliable gastroretention has been demonstrated under different prandial conditions. Thus, gastroretention remains the holy grail of oral drug delivery. One of the major reasons for the various setbacks in this field is the lack of predictive in vitro and in vivo test methods used during preclinical development. In most cases, human gastrointestinal physiology is not properly considered, which leads to the application of inappropriate in vitro and animal models. Moreover, conditions in the stomach are often not fully understood. Important aspects such as the kinetics of fluid volumes, gastric pH or mechanical stresses have to be considered in a realistic manner, otherwise, the gastroretentive potential as well as drug release of novel formulations cannot be assessed correctly in preclinical studies. This review, therefore, highlights the most important aspects of human gastrointestinal physiology and discusses their potential implications for the evaluation of gastroretentive drug delivery systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of 1-Palmitoyl-2-Linoleoyl-3-Acetyl-Rac-Glycerol-Loaded Self-Emulsifying Granule and Solid Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System: Powder Property, Dissolution and Oral Bioavailability
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080415 - 16 Aug 2019
Viewed by 409
Abstract
The main objective of this study was to compare the powder property, dissolution and bioavailability of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol (PLAG)-loaded self-emulsifying granule system (SEGS) and solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS). Various SEGS formulations were prepared, and the effect of surfactant and binder on the [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study was to compare the powder property, dissolution and bioavailability of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol (PLAG)-loaded self-emulsifying granule system (SEGS) and solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS). Various SEGS formulations were prepared, and the effect of surfactant and binder on the drug solubility in them, leading to selecting sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC). The SEGS and SNEDDS were prepared with PLAG/SLS/HPMC/calcium silicate/microcrystalline cellulose at the weight ratio of 1:0.25:0.1:0.5:3 employing the fluid bed granulation and spray-drying technique, respectively. Their powder properties were compared in terms of flow ability, emulsion droplet size, scanning electron microscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the solubility, dissolution, and oral bioavailability in rats of the SEGS were assessed in comparison with the SNEDDS. The SEGS and SNEDDS enhanced the solubility of the drug approximately 36- and 32-fold as compared with the drug alone; but they had no differences. The crystalline drug may exist in both the calcium silicate and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in the SEGS, but only in the calcium silicate in the SNEDDS. The SEGS had considerably improved the flow ability (Hausner ratio, 1.23 vs. 1.07; Carr index, 19.8 vs. 43.5%) and drug dissolution as compared with the SNEDDS. The SEGS and SNEDDS with double peak profiles, unlike the single peak of drug alone, showed a significantly higher plasma concentration and area under the curve (AUC), as compared with drug alone. Although they were not significantly different, the SEGS gave higher AUC than did the SNEDDS, suggesting its enhanced oral bioavailability of PLAG. Thus, the SEGS could be used as a powerful oral dosage form to improve the flow ability and oral bioavailability of PLAG, an oily drug. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Application of the Discrete Element Method for Manufacturing Process Simulation in the Pharmaceutical Industry
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080414 - 15 Aug 2019
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Process simulation using mathematical modeling tools is becoming more common in the pharmaceutical industry. A mechanistic model is a mathematical modeling tool that can enhance process understanding, reduce experimentation cost and improve product quality. A commonly used mechanistic modeling approach for powder is [...] Read more.
Process simulation using mathematical modeling tools is becoming more common in the pharmaceutical industry. A mechanistic model is a mathematical modeling tool that can enhance process understanding, reduce experimentation cost and improve product quality. A commonly used mechanistic modeling approach for powder is the discrete element method (DEM). Most pharmaceutical materials have powder or granular material. Therefore, DEM might be widely applied in the pharmaceutical industry. This review focused on the basic elements of DEM and its implementations in pharmaceutical manufacturing simulation. Contact models and input parameters are essential elements in DEM simulation. Contact models computed contact forces acting on the particle-particle and particle-geometry interactions. Input parameters were divided into two types—material properties and interaction parameters. Various calibration methods were presented to define the interaction parameters of pharmaceutical materials. Several applications of DEM simulation in pharmaceutical manufacturing processes, such as milling, blending, granulation and coating, were categorized and summarized. Based on this review, DEM simulation might provide a systematic process understanding and process control to ensure the quality of a drug product. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Mixed Thermosensitive Hydrogel System for Sustained Delivery of Tacrolimus for Immunosuppressive Therapy
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080413 - 14 Aug 2019
Viewed by 504
Abstract
Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive agent for acute rejection after allotransplantation. However, the low aqueous solubility of tacrolimus poses difficulties in formulating an injection dosage. Polypeptide thermosensitive hydrogels can maintain a sustained release depot to deliver tacrolimus. The copolymers, which consist of poloxamer and [...] Read more.
Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive agent for acute rejection after allotransplantation. However, the low aqueous solubility of tacrolimus poses difficulties in formulating an injection dosage. Polypeptide thermosensitive hydrogels can maintain a sustained release depot to deliver tacrolimus. The copolymers, which consist of poloxamer and poly(l-alanine) with l-lysine segments at both ends (P–Lys–Ala–PLX), are able to carry tacrolimus in an in situ gelled form with acceptable biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low gelling concentrations from 3 to 7 wt %. By adding Pluronic F-127 to formulate a mixed hydrogel system, the drug release rate can be adjusted to maintain suitable drug levels in animals with transplants. Under this formulation, the in vitro release of tacrolimus was stable for more than 100 days, while in vivo release of tacrolimus in mouse model showed that rejection from skin allotransplantation was prevented for at least three weeks with one single administration. Using these mixed hydrogel systems for sustaining delivery of tacrolimus demonstrates advancement in immunosuppressive therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Designing Hydrogels for Controlled Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle
Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Line with Fast Differentiation and Improved Barrier Properties
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080412 - 13 Aug 2019
Viewed by 544
Abstract
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) acts as an outer blood–retinal barrier that limits the access of circulating xenobiotics to the eye. In addition, the RPE limits posterior elimination of intravitreally injected drugs to circulation. Thus, permeation in the RPE has a significant effect on [...] Read more.
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) acts as an outer blood–retinal barrier that limits the access of circulating xenobiotics to the eye. In addition, the RPE limits posterior elimination of intravitreally injected drugs to circulation. Thus, permeation in the RPE has a significant effect on ocular pharmacokinetics. The RPE is also a potentially important drug target in age-related macular degeneration. Therefore, the cell models of the RPE are important tools in ocular drug development, but poor availability and problems in reproducibility limit the use of primary RPE cell cultures. Furthermore, the best and widely used human cell line ARPE19 requires specialized culture conditions and a long time for cellular differentiation. In this paper, we describe a cell population arisen from the ARPE19 culture, with fast differentiation and improved barrier properties. This cell line, LEPI, forms clear microvilli and rapidly displays RPE-like cobblestone morphology after subculture in simple culture conditions. The LEPI cells show RPE-specific functions and expression of RPE65, ezrin, and BEST1 proteins. On filter, the LEPI cells develop tighter barrier than the ex vivo bovine RPE-choroid: permeability coefficients of beta-blockers (atenolol, nadolol, timolol, pindolol, metoprolol, betaxolol) ranged from 0.4 × 10−6 cm/sec to 2.3 × 10−6 cm/sec depending on the drug lipophilicity. This rapidly differentiating cell line will be an asset in ocular studies since it is easily maintained, it grows and differentiates quickly and does not require specialized culture conditions for differentiation. Thus, this cell line is suitable for both small scale assays and high throughput screening in drug discovery and development. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Intestinal Permeability and Drug Absorption: Predictive Experimental, Computational and In Vivo Approaches
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080411 - 13 Aug 2019
Viewed by 520
Abstract
The main objective of this review is to discuss recent advancements in the overall investigation and in vivo prediction of drug absorption. The intestinal permeability of an orally administered drug (given the value Peff) has been widely used to determine the [...] Read more.
