Previous Issue
Volume 11, August

Table of Contents

Viruses, Volume 11, Issue 9 (September 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Genetic Diversity of the Hepatitis B Virus Subgenotypes in Brazil
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090860 (registering DOI) - 15 Sep 2019
Abstract
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) subgenotypes may be related to clinical outcomes and response to antiviral therapy. Most Brazilian studies on HBV subgenotypes are restricted to some regions and to specific population groups. Here, we provide an insight about genetic diversity of HBV subgenotypes [...] Read more.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) subgenotypes may be related to clinical outcomes and response to antiviral therapy. Most Brazilian studies on HBV subgenotypes are restricted to some regions and to specific population groups. Here, we provide an insight about genetic diversity of HBV subgenotypes in 321 serum samples from all five geographical regions, providing a representative overview of their circulation among chronic carriers. Overall, HBV/A1 was the most prevalent subgenotype, being found as the major one in all regions except in South Brazil. Among HBV/D samples, subgenotype D3 was the most prevalent, found in 51.5%, followed by D2 (27.3%) and D4 (21.2%). D2 and D3 were the most prevalent subgenotypes in South region, with high similarity with European strains. D4 was found in North and Northeast region and clustered with strains from Cape Verde and India. For HBV/F, the most frequent subgenotype was F2 (84.1%), followed by F4 (10.1%) and F1 (5.8%), closely related with strains from Venezuela, Argentina and Chile, respectively. Phylogeographic analyses were performed using an HBV full-length genome obtained from samples infected with genotypes rarely found in Brazil (B, C, and E). According to Bayesian inference, HBV/B2 and HBV/C2 were probably introduced in Brazil through China, and HBV/E from Guinea, all of them mostly linked to recent events of human migration. In conclusion, this study provided a comprehensive overview of the current circulation of HBV subgenotypes in Brazil. Our findings might contribute to a better understand of the dynamics of viral variants, to establish a permanent molecular surveillance on the introduction and dispersion patterns of new strains and, thus, to support public policies to control HBV dissemination in Brazil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Recombination in Enteroviruses, a Multi-Step Modular Evolutionary Process
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090859 (registering DOI) - 14 Sep 2019
Viewed by 181
Abstract
RNA recombination is a major driving force in the evolution and genetic architecture shaping of enteroviruses. In particular, intertypic recombination is implicated in the emergence of most pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, which have caused numerous outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis worldwide. Recent experimental studies [...] Read more.
RNA recombination is a major driving force in the evolution and genetic architecture shaping of enteroviruses. In particular, intertypic recombination is implicated in the emergence of most pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, which have caused numerous outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis worldwide. Recent experimental studies that relied on recombination cellular systems mimicking natural genetic exchanges between enteroviruses provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms of enterovirus recombination and enabled to define a new model of genetic plasticity for enteroviruses. Homologous intertypic recombinant enteroviruses that were observed in nature would be the final products of a multi-step process, during which precursor nonhomologous recombinant genomes are generated through an initial inter-genomic RNA recombination event and can then evolve into a diversity of fitter homologous recombinant genomes over subsequent intra-genomic rearrangements. Moreover, these experimental studies demonstrated that the enterovirus genome could be defined as a combination of genomic modules that can be preferentially exchanged through recombination, and enabled defining the boundaries of these recombination modules. These results provided the first experimental evidence supporting the theoretical model of enterovirus modular evolution previously elaborated from phylogenetic studies of circulating enterovirus strains. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding the mechanisms of recombination in enteroviruses and presents a new evolutionary process that may apply to other RNA viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Picornaviruses)
Open AccessReview
Hematological Malignancies and HBV Reactivation Risk: Suggestions for Clinical Management
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090858 (registering DOI) - 14 Sep 2019
Viewed by 134
Abstract
It is well known that hepatitis B virus reactivation (HBVr) can occur among patients undergoing treatment for hematological malignancies (HM). The evaluation of HBVr risk in patients undergoing immunosuppressive treatments is a multidimensional process, which includes conducting an accurate clinical history and physical [...] Read more.
It is well known that hepatitis B virus reactivation (HBVr) can occur among patients undergoing treatment for hematological malignancies (HM). The evaluation of HBVr risk in patients undergoing immunosuppressive treatments is a multidimensional process, which includes conducting an accurate clinical history and physical examination, consideration of the virological categories, of the medication chosen to treat these hematological malignancies and the degree of immunosuppression induced. Once the risk of reactivation has been defined, it is crucial to adopt adequate management strategies (should reactivation occur). The purpose of treatment is to prevent dire clinical consequences of HBVr such as acute/fulminant hepatitis, and liver failure. Treatment will be instituted according to the indications and evidence provided by current international recommendations and to prevent interruption of lifesaving anti-neoplastic treatments. In this paper, we will present the available data regarding the risk of HBVr in this special population of immunosuppressed patients and explore the relevance of effective prevention and management of this potentially life-threatening event. A computerized literature search was performed using appropriate terms to discover relevant articles. Current evidence supports the policy of universal HBV testing of patients scheduled to undergo treatment for hematological malignancies, and clinicians should be aware of the inherent risk of viral reactivation among the different virological categories and classes of immunosuppressive drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Highly Divergent Genetic Variants of Soricid-Borne Altai Virus (Hantaviridae) in Eurasia Suggest Ancient Host-Switching Events
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090857 (registering DOI) - 14 Sep 2019
Viewed by 176
Abstract
With the recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses (family Hantaviridae) in shrews (order Eulipotyphla, family Soricidae), the once-conventional view that rodents (order Rodentia) served as the primordial reservoir hosts now appears improbable. The newly identified soricid-borne hantaviruses generally demonstrate well-resolved lineages organized [...] Read more.
With the recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses (family Hantaviridae) in shrews (order Eulipotyphla, family Soricidae), the once-conventional view that rodents (order Rodentia) served as the primordial reservoir hosts now appears improbable. The newly identified soricid-borne hantaviruses generally demonstrate well-resolved lineages organized according to host taxa and geographic origin. However, beginning in 2007, we detected sequences that did not conform to the prototypic hantaviruses associated with their soricid host species and/or geographic locations. That is, Eurasian common shrews (Sorex araneus), captured in Hungary and Russia, were found to harbor hantaviruses belonging to two separate and highly divergent lineages. We have since accumulated additional examples of these highly distinctive hantavirus sequences in the Laxmann’s shrew (Sorex caecutiens), flat-skulled shrew (Sorex roboratus) and Eurasian least shrew (Sorex minutissimus), captured at the same time and in the same location in the Sakha Republic in Far Eastern Russia. Pair-wise alignment and phylogenetic analysis of partial and full-length S-, M- and/or L-segment sequences indicate that a distinct hantavirus species related to Altai virus (ALTV), first reported in a Eurasian common shrew from Western Siberia, was being maintained in these closely related syntopic soricine shrew species. These findings suggest that genetic variants of ALTV might have resulted from ancient host-switching events with subsequent diversification within the Soricini tribe in Eurasia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
Open AccessArticle
Vesiculopolins, a New Class of Anti-Vesiculoviral Compounds, Inhibit Transcription Initiation of Vesiculoviruses
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090856 (registering DOI) - 14 Sep 2019
Viewed by 150
Abstract
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) represents a promising platform for developing oncolytic viruses, as well as vaccines against significant human pathogens. To safely control VSV infection in humans, small-molecule drugs that selectively inhibit VSV infection may be needed. Here, using a cell-based high-throughput screening [...] Read more.
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) represents a promising platform for developing oncolytic viruses, as well as vaccines against significant human pathogens. To safely control VSV infection in humans, small-molecule drugs that selectively inhibit VSV infection may be needed. Here, using a cell-based high-throughput screening assay followed by an in vitro transcription assay, compounds with a 7-hydroxy-6-methyl-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one structure and an aromatic group at position 4 (named vesiculopolins, VPIs) were identified as VSV RNA polymerase inhibitors. The most effective compound, VPI A, inhibited VSV-induced cytopathic effects and in vitro mRNA synthesis with micromolar to submicromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations. VPI A was found to inhibit terminal de novo initiation rather than elongation for leader RNA synthesis, but not mRNA capping, with the VSV L protein, suggesting that VPI A is targeted to the polymerase domain in the L protein. VPI A inhibited transcription of Chandipura virus, but not of human parainfluenza virus 3, suggesting that it specifically acts on vesiculoviral L proteins. These results suggest that VPIs may serve not only as molecular probes to elucidate the mechanisms of transcription of vesiculoviruses, but also as lead compounds to develop antiviral drugs against vesiculoviruses and other related rhabdoviruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
Open AccessArticle
Puumala and Tula Virus Differ in Replication Kinetics and Innate Immune Stimulation in Human Endothelial Cells and Macrophages
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 855; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090855 (registering DOI) - 14 Sep 2019
Viewed by 130
Abstract
Old world hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) upon zoonotic transmission to humans. In Europe, the Puumala virus (PUUV) is the main causative agent of HFRS. Tula virus (TULV) is also widely distributed in Europe, but there is little knowledge about [...] Read more.
Old world hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) upon zoonotic transmission to humans. In Europe, the Puumala virus (PUUV) is the main causative agent of HFRS. Tula virus (TULV) is also widely distributed in Europe, but there is little knowledge about the pathogenicity of TULV for humans, as reported cases are rare. We studied the replication of TULV in different cell types in comparison to the pathogenic PUUV and analyzed differences in stimulation of innate immunity. While both viruses replicated to a similar extent in interferon (IFN)-deficient Vero E6 cells, TULV replication in human lung epithelial (A549) cells was slower and less efficient when compared to PUUV. In contrast to PUUV, no replication of TULV could be detected in human microvascular endothelial cells and in macrophages. While a strong innate immune response towards PUUV infection was evident at 48 h post infection, TULV infection triggered only a weak IFN response late after infection of A549 cells. Using appropriate in vitro cell culture models for the orthohantavirus infection, we could demonstrate major differences in host cell tropism, replication kinetics, and innate immune induction between pathogenic PUUV and the presumably non- or low-pathogenic TULV that are not observed in Vero E6 cells and may contribute to differences in virulence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
Open AccessArticle
Diversity and Host Specificity Revealed by Biological Characterization and Whole Genome Sequencing of Bacteriophages Infecting Salmonella enterica
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090854 (registering DOI) - 14 Sep 2019
Viewed by 187
Abstract
Phages infecting members of the opportunistic human pathogen, Salmonella enterica, are widespread in natural environments and offer a potential source of agents that could be used for controlling populations of this bacterium; yet, relatively little is known about these phages. Here we [...] Read more.
Phages infecting members of the opportunistic human pathogen, Salmonella enterica, are widespread in natural environments and offer a potential source of agents that could be used for controlling populations of this bacterium; yet, relatively little is known about these phages. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of 45 phages of Salmonella enterica from disparate geographic locations within British Columbia, Canada. Host-range profiling revealed host-specific patterns of susceptibility and resistance, with several phages identified that have a broad-host range (i.e., able to lyse >40% of bacterial hosts tested). One phage in particular, SE13, is able to lyse 51 out of the 61 Salmonella strains tested. Comparative genomic analyses also revealed an abundance of sequence diversity in the sequenced phages. Alignment of the genomes grouped the phages into 12 clusters with three singletons. Phages within certain clusters exhibited extraordinarily high genome homology (>98% nucleotide identity), yet between clusters, genomes exhibited a span of diversity (<50% nucleotide identity). Alignment of the major capsid protein also supported the clustering pattern observed with alignment of the whole genomes. We further observed associations between genomic relatedness and the site of isolation, as well as genetic elements related to DNA metabolism and host virulence. Our data support the knowledge framework for phage diversity and phage–host interactions that are required for developing phage-based applications for various sectors, including biocontrol, detection and typing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Application of Viruses to Biotechnology)
Open AccessArticle
Functional Domains of the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Tegument Protein pUL37: The Amino Terminus is Dispensable for Virus Replication in Tissue Culture
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090853 (registering DOI) - 14 Sep 2019
Viewed by 137
Abstract
The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) UL37 gene encodes for a multifunctional component of the virion tegument, which is necessary for secondary envelopment in the cytoplasm of infected cells, for motility of the viral particle, and for the first steps in the [...] Read more.