The main objective of this review is to discuss recent advancements in the overall investigation and in vivo prediction of drug absorption. The intestinal permeability of an orally administered drug (given the value Peff) has been widely used to determine the rate and extent of the drug’s intestinal absorption (Fabs) in humans. Preclinical gastrointestinal (GI) absorption models are currently in demand for the pharmaceutical development of novel dosage forms and new drug products. However, there is a strong need to improve our understanding of the interplay between pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical, biochemical, and physiological factors when predicting Fabs and bioavailability. Currently, our knowledge of GI secretion, GI motility, and regional intestinal permeability, in both healthy subjects and patients with GI diseases, is limited by the relative inaccessibility of some intestinal segments of the human GI tract. In particular, our understanding of the complex and highly dynamic physiology of the region from the mid-jejunum to the sigmoid colon could be significantly improved. One approach to the assessment of intestinal permeability is to use animal models that allow these intestinal regions to be investigated in detail and then to compare the results with those from simple human permeability models such as cell cultures. Investigation of intestinal drug permeation processes is a crucial biopharmaceutical step in the development of oral pharmaceutical products. The determination of the intestinal Peff for a specific drug is dependent on the technique, model, and conditions applied, and is influenced by multiple interactions between the drug molecule and the biological membranes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydroxyurea-Loaded Albumin Nanoparticles: Preparation, Characterization, and In Vitro Studies
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080410 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Human serum albumin nanoparticles (HSA-NPs) have been widely used as drug delivery systems. In most cases, HSA-NPs are formed by the method of desolvation in the presence of glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent. In the present study, we showed the possibility of crosslinking [...] Read more.
Human serum albumin nanoparticles (HSA-NPs) have been widely used as drug delivery systems. In most cases, HSA-NPs are formed by the method of desolvation in the presence of glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent. In the present study, we showed the possibility of crosslinking human serum albumin (HSA) molecules with natural agents, urea, and cysteine at the nanoparticle level under mild conditions (at room temperature of 20–25 °C). Optimal concentrations of the interacting components (HSA, urea, and cysteine) were found to produce nanoparticles with optimal physico-chemical parameters (particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential, yield, etc.) for application as drug carriers. We used hydroxyurea (HU), a simple organic compound currently used as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent. The results indicated sizes of 196 ± 5 nm and 288 ± 10 nm with a surface charge of −22 ± 3.4 mV and −17.4 ± 0.5 mV for HSA-NPs (20 mg/mL of HSA, 0.01 mg/mL of cysteine, and 10 mg/mL of urea) and HSA–HU-NPs (2 mg/mL of HU), respectively. The yield of the HSA–HU-NPs was ~93% with an encapsulation efficiency of ~77%. Thus, the particles created (immobilized with HU) were stable over time and able to prolong the effect of the drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymeric Delivery Systems for Cancer Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Evaluation of a Poly(Lactide-co-Glycolide)-Based In Situ Film-Forming System for Topical Delivery of Trolamine Salicylate
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080409 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 511
Abstract
Trolamine salicylate (TS) is a topical anti-inflammatory analgesic used to treat small joint pain. The topical route is preferred over the oral one owing to gastrointestinal side effects. In this study, a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based in situ bio-adhesive film-forming system for the [...] Read more.
Trolamine salicylate (TS) is a topical anti-inflammatory analgesic used to treat small joint pain. The topical route is preferred over the oral one owing to gastrointestinal side effects. In this study, a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based in situ bio-adhesive film-forming system for the transdermal delivery of TS was designed and evaluated. Therefore, varying amounts (0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 25% (w/w)) of PLGA (EXPANSORB® DLG 50-2A, 50-5A, 50-8A, and 75-5A), ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate, poly (ethylene glycol) 400, and 1% of TS were dissolved together in acetone to form the bio-adhesive polymeric solution. In vitro drug permeation studies were performed on a vertical Franz diffusion cell and dermatomed porcine ear skin to evaluate the distinct formulations. The bio-adhesive polymeric solutions were prepared successfully and formed a thin film upon application in situ. A significantly higher amount of TS was delivered from a formulation containing 20% PLGA (45 ± 4 µg/cm2) and compared to PLGA-free counterpart (0.6 ± 0.2 µg/cm2). Furthermore, the addition of PLGA to the polymer film facilitated an early onset of TS delivery across dermatomed porcine skin. The optimized formulation also enhanced the delivery of TS into and across the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PLGA Based Drug Carrier and Pharmaceutical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Biomimetic Magnetic Nanocarriers Drive Choline Kinase Alpha Inhibitor inside Cancer Cells for Combined Chemo-Hyperthermia Therapy
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080408 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 526
Abstract
Choline kinase α1 (ChoKα1) has become an excellent antitumor target. Among all the inhibitors synthetized, the new compound Ff35 shows an excellent capacity to inhibit ChoKα1 activity. However, soluble Ff35 is also capable of inhibiting choline uptake, making the inhibitor not selective for [...] Read more.