The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) UL37 gene encodes for a multifunctional component of the virion tegument, which is necessary for secondary envelopment in the cytoplasm of infected cells, for motility of the viral particle, and for the first steps in the initiation of virus infection. This 120 kDa protein has several known viral interacting partners, including pUL36, gK/pUL20, pUS10, and VP26, and cellular interacting proteins which include TRAF6, RIG-I, and dystonin. These interactions are likely important for the functions of pUL37 at both early and late stages of infection. We employed a genetic approach to determine essential domains and amino acid residues of pUL37 and their associated functions in cellular localization and virion morphogenesis. Using marker-rescue/marker-transfer methods, we generated a library of GFP-tagged pUL37 mutations in the HSV-1 strain KOS genome. Through viral growth and ultra-structural analysis, we discovered that the C-terminus is essential for replication. The N-terminal 480 amino acids are dispensable for replication in cell culture, although serve some non-essential function as viral titers are reduced in the presence of this truncation. Furthermore, the C-terminal 133 amino acids are important in so much that their absence leads to a lethal phenotype. We further probed the carboxy terminal half of pUL37 by alanine scanning mutagenesis of conserved residues among alphaherpesviruses. Mutant viruses were screened for the inability to form plaques—or greatly reduced plaque size—on Vero cells, of which 22 mutations were chosen for additional analysis. Viruses discovered to have the greatest reduction in viral titers on Vero cells were examined by electron microscopy (EM) and by confocal light microscopy for pUL37–EGFP cellular localization. This genetic approach identified both essential and non-essential domains and residues of the HSV-1 UL37 gene product. The mutations identified in this study are recognized as significant candidates for further analysis of the pUL37 function and may unveil previously undiscovered roles and interactions of this essential tegument gene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Open AccessReview
African Swine Fever: Disease Dynamics in Wild Boar Experimentally Infected with ASFV Isolates Belonging to Genotype I and II
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090852 (registering DOI) - 13 Sep 2019
Viewed by 160
Abstract
After the re-introduction of African swine fever virus (ASFV) genotype II isolates into Georgia in 2007, the disease spread from Eastern to Western Europe and then jumped first up to Mongolian borders and later into China in August 2018, spreading out of control [...] Read more.
After the re-introduction of African swine fever virus (ASFV) genotype II isolates into Georgia in 2007, the disease spread from Eastern to Western Europe and then jumped first up to Mongolian borders and later into China in August 2018, spreading out of control and reaching different countries of Southeast Asia in 2019. From the initial incursion, along with domestic pigs, wild boar displayed a high susceptibility to ASFV and disease development. The disease established self-sustaining cycles within the wild boar population, a key fact that helped its spread and that pointed to the wild boar population as a substantial reservoir in Europe and probably also in Asia, which may hinder eradication and serve as the source for further geographic expansion. The present review gathers the most relevant information available regarding infection dynamics, disease pathogenesis and immune response that experimental infections with different ASFV isolates belonging to genotype I and II in wild boar and feral pigs have generated. Knowledge gaps in areas such as disease pathogenesis and immune response highlights the importance of focusing future studies on unravelling the early mechanisms of virus-cell interaction and innate and/or adaptive immune responses, knowledge that will contribute to the development of efficacious treatments/vaccines against ASFV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porcine Viruses 2019)
Open AccessCommunication
Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 from Italian Horses: Evaluation of the Variability of the ORF30, ORF33, ORF34 and ORF68 Genes
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090851 (registering DOI) - 13 Sep 2019
Viewed by 125
Abstract
Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is an important pathogen of horses. It is spread worldwide and causes significant economic losses. The ORF33 gene has a conserved region that is often used as target in diagnostic PCR protocols. Single nucleotide point (SNP) mutations in ORF30 [...] Read more.
Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is an important pathogen of horses. It is spread worldwide and causes significant economic losses. The ORF33 gene has a conserved region that is often used as target in diagnostic PCR protocols. Single nucleotide point (SNP) mutations in ORF30 are usually used to distinguish between neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic genotypes. An ORF68 SNP-based scheme has been used for grouping different isolates. Recently, the highest number of variable sites in EHV-1 from the UK has been found in ORF34. In this study, EHV-1 positive samples from Italian horses with a history of abortion were investigated by amplifying and sequencing the ORF30, ORF33, ORF34 and ORF68 genes. Most animals were infected by the neuropathogenic type A2254G. A 118 bp deletion was found at nucleotide positions 701–818 of the ORF68 gene, making impossible to assign the samples to a known group. Sequencing of the ORF34 gene with a newly designed nested PCR showed new SNPs. Analysis of these sequences and of those obtained from genetic databases allowed the identification of at least 12 groups. These data add depth to the knowledge of EHV-1 genotypes circulating in Italy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Viruses)
Open AccessReview
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Reactivation Following Pharmacological Eradication of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090850 (registering DOI) - 13 Sep 2019
Viewed by 135
Abstract
The US Food and Drug Administration issued a black box warning related to the risk of reactivation of overt/occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection during direct acting-antivirals (DAA) treatment. This review evaluated the prevalence of HBV reactivation after hepatitis C virus (HCV) pharmacological [...] Read more.
The US Food and Drug Administration issued a black box warning related to the risk of reactivation of overt/occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection during direct acting-antivirals (DAA) treatment. This review evaluated the prevalence of HBV reactivation after hepatitis C virus (HCV) pharmacological suppression and hypothesized the management and prevention of this reactivation. During and after DAA-based treatment, reactivation of HBV infection is common in patients with detectable serum HBsAg (from 2% to 57%) and very low (less than 3%) in individuals with isolated anti-HBc antibodies. The severity of hepatic damage may range from HBV reactivation without hepatitis to fulminant hepatic failure requiring liver transplantation. Thus, HBsAg-positive patients should receive nucleo(s)tide analog (NA) treatment or prophylaxis at the same time as DAA therapy. For those patients with occult B infection, there are no sufficient recommendations to start prophylactic treatment. Reactivation of overt or occult HBV infection during or after eradication of HCV infection is an issue to consider, and additional studies would help to determine the best management of this virological and clinical event. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Dendritic Cells (DCs) as “Fire Accelerants” of Hantaviral Pathogenesis
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 849; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090849 (registering DOI) - 13 Sep 2019
Viewed by 174
Abstract
Hantaviruses are widespread zoonotic pathogens found around the globe. Depending on their geographical location, hantaviruses can cause two human syndromes, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). HPS and HFRS have many commonalities amongst which excessive activation of immune [...] Read more.
Hantaviruses are widespread zoonotic pathogens found around the globe. Depending on their geographical location, hantaviruses can cause two human syndromes, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). HPS and HFRS have many commonalities amongst which excessive activation of immune cells is a prominent feature. Hantaviruses replicate in endothelial cells (ECs), the major battlefield of hantavirus-induced pathogenesis, without causing cytopathic effects. This indicates that a misdirected response of human immune cells to hantaviruses is causing damage. As dendritic cells (DCs) orchestrate antiviral immune responses, they are in the focus of research analysing hantavirus-induced immunopathogenesis. In this review, we discuss the interplay between hantaviruses and DCs and the immunological consequences thereof. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A 19 Year Analysis of Small Mammals Associated with Human Hantavirus Cases in Chile
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 848; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090848 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 171
Abstract
Small mammals present in areas where hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) cases had occurred in central and southern Chile were captured and analyzed to evaluate the abundance of rodents and seroprevalence rates of antibodies to Andes orthohantavirus (ANDV). Sampling areas ranged from the Coquimbo [...] Read more.
Small mammals present in areas where hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) cases had occurred in central and southern Chile were captured and analyzed to evaluate the abundance of rodents and seroprevalence rates of antibodies to Andes orthohantavirus (ANDV). Sampling areas ranged from the Coquimbo to Aysén regions (30–45° S approx.) regions. Ninety-two sites in peridomestic and countryside areas were evaluated in 19 years of sampling. An antibody against ANDV was detected by strip immunoassay in 58 of 1847 specimens captured using Sherman traps. Of the eleven species of rodents sampled, Abrothrix olivacea, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus and Abrothrix hirta were the most frequently trapped. O. longicaudatus had the highest seropositivity rate, and by logistic regression analysis, O. longicaudatus of at least 60 g had 80% or higher probability to be seropositive. Sex, age and wounds were significantly related to seropositivity only for O. longicaudatus. Across administrative regions, the highest seropositivity was found in the El Maule region (34.8–36.2° S), and the highest number of HCPS cases was registered in the Aysén region. Our results highlight the importance of long term and geographically extended studies, particularly for highly fluctuating pathogens and their reservoirs, to understand the implications of the dynamics and transmission of zoonotic diseases in human populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
Open AccessArticle
Rice Dwarf Virus Small RNA Profiles in Rice and Leafhopper Reveal Distinct Patterns in Cross-Kingdom Hosts
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090847 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 205
Abstract
RNA silencing has evolved as a widespread antiviral strategy in many eukaryotic organisms. Antiviral RNA silencing is mediated by virus-derived small RNAs (vsiRNAs), created by the cleavage of double-stranded viral RNA substrates by Dicer (Dcr) in animals or Dicer-like (DCL) proteins in plants. [...] Read more.
RNA silencing has evolved as a widespread antiviral strategy in many eukaryotic organisms. Antiviral RNA silencing is mediated by virus-derived small RNAs (vsiRNAs), created by the cleavage of double-stranded viral RNA substrates by Dicer (Dcr) in animals or Dicer-like (DCL) proteins in plants. However, little is known about how the RNA silencing mechanisms of different hosts respond to the same virus infection. We performed high-throughput small RNA sequencing in Nephotettix cincticeps and Oryza sativa infected with Rice dwarf phytoreovirus and analyzed the distinct accumulation of vsiRNAs in these two hosts. The results suggested a potential branch in the evolution of antiviral RNA silencing of insect and plant hosts. The rice vsiRNAs were predominantly 21 and 22 nucleotides (nt) long, suggesting that OsDCL4 and OsDCL2 are involved in their production, whereas 21-nt vsiRNAs dominated in leafhopper, suggesting the involvement of a Dcr-2 homolog. Furthermore, we identified ~50-fold more vsiRNAs in rice than in leafhoppers, which might be partially attributable to the activity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) in rice and the lack of RDR genes in leafhoppers. Our data established a basis for further comparative studies on the evolution of RNA silencing-based interactions between a virus and its hosts, across kingdoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Deep-Sequencing Workflow for the Fast and Efficient Generation of High-Quality African Swine Fever Virus Whole-Genome Sequences
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090846 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 230
Abstract
African swine fever (ASF) is a severe disease of suids caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV). Its dsDNA genome (170–194 kbp) is scattered with homopolymers and repeats as well as inverted-terminal-repeats (ITR), which hamper whole-genome sequencing. To date, only a few genome [...] Read more.