Choline kinase α1 (ChoKα1) has become an excellent antitumor target. Among all the inhibitors synthetized, the new compound Ff35 shows an excellent capacity to inhibit ChoKα1 activity. However, soluble Ff35 is also capable of inhibiting choline uptake, making the inhibitor not selective for ChoKα1. In this study, we designed a new protocol with the aim of disentangling whether the Ff35 biological action is due to the inhibition of the enzyme and/or to the choline uptake. Moreover, we offer an alternative to avoid the inhibition of choline uptake caused by Ff35, since the coupling of Ff35 to novel biomimetic magnetic nanoparticles (BMNPs) allows it to enter the cell through endocytosis without interacting with the choline transporter. This opens the possibility of a clinical use of Ff35. Our results indicate that Ff35-BMNPs nanoassemblies increase the selectivity of Ff35 and have an antiproliferative effect. Also, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the tandem Ff35-BMNPs and hyperthermia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanopharmaceuticals for Image-Guided Cancer Therapy and Diagnosis)
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Open AccessReview
Strategies for Hyaluronic Acid-Based Hydrogel Design in Drug Delivery
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080407 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural, linear, endogenous polysaccharide that plays important physiological and biological roles in the human body. Nowadays, among biopolymers, HA is emerging as an appealing starting material for hydrogels design due to its biocompatibility, native biofunctionality, biodegradability, non-immunogenicity, and [...] Read more.
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural, linear, endogenous polysaccharide that plays important physiological and biological roles in the human body. Nowadays, among biopolymers, HA is emerging as an appealing starting material for hydrogels design due to its biocompatibility, native biofunctionality, biodegradability, non-immunogenicity, and versatility. Since HA is not able to form gels alone, chemical modifications, covalent crosslinking, and gelling agents are always needed in order to obtain HA-based hydrogels. Therefore, in the last decade, different strategies for the design of physical and chemical HA hydrogels have been developed, such as click chemistry reactions, enzymatic and disulfide crosslinking, supramolecular assembly via inclusion complexation, and so on. HA-based hydrogels turn out to be versatile platforms, ranging from static to smart and stimuli-responsive systems, and for these reasons, they are widely investigated for biomedical applications like drug delivery, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, cell therapy, and diagnostics. Furthermore, the overexpression of HA receptors on various tumor cells makes these platforms promising drug delivery systems for targeted cancer therapy. The aim of the present review is to highlight and discuss recent advances made in the last years on the design of chemical and physical HA-based hydrogels and their application for biomedical purposes, in particular, drug delivery. Notable attention is given to HA hydrogel-based drug delivery systems for targeted therapy of cancer and osteoarthritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Designing Hydrogels for Controlled Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle
Aerosolization Performance of Jet Nebulizers and Biopharmaceutical Aspects
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080406 - 11 Aug 2019
Viewed by 593
Abstract
In this work, 13 jet nebulizers, some of which in different configurations, were investigated in order to identify the biopharmaceutical constraints related to the quality attributes of the medicinal products, which affect their safety, efficiency, compliance, and effectiveness. The aerosolization parameters, including the [...] Read more.
In this work, 13 jet nebulizers, some of which in different configurations, were investigated in order to identify the biopharmaceutical constraints related to the quality attributes of the medicinal products, which affect their safety, efficiency, compliance, and effectiveness. The aerosolization parameters, including the aerosol output, aerosol output rate, mass median aerodynamic diameter, and fine particle fraction, were determined according to the European Standard EN 13544-1, using sodium fluoride as a reference formulation. A comparison between the aerosol output nebulization time and the fine particle fraction displayed a correlation between the aerosol quality and the nebulization rate. Indeed, the quality of the nebulization significantly increased when the rate of aerosol emission was reduced. Moreover, the performance of the nebulizers was analyzed in terms of respirable delivered dose and respirable dose delivery rate, which characterize nebulization as the rate and amount of respirable product that could be deposited into the lungs. Depending on which of these two latter parameters was used, the nebulizers showed different performances. The differences, in terms of the rate and amount of delivered aerosol, could provide relevant information for the appropriate choice of nebulizer as a function of drug product, therapy, and patient characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pulmonary Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle
Nanoemulsion Structural Design in Co-Encapsulation of Hybrid Multifunctional Agents: Influence of the Smart PLGA Polymers on the Nanosystem-Enhanced Delivery and Electro-Photodynamic Treatment
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080405 - 11 Aug 2019
Viewed by 778
Abstract
In the present study, we examined properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based nanocarriers (NCs) with various functional or “smart” properties, i.e., coated with PLGA, polyethylene glycolated PLGA (PEG-PLGA), or folic acid-functionalized PLGA (FA-PLGA). NCs were obtained by double emulsion (water-in-oil-in-water) evaporation process, which [...] Read more.
In the present study, we examined properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based nanocarriers (NCs) with various functional or “smart” properties, i.e., coated with PLGA, polyethylene glycolated PLGA (PEG-PLGA), or folic acid-functionalized PLGA (FA-PLGA). NCs were obtained by double emulsion (water-in-oil-in-water) evaporation process, which is one of the most suitable approaches in nanoemulsion structural design. Nanoemulsion surface engineering allowed us to co-encapsulate a hydrophobic porphyrin photosensitizing dye—verteporfin (VP) in combination with low-dose cisplatin (CisPt)—a hydrophilic cytostatic drug. The composition was tested as a multifunctional and synergistic hybrid agent for bioimaging and anticancer treatment assisted by electroporation on human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 and control hamster ovarian fibroblastoid CHO-K1 cell lines. The diameter of PLGA NCs with different coatings was on average 200 nm, as shown by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. We analyzed the effect of the nanocarrier charge and the polymeric shield variation on the colloidal stability using microelectrophoretic and turbidimetric methods. The cellular internalization and anticancer activity following the electro-photodynamic treatment (EP-PDT) were assessed with confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Our data show that functionalized PLGA NCs are biocompatible and enable efficient delivery of the hybrid cargo to cancer cells, followed by enhanced killing of cells when supported by EP-PDT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PLGA Based Drug Carrier and Pharmaceutical Applications)
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Open AccessReview
Extracellular Vesicles as a Potential Therapy for Neonatal Conditions: State of the Art and Challenges in Clinical Translation
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080404 - 11 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Despite advances in intensive care, several neonatal conditions typically due to prematurity affect vital organs and are associated with high mortality and long-term morbidities. Current treatment strategies for these babies are only partially successful or are effective only in selected patients. Regenerative medicine [...] Read more.
Despite advances in intensive care, several neonatal conditions typically due to prematurity affect vital organs and are associated with high mortality and long-term morbidities. Current treatment strategies for these babies are only partially successful or are effective only in selected patients. Regenerative medicine has been shown to be a promising option for these conditions at an experimental level, but still warrants further exploration for the development of optimal treatment. Although stem cell-based therapy has emerged as a treatment option, studies have shown that it is associated with potential risks and hazards, especially in the fragile population of babies. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as an attractive therapeutic alternative that holds great regenerative potential and is cell-free. EVs are nanosized particles endogenously produced by cells that mediate intercellular communication through the transfer of their cargo. Currently, EVs are garnering considerable attention as they are the key effectors of stem cell paracrine signaling and can epigenetically regulate target cell genes through the release of RNA species, such as microRNA. Herein, we review the emerging literature on the therapeutic potential of EVs derived from different sources for the treatment of neonatal conditions that affect the brain, retinas, spine, lungs, and intestines and discuss the challenges for the translation of EVs into clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exosomes as Drug Carriers)
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Open AccessReview
Bio-Functional Textiles: Combining Pharmaceutical Nanocarriers with Fibrous Materials for Innovative Dermatological Therapies
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080403 - 11 Aug 2019
Viewed by 700
Abstract
In the field of pharmaceutical technology, significant attention has been paid on exploiting skin as a drug administration route. Considering the structural and chemical complexity of the skin barrier, many research works focused on developing an innovative way to enhance skin drug permeation. [...] Read more.
In the field of pharmaceutical technology, significant attention has been paid on exploiting skin as a drug administration route. Considering the structural and chemical complexity of the skin barrier, many research works focused on developing an innovative way to enhance skin drug permeation. In this context, a new class of materials called bio-functional textiles has been developed. Such materials consist of the combination of advanced pharmaceutical carriers with textile materials. Therefore, they own the possibility of providing a wearable platform for continuous and controlled drug release. Notwithstanding the great potential of these materials, their large-scale application still faces some challenges. The present review provides a state-of-the-art perspective on the bio-functional textile technology analyzing the several issues involved. Firstly, the skin physiology, together with the dermatological delivery strategy, is keenly described in order to provide an overview of the problems tackled by bio-functional textiles technology. Secondly, an overview of the main dermatological nanocarriers is provided; thereafter the application of these nanomaterial to textiles is presented. Finally, the bio-functional textile technology is framed in the context of the different dermatological administration strategies; a comparative analysis that also considers how pharmaceutical regulation is conducted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Micro-Pillar Integrated Dissolving Microneedles for Enhanced Transdermal Drug Delivery
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080402 - 10 Aug 2019
Viewed by 535
Abstract
The dissolving microneedle (DMN) patch is a transdermal delivery system, containing arrays of micro-sized polymeric needles capable of encapsulating therapeutic drugs within their matrix and releasing them into the skin. However, the elastic properties of the skin prevent DMNs from complete insertion and [...] Read more.