African swine fever (ASF) is a severe disease of suids caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV). Its dsDNA genome (170–194 kbp) is scattered with homopolymers and repeats as well as inverted-terminal-repeats (ITR), which hamper whole-genome sequencing. To date, only a few genome sequences have been published and only for some are data on sequence quality available enabling in-depth investigations. Especially in Europe and Asia, where ASFV has continuously spread since its introduction into Georgia in 2007, a very low genetic variability of the circulating ASFV-strains was reported. Therefore, only whole-genome sequences can serve as a basis for detailed virus comparisons. Here, we report an effective workflow, combining target enrichment, Illumina and Nanopore sequencing for ASFV whole-genome sequencing. Following this approach, we generated an improved high-quality ASFV Georgia 2007/1 whole-genome sequence leading to the correction of 71 sequencing errors and the addition of 956 and 231 bp at the respective ITRs. This genome, derived from the primary outbreak in 2007, can now serve as a reference for future whole-genome analyses of related ASFV strains and molecular approaches. Using both workflow and the reference genome, we generated the first ASFV-whole-genome sequence from Moldova, expanding the sequence knowledge from Eastern Europe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Open AccessArticle
Follow-Up of Viral Parameters in FeLV- or FIV-Naturally Infected Cats Treated Orally with Low Doses of Human Interferon Alpha
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090845 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 146
Abstract
Specific treatments for the long-life infections by feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are either toxic, expensive or not too effective. Interferon α (IFN-α) is an immunomodulatory molecule which has been shown in vitro to decrease the release of infective [...] Read more.
Specific treatments for the long-life infections by feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are either toxic, expensive or not too effective. Interferon α (IFN-α) is an immunomodulatory molecule which has been shown in vitro to decrease the release of infective particles. The aim of this study was to follow the progress of the clinical score and viral parameters of FeLV- and FIV-naturally infected privately owned cats treated with recombinant human IFN-α (rHuIFN-α, Roferon-A). Twenty-seven FeLV-infected cats (FeLV+) and 31 FIV-infected cats (FIV+) were enrolled in the study. Owners were instructed to orally administer 1 mL/day of 60 IU rHuIFN-α/mL in alternating weeks for four months. Blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study (M0), mid-treatment (M2), end of treatment (M4), and 6–10 months later (M10). Clinical status at these time points improved notably with rHuIFN-α treatment, regardless of the initial severity of the disease, an effect which lasted throughout the study in most animals (15 of the 16 FeLV+ symptomatic cats; 20 of the 22 FIV+ symptomatic cats) improved markedly their clinical situation. In FeLV+ cats plasma antigenemia (p27CA), reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, and proviral load decreased at M2 and M4 but increased again at M10 (“rebound effect”). The level of antigenemia or RT activity was below the detection limits in FIV+ cats, and the effect on proviral load was less marked than in FeLV+ cats. Taken together, these results indicate that rHuIFN-α is a good candidate for treating FeLV+ cats, but the “rebound effect” seen when treatment was discontinued suggests that additional studies should be conducted to clarify its effect on progression of the infection in cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feline Viruses and Viral Diseases)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
African Horse Sickness: A Review of Current Understanding and Vaccine Development
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090844 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 219
Abstract
African horse sickness is a devastating disease that causes great suffering and many fatalities amongst horses in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by nine different serotypes of the orbivirus African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and it is spread by Culicoid midges. The disease [...] Read more.
African horse sickness is a devastating disease that causes great suffering and many fatalities amongst horses in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by nine different serotypes of the orbivirus African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and it is spread by Culicoid midges. The disease has significant economic consequences for the equine industry both in southern Africa and increasingly further afield as the geographic distribution of the midge vector broadens with global warming and climate change. Live attenuated vaccines (LAV) have been used with relative success for many decades but carry the risk of reversion to virulence and/or genetic re-assortment between outbreak and vaccine strains. Furthermore, the vaccines lack DIVA capacity, the ability to distinguish between vaccine-induced immunity and that induced by natural infection. These concerns have motivated interest in the development of new, more favourable recombinant vaccines that utilize viral vectors or are based on reverse genetics or virus-like particle technologies. This review summarizes the current understanding of AHSV structure and the viral replication cycle and also evaluates existing and potential vaccine strategies that may be applied to prevent or control the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Viruses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Presence of a Novel Subtype of Bovine Hepacivirus in China and Expanded Classification of Bovine Hepacivirus Strains Worldwide into 7 Subtypes
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090843 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 231
Abstract
The newest member of the Hepacivirus genus, bovine hepacivirus (BovHepV), was first identified in cattle in 2015 and is a novel hepacivirus C virus (HCV)-like virus. This virus has been detected in five countries so far and is classified into four subtypes. Bovine [...] Read more.
The newest member of the Hepacivirus genus, bovine hepacivirus (BovHepV), was first identified in cattle in 2015 and is a novel hepacivirus C virus (HCV)-like virus. This virus has been detected in five countries so far and is classified into four subtypes. Bovine serum is commonly used for cell cultures and is considered the major source of viral contamination of pharmaceutical products. In this study, bovine serum samples were collected from seven countries located in Asia, America, Oceania, and Europe and were tested for BovHepV RNA using nested PCR, in order to: (i) obtain more knowledge on the geographical distribution and subtypes of BovHepV; and (ii) detect the potential contamination of BovHepV in commercial bovine serum samples used for cell culture propagation. The results demonstrated that bovine serum samples from individual donor cattle in China contained BovHepV RNA. After PCR, sequencing, and assembly, the genomes of the Chinese BovHepV strains were obtained. Genetic analysis of the polyprotein gene revealed a protein identity of <77% and a nucleotide identity of <85% between the Chinese BovHepV strains and all other previously reported BovHepV strains. Using cut-off values for determination of HCV genotypes and subtypes, BovHepV strains worldwide were classified into one unique genotype and seven subtypes. The BovHepV strains identified in the present study were classified into a novel subtype, which was provisionally designated subtype G. The genetic relationships among the different BovHepV subtypes were further confirmed through phylogenetic analysis. The present study provides critical insights into BovHepV’s geographical distribution and genetic variability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses: Surveillance, Prevention, Evolution and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
To Go or Stay: The Development, Benefit, and Detriment of Tissue-Resident Memory CD8 T Cells during Central Nervous System Viral Infections
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090842 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 185
Abstract
CD8 T cells coordinate immune defenses against viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Virus-specific CD8 T cells infiltrate the CNS and differentiate into brain-resident memory CD8 T cells (CD8 bTRM). CD8 bTRM are characterized by a lack of [...] Read more.
CD8 T cells coordinate immune defenses against viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Virus-specific CD8 T cells infiltrate the CNS and differentiate into brain-resident memory CD8 T cells (CD8 bTRM). CD8 bTRM are characterized by a lack of recirculation and expression of phenotypes and transcriptomes distinct from other CD8 T cell memory subsets. CD8 bTRM have been shown to provide durable, autonomous protection against viral reinfection and the resurgence of latent viral infections. CD8 T cells have also been implicated in the development of neural damage following viral infection, which demonstrates that the infiltration of CD8 T cells into the brain can also be pathogenic. In this review, we will explore the residency and maintenance requirements for CD8 bTRM and discuss their roles in controlling viral infections of the brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue T Cell-Mediated Antiviral Immunity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Application of a Phage Cocktail for Control of Salmonella in Foods and Reducing Biofilms
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 841; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090841 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 314
Abstract
Salmonella contamination in foods and their formation of biofilms in food processing facility are the primary bacterial cause of a significant number of foodborne outbreaks and infections. Broad lytic phages are promising alternatives to conventional technologies for pathogen biocontrol in food matrices and [...] Read more.
Salmonella contamination in foods and their formation of biofilms in food processing facility are the primary bacterial cause of a significant number of foodborne outbreaks and infections. Broad lytic phages are promising alternatives to conventional technologies for pathogen biocontrol in food matrices and reducing biofilms. In this study, 42 Salmonella phages were isolated from environmentally-sourced water samples. We characterized the host range and lytic capacity of phages LPSTLL, LPST94 and LPST153 against Salmonella spp., and all showed a wide host range and broad lytic activity. Electron microscopy analysis indicated that LPSTLL, LPST94, and LPST153 belonged to the family of Siphoviridae, Ackermannviridae and Podoviridae, respectively. We established a phage cocktail containing three phages (LPSTLL, LPST94 and LPST153) that had broad spectrum to lyse diverse Salmonella serovars. A significant decrease was observed in Salmonella with a viable count of 3 log10 CFU in milk and chicken breast at either 25 °C or 4 °C. It was found that treatment with phage cocktail was able to significantly reduced biofilm on a 96-well microplate (44–63%) and on a stainless steel surface (5.23 to 6.42 log10). These findings demonstrated that the phage cocktail described in this study can be potentially used as a biological control agent against Salmonella in food products and also has the effect to reduce Salmonella formed biofilms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteriophages and Biofilms)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Exogenous Interleukin-33 Contributes to Protective Immunity via Cytotoxic T-Cell Priming against Mucosal Influenza Viral Infection
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090840 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 198
Abstract
Influenza is an infectious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus. Though vaccines against influenza exist, they have limited efficacy. To additionally develop effective treatments, there is a need to study the mechanisms of host defenses from influenza viral infections. To date, the [...] Read more.
Influenza is an infectious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus. Though vaccines against influenza exist, they have limited efficacy. To additionally develop effective treatments, there is a need to study the mechanisms of host defenses from influenza viral infections. To date, the mechanism by which interleukin (IL)-33 modulates the antiviral immune response post-influenza infection is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that exogenous IL-33 enhanced antiviral protection against influenza virus infection. Exogenous IL-33 induced the recruitment of dendritic cells, increased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12, and promoted cytotoxic T-cell responses in the local microenvironment. Thus, our findings suggest a role of exogenous IL-33 in the antiviral immune response against influenza infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue: Applications of CRISPR Technology in Virology 2018
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090839 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 190
Abstract
Precision genome engineering by CRISPR is a game-changing technology that originates from the study of virus–host interaction and promises to revolutionize virology and antiviral therapy [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of CRISPR Technology in Virology 2018)
Open AccessCommunication
Serum LPS Associated with Hantavirus and Dengue Disease Severity in Barbados
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090838 (registering DOI) - 09 Sep 2019
Viewed by 283
Abstract
Hantavirus and dengue virus (DENV) infections are caused by RNA viruses which infect immune systems’ cells including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells and occur year-round in Barbados. A retrospective serological study (2008–2015) was conducted on hantavirus and dengue patient sera confirmed by IgM [...] Read more.
Hantavirus and dengue virus (DENV) infections are caused by RNA viruses which infect immune systems’ cells including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells and occur year-round in Barbados. A retrospective serological study (2008–2015) was conducted on hantavirus and dengue patient sera confirmed by IgM and IgG ELISA, NS1 and RT-PCR using Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) kinetic turbidimetric method to determine serum endotoxin levels. Hantavirus patients were categorized into two groups, namely (a) hospitalized and (b) non-hospitalized. Dengue patients were categorized into 3 groups using 2009 WHO dengue guidelines (a) severe dengue (SD), (b) hospitalized non-severe dengue (non-SD) and (c) non-hospitalized non-SD. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the association of endotoxin levels with hantavirus disease severity based on hospitalization and dengue disease severity. Serum endotoxin levels are associated with hantavirus disease severity and hospitalization and dengue disease severity (p < 0.01). Similar studies have found an association of serum endotoxin levels with dengue disease severity but never with hantavirus infection. Co-detection of hantavirus- and DENV-specific IgM in some patients were observed with elevated serum endotoxin levels. In addition, previous studies observed hantavirus replication in the gut of patients, gastrointestinal tract as a possible entry route of infection and evidence of microbial translocation and its impact on hantavirus disease severity. A significant correlation of serum endotoxin and hantavirus disease severity and hospitalization in hantavirus infected patients is reported for the first time ever. In addition, serum endotoxin levels correlated with dengue disease severity. This study adds further support to the role of endotoxin in both hantavirus and dengue virus infection and disease severity and its role as a possible therapeutic target for viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Advances in Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
The Proteolytic Regulation of Virus Cell Entry by Furin and Other Proprotein Convertases
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090837 - 09 Sep 2019
Viewed by 216
Abstract
A wide variety of viruses exploit furin and other proprotein convertases (PCs) of the constitutive protein secretion pathway in order to regulate their cell entry mechanism and infectivity. Surface proteins of enveloped, as well as non-enveloped, viruses become processed by these proteases intracellularly [...] Read more.