The dissolving microneedle (DMN) patch is a transdermal delivery system, containing arrays of micro-sized polymeric needles capable of encapsulating therapeutic drugs within their matrix and releasing them into the skin. However, the elastic properties of the skin prevent DMNs from complete insertion and accurate delivery of encapsulated compounds into the skin. Moreover, the adhesive materials used in patches may cause skin irritation, inflammation, and redness. Therefore, we developed a patchless, micro-pillar integrated DMN (P-DMN) that is simple to fabricate and enhances transdermal drug delivery compared with traditional DMN patches. The micro-pillars were made of polymethyl methacrylate at a height of 300 μm and a base diameter of 500 μm. To fabricate P-DMNs, we employed hyaluronic acid, which is a widely used derma filler and plays a role in tissue re-epithelialization. We demonstrate that utilizing P-DMNs significantly improves the delivery efficiency of an encapsulated drug surrogate (91.83% ± 7.75%) compared with traditional DMNs (64.86% ± 8.17%). Interestingly, P-DMNs remarkably increase the skin penetration accuracy rate of encapsulated drugs, up to 97.78% ± 2.22%, compared with 44.44% ± 7.85% in traditional DMNs. Our findings suggest that P-DMNs could serve as a highly accurate and efficient platform for transdermal delivery of various types of micro- and macro-biomolecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Delivery Systems Using Various Microneedle Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Factorial Design as a Tool for the Optimization of PLGA Nanoparticles for the Co-Delivery of Temozolomide and O6-Benzylguanine
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080401 - 10 Aug 2019
Viewed by 508
Abstract
Poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely studied for several applications due to their advantageous properties, such as biocompatibility and biodegradability. Therefore, these nanocarriers could be a suitable approach for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) therapy. The treatment of [...] Read more.
Poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely studied for several applications due to their advantageous properties, such as biocompatibility and biodegradability. Therefore, these nanocarriers could be a suitable approach for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) therapy. The treatment of this type of tumours remains a challenge due to intrinsic resistance mechanisms. Thus, new approaches must be envisaged to target GBM tumour cells potentially providing an efficient treatment. Co-delivery of temozolomide (TMZ) and O6-benzylguanine (O6BG), an inhibitor of DNA repair, could provide good therapeutic outcomes. In this work, a fractional factorial design (FFD) was employed to produce an optimal PLGA-based nanoformulation for the co-loading of both molecules, using a reduced number of observations. The developed NPs exhibited optimal physicochemical properties for brain delivery (dimensions below 200 nm and negative zeta potential), high encapsulation efficiencies (EE) for both drugs, and showed a sustained drug release for several days. Therefore, the use of an FFD allowed for the development of a nanoformulation with optimal properties for the co-delivery of TMZ and O6BG to the brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PLGA Based Drug Carrier and Pharmaceutical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Fast, Spectroscopy-Based Prediction of In Vitro Dissolution Profile of Extended Release Tablets Using Artificial Neural Networks
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080400 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 476
Abstract
The pharmaceutical industry has never seen such a vast development in process analytical methods as in the last decade. The application of near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy in monitoring production lines has also become widespread. This work aims to utilize the large amount [...] Read more.