A wide variety of viruses exploit furin and other proprotein convertases (PCs) of the constitutive protein secretion pathway in order to regulate their cell entry mechanism and infectivity. Surface proteins of enveloped, as well as non-enveloped, viruses become processed by these proteases intracellularly during morphogenesis or extracellularly after egress and during entry in order to produce mature virions activated for infection. Although viruses also take advantage of other proteases, it is when some viruses become reactive with PCs that they may develop high pathogenicity. Besides reacting with furin, some viruses may also react with the PCs of the other specificity group constituted by PC4/PC5/PACE4/PC7. The targeting of PCs for inhibition may result in a useful strategy to treat infections with some highly pathogenic viruses. A wide variety of PC inhibitors have been developed and tested for their antiviral activity in cell-based assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Entry Pathways)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Insights into Thymus Development and Viral Thymic Infections
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 836; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090836 - 09 Sep 2019
Viewed by 192
Abstract
T-cell development in the thymus is a complex and highly regulated process, involving a wide variety of cells and molecules which orchestrate thymocyte maturation into either CD4+ or CD8+ single-positive (SP) T cells. Here, we briefly review the process regulating T-cell [...] Read more.
T-cell development in the thymus is a complex and highly regulated process, involving a wide variety of cells and molecules which orchestrate thymocyte maturation into either CD4+ or CD8+ single-positive (SP) T cells. Here, we briefly review the process regulating T-cell differentiation, which includes the latest advances in this field. In particular, we highlight how, starting from a pool of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, the sequential action of transcriptional factors and cytokines dictates the proliferation, restriction of lineage potential, T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) gene rearrangements, and selection events on the T-cell progenitors, ultimately leading to the generation of mature T cells. Moreover, this review discusses paradigmatic examples of viral infections affecting the thymus that, by inducing functional changes within this lymphoid gland, consequently influence the behavior of peripheral mature T-lymphocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue T Cell-Mediated Antiviral Immunity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Brevilin A, a Sesquiterpene Lactone, Inhibits the Replication of Influenza A Virus In Vitro and In Vivo
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090835 - 08 Sep 2019
Viewed by 319
Abstract
With the emergence of drug-resistant strains of influenza A viruses (IAV), new antivirals are needed to supplement the existing counter measures against IAV infection. We have previously shown that brevilin A, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from C. minima, suppresses the infection of [...] Read more.
With the emergence of drug-resistant strains of influenza A viruses (IAV), new antivirals are needed to supplement the existing counter measures against IAV infection. We have previously shown that brevilin A, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from C. minima, suppresses the infection of influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) in vitro. Here, we further investigate the antiviral activity and mode of action of brevilin A against different IAV subtypes. Brevilin A inhibited the replication of influenza A H1N1, H3N2, and H9N2 viruses in vitro. The suppression effect of brevilin A was observed as early as 4–8 hours post infection (hpi). Furthermore, we determined that brevilin A inhibited viral replication in three aspects, including viral RNA (vRNA) synthesis, expression of viral mRNA, and protein encoded from the M and NS segments, and nuclear export of viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs). The anti-IAV activity of brevilin A was further confirmed in mice. A delayed time-to-death with 50% surviving up to 14 days post infection was obtained with brevilin A (at a dose of 25 mg/kg) treated animals compared to the control cohorts. Together, these results are encouraging for the exploration of sesquiterpene lactones with similar structure to brevilin A as potential anti-influenza therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral Agents)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
NSs Filament Formation Is Important but Not Sufficient for RVFV Virulence In Vivo
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090834 - 08 Sep 2019
Viewed by 289
Abstract
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus that represents as a serious health threat to both domestic animals and humans. The viral protein NSs is the key virulence factor of RVFV, and has been proposed that NSs nuclear filament formation is [...] Read more.
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus that represents as a serious health threat to both domestic animals and humans. The viral protein NSs is the key virulence factor of RVFV, and has been proposed that NSs nuclear filament formation is critical for its virulence. However, the detailed mechanisms are currently unclear. Here, we generated a T7 RNA polymerase-driven RVFV reverse genetics system based on a strain imported into China (BJ01). Several NSs mutations (T1, T3 and T4) were introduced into the system for investigating the correlation between NSs filament formation and virulence in vivo. The NSs T1 mutant showed distinct NSs filament in the nuclei of infected cells, the T3 mutant diffusively localized in the cytoplasm and the T4 mutant showed fragmented nuclear filament formation. Infection of BALB/c mice with these NSs mutant viruses revealed that the in vivo virulence was severely compromised for all three NSs mutants, including the T1 mutant. This suggests that NSs filament formation is not directly correlated with RVFV virulence in vivo. Results from this study not only shed new light on the virulence mechanism of RVFV NSs but also provided tools for future in-depth investigations of RVFV pathogenesis and anti-RVFV drug screening. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Human Norovirus Histo-Blood Group Antigen (HBGA) Binding Sites Mediate the Virus Specific Interactions with Lettuce Carbohydrates
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090833 - 08 Sep 2019
Viewed by 274
Abstract
Lettuce is often implicated in human norovirus (HuNoV) foodborne outbreaks. We identified H-like histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) on lettuce leaves as specific binding moieties for virus-like particles (VLPs) of HuNoV GII.4/HS194/2009 strain. The objective of this study was to determine whether HuNoV-lettuce binding [...] Read more.