The pharmaceutical industry has never seen such a vast development in process analytical methods as in the last decade. The application of near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy in monitoring production lines has also become widespread. This work aims to utilize the large amount of information collected by these methods by building an artificial neural network (ANN) model that can predict the dissolution profile of the scanned tablets. An extended release formulation containing drotaverine (DR) as a model drug was developed and tablets were produced with 37 different settings, with the variables being the DR content, the hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) content and compression force. NIR and Raman spectra of the tablets were recorded in both the transmission and reflection method. The spectra were used to build a partial least squares prediction model for the DR and HPMC content. The ANN model used these predicted values, along with the measured compression force, as input data. It was found that models based on both NIR and Raman spectra were capable of predicting the dissolution profile of the test tablets within the acceptance limit of the f2 difference factor. The performance of these ANN models was compared to PLS models using the same data as input, and the prediction of the ANN models was found to be more accurate. The proposed method accomplishes the prediction of the dissolution profile of extended release tablets using either NIR or Raman spectra. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improvement of Skin Penetration, Antipollutant Activity and Skin Hydration of 7,3′,4′-Trihydroxyisoflavone Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080399 - 08 Aug 2019
Viewed by 502
Abstract
As is known, many antioxidants from plant extracts have been used as additives in skincare products to prevent skin damage following overexposure to environmental pollutants. 7,3′,4′-trihydroxyisoflavone (734THIF), an isoflavone compound, possesses various biological activities, including antioxidant, antityrosinase, photodamage protection, and anticancer effects. Unfortunately, [...] Read more.
As is known, many antioxidants from plant extracts have been used as additives in skincare products to prevent skin damage following overexposure to environmental pollutants. 7,3′,4′-trihydroxyisoflavone (734THIF), an isoflavone compound, possesses various biological activities, including antioxidant, antityrosinase, photodamage protection, and anticancer effects. Unfortunately, 734THIF has poor water solubility, which limits its skin penetration and absorption, and subsequently influences its biological activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms for the improvement in water solubility and skin penetration of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) inclusion complex with 734THIF (5-7HP). We also determined its photostability, antipollutant activity in HaCaT keratinocytes, and moisturizing effect in human subjects. Our results showed that 734THIF was embedded into the lipophilic inner cavity of HPBCD and its water solubility and skin penetration were thereby improved through amorphous transformation, surface area enhancement, and hydrogen bonding formation between 734THIF and HPBCD. In addition, 5-7HP inhibited PM-induced ROS generation and then downregulated ROS-mediated COX-2 and MMP9 production and AQP-3 consumption by inhibiting the phosphorylation of MAPKs. Consequently, we suggest that 5-7HP is a safe and photostable topical ingredient to enhance the skin penetration of 734THIF and skin hydration, and therefore 5-7HP may be used as an antipollutant additive in skin care products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluation of Tablets Containing Piroxicam-Cyclodextrin Complexes for Buccal Delivery
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080398 - 08 Aug 2019
Viewed by 551
Abstract
In the current study, the development of mucoadhesive tablets for buccal delivery of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug was investigated. Binary complexes with piroxicam and cyclodextrins (β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), methylated-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD), and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD)) were prepared by the co-evaporation method. All formulations were characterized by [...] Read more.
In the current study, the development of mucoadhesive tablets for buccal delivery of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug was investigated. Binary complexes with piroxicam and cyclodextrins (β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), methylated-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD), and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD)) were prepared by the co-evaporation method. All formulations were characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffractometry. Mucoadhesive tablets of binary systems were formulated by direct compression using chitosan as mucoadhesive polymer. The in vitro release profiles of tablets were conducted in simulated saliva and, the drug permeation studies, across porcine buccal mucosa. The results suggest that the rank order effect of cyclodextrins for the drug release was Me-β-CD > HP-β-CD > β-CD, whereas the ex vivo studies showed that the tablets containing chitosan significantly increased the transport of the drug compared to their free complexes. Finally, histological assessment revealed loss of the superficial cell layers, which might be attributed to the presence of cyclodextrins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buccal Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle
Short Term Stability Testing of Efavirenz-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticle (SLN) and Nanostructured Lipid Carrier (NLC) Dispersions
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080397 - 08 Aug 2019
Viewed by 557
Abstract
The short term stability of efavirenz-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle and nanostructured lipid carrier dispersions was investigated. Hot High Pressure Homogenization with the capability for scale up production was successfully used to manufacture the nanocarriers without the use of toxic organic solvents for the [...] Read more.
The short term stability of efavirenz-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle and nanostructured lipid carrier dispersions was investigated. Hot High Pressure Homogenization with the capability for scale up production was successfully used to manufacture the nanocarriers without the use of toxic organic solvents for the first time. Glyceryl monostearate and Transcutol® HP were used as the solid and liquid lipids. Tween® 80 was used to stabilize the lipid nanocarriers. A Box-Behnken Design was used to identify the optimum operating and production conditions viz., 1100 bar for 3 cycles for the solid lipid nanoparticles and 1500 bar for 5 cycles for nanostructured lipid carriers. The optimized nanocarriers were predicted to exhibit 10% efavirenz loading with 3% and 4% Tween® 80 for solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, respectively. Characterization of the optimized solid lipid nanoparticle and nanostructured lipid carrier formulations in relation to shape, surface morphology, polymorphism, crystallinity and compatibility revealed stable formulations with particle sizes in the nanometer range had been produced. The nanocarriers had excellent efavirenz loading with the encapsulation efficiency >90%. The optimized nanocarriers exhibited biphasic in vitro release patterns with an initial burst release during the initial 0–3 h followed by sustained release over a 24 h period The colloidal systems showed excellent stability in terms of Zeta potential, particle size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency when stored for 8 weeks at 25 °C/60% RH in comparison to when stored at 40 °C/75% RH. The formulations manufactured using the optimized conditions and composition proved to be physically stable as aqueous dispersions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Solid Lipid Micro- and Nanoparticle Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
OCTN2-Mediated Acetyl-l-Carnitine Transport in Human Pulmonary Epithelial Cells In Vitro
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080396 - 07 Aug 2019
Viewed by 540
Abstract
The carnitine transporter OCTN2 is associated with asthma and other inflammatory diseases. The aims of this work were (i) to determine carnitine uptake into freshly isolated human alveolar type I (ATI)-like epithelial cells in primary culture, (ii) to compare the kinetics of carnitine [...] Read more.
The carnitine transporter OCTN2 is associated with asthma and other inflammatory diseases. The aims of this work were (i) to determine carnitine uptake into freshly isolated human alveolar type I (ATI)-like epithelial cells in primary culture, (ii) to compare the kinetics of carnitine uptake between respiratory epithelial in vitro cell models, and (iii) to establish whether any cell line was a suitable model for studies of carnitine transport at the air-blood barrier. Levels of time-dependent [3H]-acetyl-l-carnitine uptake were similar in ATI-like, NCl-H441, and Calu-3 epithelial cells, whereas uptake into A549 cells was ~5 times higher. Uptake inhibition was more pronounced by OCTN2 modulators, such as l-Carnitine and verapamil, in ATI-like primary epithelial cells compared to NCl-H441 and Calu-3 epithelial cells. Our findings suggest that OCTN2 is involved in the cellular uptake of acetyl-l-carnitine at the alveolar epithelium and that none of the tested cell lines are optimal surrogates for primary cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pulmonary Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessArticle
Oxaliplatin–Biomimetic Magnetic Nanoparticle Assemblies for Colon Cancer-Targeted Chemotherapy: An In Vitro Study
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080395 - 06 Aug 2019
Viewed by 509
Abstract
Conventional chemotherapy against colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most common cancer in the world, includes oxaliplatin (Oxa) which induces serious unwanted side effects that limit the efficiency of treatment. Therefore, alternative therapeutic approaches are urgently required. In this work, biomimetic magnetic nanoparticles (BMNPs) [...] Read more.
Conventional chemotherapy against colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most common cancer in the world, includes oxaliplatin (Oxa) which induces serious unwanted side effects that limit the efficiency of treatment. Therefore, alternative therapeutic approaches are urgently required. In this work, biomimetic magnetic nanoparticles (BMNPs) mediated by MamC were coupled to Oxa to evaluate the potential of the Oxa–BMNP nanoassembly for directed local delivery of the drug as a proof of concept for the future development of targeted chemotherapy against CRC. Electrostatic interactions between Oxa and BMNPs trigger the formation of the nanoassembly and keep it stable at physiological pH. When the BMNPs become neutral at acidic pH values, the Oxa is released, and such a release is greatly potentiated by hyperthermia. The coupling of the drug with the BMNPs improves its toxicity to even higher levels than the soluble drug, probably because of the fast internalization of the nanoassembly by tumor cells through endocytosis. In addition, the BMNPs are cytocompatible and non-hemolytic, providing positive feedback as a proof of concept for the nanoassembly. Our study clearly demonstrates the applicability of Oxa–BMNP in colon cancer and offers a promising nanoassembly for targeted chemotherapy against this type of tumor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanopharmaceuticals for Image-Guided Cancer Therapy and Diagnosis)
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