Lettuce is often implicated in human norovirus (HuNoV) foodborne outbreaks. We identified H-like histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) on lettuce leaves as specific binding moieties for virus-like particles (VLPs) of HuNoV GII.4/HS194/2009 strain. The objective of this study was to determine whether HuNoV-lettuce binding is mediated through the virus HBGA binding sites (HBS). Toward this objective, VLPs of historical HuNoV GII.4 strains (1987, 1997, 2002, 2004 and 2006) with known natural mutations in their HBS, two newly generated VLP mutants of GII.4/HS194/2009 (D374A and G443A) and a VLP mutant (W375A) of GI.1/Norwalk/1968 along with its wild type VLPs, which displays distinct HBS, were investigated for their binding to lettuce. ELISA revealed that historical GII.4 strains binding to lettuce was dependent on their HBGAs profiles. The VLP mutants D374A and G443A lost binding to HBGAs and displayed no to minimal binding to lettuce, respectively. The VLPs of GI.1/Norwalk/1968 strain bound to lettuce through an H-like HBGA and the binding was inhibited by fucosidase digestion. Mutant W375A which was previously shown not to bind to HBGAs, displayed significantly reduced binding to lettuce. We conclude that the binding of HuNoV GII.4 and GI.1 strains to lettuce is mediated through the virus HBS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noroviruses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Detection of Two Highly Diverse Peribunyaviruses in Mosquitoes from Palenque, Mexico
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090832 - 07 Sep 2019
Viewed by 335
Abstract
The Peribunyaviridae family contains the genera Orthobunyavirus, Herbevirus, Pacuvirus, and Shangavirus. Orthobunyaviruses and pacuviruses are mainly transmitted by blood-feeding insects and infect a variety of vertebrates whereas herbeviruses and shangaviruses have a host range restricted to insects. Here, we [...] Read more.
The Peribunyaviridae family contains the genera Orthobunyavirus, Herbevirus, Pacuvirus, and Shangavirus. Orthobunyaviruses and pacuviruses are mainly transmitted by blood-feeding insects and infect a variety of vertebrates whereas herbeviruses and shangaviruses have a host range restricted to insects. Here, we tested mosquitoes from a tropical rainforest in Mexico for infections with peribunyaviruses. We identified and characterized two previously unknown viruses, designated Baakal virus (BKAV) and Lakamha virus (LAKV). Sequencing and de novo assembly of the entire BKAV and LAKV genomes revealed that BKAV is an orthobunyavirus and LAKV is likely to belong to a new genus. LAKV was almost equidistant to the established peribunyavirus genera and branched as a deep rooting solitary lineage basal to herbeviruses. Virus isolation attempts of LAKV failed. BKAV is most closely related to the bird-associated orthobunyaviruses Koongol virus and Gamboa virus. BKAV was successfully isolated in mosquito cells but did not replicate in common mammalian cells from various species and organs. Also cells derived from chicken were not susceptible. Interestingly, BKAV can infect cells derived from a duck species that is endemic in the region where the BKAV-positive mosquito was collected. These results suggest a narrow host specificity and maintenance in a mosquito–bird transmission cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Arboviruses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Expression of APOBEC3 Lentiviral Restriction Factors in Cats
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090831 - 07 Sep 2019
Viewed by 289
Abstract
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally occurring T-cell tropic lentiviral disease of felids with many similarities to HIV/AIDS in humans. Similar to primate lentiviral-host interactions, feline APOBEC3 (A3) has been shown to inhibit FIV infection in a host-specific manner and feline A3 [...] Read more.
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally occurring T-cell tropic lentiviral disease of felids with many similarities to HIV/AIDS in humans. Similar to primate lentiviral-host interactions, feline APOBEC3 (A3) has been shown to inhibit FIV infection in a host-specific manner and feline A3 degradation is mediated by FIV Vif. Further, infection of felids with non-native FIV strains results in restricted viral replication in both experimental and naturally occurring infections. However, the link between molecular A3-Vif interactions and A3 biological activity during FIV infection has not been well characterized. We thus examined expression of the feline A3 genes A3Z2, A3Z3 and A3Z2-Z3 during experimental infection of domestic cats with host-adapted domestic cat FIV (referred to as FIV) and non-adapted Puma concolor FIV (referred to as puma lentivirus, PLV). We determined A3 expression in different tissues and blood cells from uninfected, FIV-infected, PLV-infected and FIV/PLV co-infected cats; and in purified blood cell subpopulations from FIV-infected and uninfected cats. Additionally, we evaluated regulation of A3 expression by cytokines, mitogens, and FIV infection in cultured cells. In all feline cells and tissues studied, there was a striking difference in expression between the A3 genes which encode FIV inhibitors, with A3Z3 mRNA abundance exceeding that of A3Z2-Z3 by 300-fold or more. Interferon-alpha treatment of cat T cells resulted in upregulation of A3 expression, while treatment with interferon-gamma enhanced expression in cat cell lines. In cats, secondary lymphoid organs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) had the highest basal A3 expression levels and A3 genes were differentially expressed among blood T cells, B cells, and monocytes. Acute FIV and PLV infection of cats, and FIV infection of primary PBMC resulted in no detectable change in A3 expression with the exception of significantly elevated A3 expression in the thymus, the site of highest FIV replication. We conclude that cat A3 expression is regulated by cytokine treatment but, by and large, lentiviral infection did not appear to alter expression. Differences in A3 expression in different blood cell subsets did not appear to impact FIV viral replication kinetics within these cells. Furthermore, the relative abundance of A3Z3 mRNA compared to A3Z2-Z3 suggests that A3Z3 may be the major active anti-lentiviral APOBEC3 gene product in domestic cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feline Viruses and Viral Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop