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Materials, Volume 17, Issue 11 (June-1 2024) – 318 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Semiconductor photocatalysis is one of the important methods for treating organic dyes. In order to reduce the carrier recombination rate and enhance photocatalytic activity, ZnO was modified with V2C MXene with a large specific surface area to construct ZnO/MXene hybrids through electrostatic self-assembly for the degradation of MB. Herein, the modification of V2C MXene can increase the specific surface area to provide more sites for MB adsorption, widen the sunlight adsorption range to produce good photothermal effect, and facilitate the transfer of photogenerated carriers in ZnO to promote the reaction of more photogenerated carriers with MB. View this paper
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45 pages, 38405 KiB  
Review
Bulk MgB2 Superconducting Materials: Technology, Properties, and Applications
by Tetiana Prikhna, Vladimir Sokolovsky and Viktor Moshchil
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2787; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112787 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 346
Abstract
The intensive development of hydrogen technologies has made very promising applications of one of the cheapest and easily produced bulk MgB2-based superconductors. These materials are capable of operating effectively at liquid hydrogen temperatures (around 20 K) and are used as elements [...] Read more.
The intensive development of hydrogen technologies has made very promising applications of one of the cheapest and easily produced bulk MgB2-based superconductors. These materials are capable of operating effectively at liquid hydrogen temperatures (around 20 K) and are used as elements in various devices, such as magnets, magnetic bearings, fault current limiters, electrical motors, and generators. These applications require mechanically and chemically stable materials with high superconducting characteristics. This review considers the results of superconducting and structural property studies of MgB2-based bulk materials prepared under different pressure–temperature conditions using different promising methods: hot pressing (30 MPa), spark plasma sintering (16–96 MPa), and high quasi-hydrostatic pressures (2 GPa). Much attention has been paid to the study of the correlation between the manufacturing pressure–temperature conditions and superconducting characteristics. The influence of the amount and distribution of oxygen impurity and an excess of boron on superconducting characteristics is analyzed. The dependence of superconducting characteristics on the various additions and changes in material structure caused by these additions are discussed. It is shown that different production conditions and additions improve the superconducting MgB2 bulk properties for various ranges of temperature and magnetic fields, and the optimal technology may be selected according to the application requirements. We briefly discuss the possible applications of MgB2 superconductors in devices, such as fault current limiters and electric machines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced and Functional Ceramics and Glasses)
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12 pages, 8625 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Steelmaking Process via Data Mining and Pearson Correlation
by Susana Carrasco-López, Martín Herrera-Trejo, Manuel Castro-Román, Fabián Castro-Uresti and Edgar Iván Castro-Cedeño
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2786; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112786 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 324
Abstract
The continuous improvement of the steelmaking process is a critical issue for steelmakers. In the production of Ca-treated Al-killed steel, the Ca and S contents are controlled for successful inclusion modification treatment. In this study, a machine learning technique was used to build [...] Read more.
The continuous improvement of the steelmaking process is a critical issue for steelmakers. In the production of Ca-treated Al-killed steel, the Ca and S contents are controlled for successful inclusion modification treatment. In this study, a machine learning technique was used to build a decision tree classifier and thus identify the process variables that most influence the desired Ca and S contents at the end of ladle furnace refining. The attribute of the root node of the decision tree was correlated with process variables via the Pearson formalism. Thus, the attribute of the root node corresponded to the sulfur distribution coefficient at the end of the refining process, and its value allowed for the discrimination of satisfactory heats from unsatisfactory heats. The variables with higher correlation with the sulfur distribution coefficient were the content of sulfur in both steel and slag at the end of the refining process, as well as the Si content at that stage of the process. As secondary variables, the Si content and the basicity of the slag at the end of the refining process were correlated with the S content in the steel and slag, respectively, at that stage. The analysis showed that the conditions of steel and slag at the beginning of the refining process and the efficient S removal during the refining process are crucial for reaching desired Ca and S contents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallurgical Process Simulation and Optimization2nd Volume)
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17 pages, 16946 KiB  
Article
Influence of Heat Treatment Condition on the Microstructure, Microhardness and Corrosion Resistance of Ag-Sn-In-Ni-Te Alloy Wire
by Ling Shao, Shunle Zhang, Liepeng Hu, Yincheng Wu, Yingqi Huang, Ping Le, Sheng Dai, Weiwei Li, Na Xue, Feilong Xu and Liu Zhu
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2785; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112785 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 256
Abstract
Ag-Sn-In-Ni-Te alloy ingots were produced through a heating–cooling combined mold continuous casting technique; they were then drawn into wires. However, during the drawing process, the alloy wires tended to harden, making further diameter reduction challenging. To overcome this, heat treatment was necessary to [...] Read more.
Ag-Sn-In-Ni-Te alloy ingots were produced through a heating–cooling combined mold continuous casting technique; they were then drawn into wires. However, during the drawing process, the alloy wires tended to harden, making further diameter reduction challenging. To overcome this, heat treatment was necessary to soften the previously drawn wires. The study investigated how variations in heat treatment temperature and holding time affected the microstructure, microhardness and corrosion resistance of the alloy wires. The results indicate that the alloy wires subjected to heat treatment at 700 °C for 2 h not only exhibited a uniform microstructure distribution, but also demonstrated low microhardness and excellent corrosion resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructure Engineering of Metals and Alloys, Volume II)
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17 pages, 3580 KiB  
Article
Impact of Temperature Optimization of ITO Thin Film on Tandem Solar Cell Efficiency
by Elif Damgaci, Emre Kartal, Furkan Gucluer, Ayse Seyhan and Yuksel Kaplan
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2784; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112784 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 362
Abstract
This study examined the impact of temperature optimization on indium tin oxide (ITO) films in monolithic HJT/perovskite tandem solar cells. ITO films were deposited using magnetron sputtering at temperatures ranging from room temperature (25 °C) to 250 °C. The sputtering target was ITO, [...] Read more.
This study examined the impact of temperature optimization on indium tin oxide (ITO) films in monolithic HJT/perovskite tandem solar cells. ITO films were deposited using magnetron sputtering at temperatures ranging from room temperature (25 °C) to 250 °C. The sputtering target was ITO, with a mass ratio of In2O3 to SnO2 of 90% to 10%. The effects of temperature on the ITO film were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), spectroscopic ellipsometry, and sheet resistance measurements. Results showed that all ITO films exhibited a polycrystalline morphology, with diffraction peaks corresponding to planes (211), (222), (400), (440), and (622), indicating a cubic bixbyite crystal structure. The light transmittance exceeded 80%, and the sheet resistance was 75.1 Ω/sq for ITO deposited at 200 °C. The optical bandgap of deposited ITO films ranged between 3.90 eV and 3.93 eV. Structural and morphological characterization of the perovskite solar cell was performed using XRD and FE-SEM. Tandem solar cell performance was evaluated by analyzing current density-voltage characteristics under simulated sunlight. By optimizing the ITO deposition temperature, the tandem cell achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.74%, resulting in enhanced tandem cell efficiency. Full article
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18 pages, 4568 KiB  
Article
Ecologically Modified Leather of Bacterial Origin
by Dawid Lisowski, Stanisław Bielecki, Stefan Cichosz and Anna Masek
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2783; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112783 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 248
Abstract
The research presented here is an attempt to develop an innovative and environmentally friendly material based on bacterial nanocellulose (BNC), which will be able to replace both animal skins and synthetic polymer products. Bacterial nanocellulose becomes stiff and brittle when dried, so attempts [...] Read more.
The research presented here is an attempt to develop an innovative and environmentally friendly material based on bacterial nanocellulose (BNC), which will be able to replace both animal skins and synthetic polymer products. Bacterial nanocellulose becomes stiff and brittle when dried, so attempts have been made to plasticise this material so that BNC can be used in industry. The research presented here focuses on the ecological modification of bacterial nanocellulose with vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil, linseed oil, and grape seed oil. The effect of compatibilisers of a natural origin on the plasticisation process of BNC, such as chlorophyll, curcumin, and L-glutamine, was also evaluated. BNC samples were modified with rapeseed, linseed, and grapeseed oils, as well as mixtures of each of these oils with the previously mentioned additives. The modification was carried out by passing the oil, or oil mixture, through the BNC using vacuum filtration, where the BNC acted as a filter. The following tests were performed to determine the effect of the modification on the BNC: FTIR spectroscopic analysis, contact angle measurements, and static mechanical analysis. As a result of the modification, the BNC was plasticised. Rapeseed oil proved to be the best for this purpose, with the help of which a material with good strength and elasticity was obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Elastomer Materials and Its Composites)
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20 pages, 4859 KiB  
Article
Axial Compressive Behaviours of Coal Gangue Concrete-Filled Circular Steel Tubular Stub Columns after Chloride Salt Corrosion
by Tong Zhang, Hongshan Wang, Xuanhe Zheng and Shan Gao
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2782; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112782 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 232
Abstract
The axial compressive behaviours of coal gangue concrete-filled steel tube (GCFST) columns after chloride salt corrosion were investigated numerically. Numerical modelling was conducted through the static analysis method by finite element (FE) analysis. The failure mechanism, residual strength, and axial load–displacement curves were [...] Read more.
The axial compressive behaviours of coal gangue concrete-filled steel tube (GCFST) columns after chloride salt corrosion were investigated numerically. Numerical modelling was conducted through the static analysis method by finite element (FE) analysis. The failure mechanism, residual strength, and axial load–displacement curves were validated against tests of the coal gangue aggregate concrete-filled steel tube (GCFST) columns at room and natural aggregate concrete-filled steel tube (NCFST) columns after salt corrosion circumstance. According to the analysis on the stress distribution of the steel tube, the stress value of the steel tube decreased as the corrosion rate increased at the same characteristic point. A parametric analysis was carried out to determine the effect of crucial variation on residual strength. It indicated that material strength, the steel ratio, and the corrosion rate made a profound impact on the residual strength from the FE. The residual strength of the columns exposed to chloride salt was in negative correlation with the corrosion rate. The impact on the residual strength of the column was little, obvious by the replacement rate of the coal gangue. A simplified design formula for predicting the ultimate strength of GCFST columns after chloride salt corrosion exposure was proposed. Full article
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2 pages, 527 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Chaparro et al. Whey as an Alternative Nutrient Medium for Growth of Sporosarcina pasteurii and Its Effect on CaCO3 Polymorphism and Fly Ash Bioconsolidation. Materials 2021, 14, 2470
by Sandra Chaparro, Hugo A. Rojas, Gerardo Caicedo, Gustavo Romanelli, Antonio Pineda, Rafael Luque and José J. Martínez
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2781; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112781 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 184
Abstract
The Editorial Office was made aware of an error in Figure S1 within the original publication [...] Full article
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9 pages, 1253 KiB  
Article
TaF4: A Novel Two-Dimensional Antiferromagnetic Material with a High Néel Temperature Investigated Using First-Principles Calculations
by Jia Luo, Qingkai Zhang, Jindong Lin, Yuxiang Ni, Hongyan Wang, Yongliang Tang and Mu Lan
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2780; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112780 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 384
Abstract
The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of a novel two-dimensional monolayer material, TaF4, are investigated using first-principles calculations. The dynamical and thermal stabilities of two-dimensional monolayer TaF4 were confirmed using its phonon dispersion spectrum and molecular dynamics calculations. The band [...] Read more.
The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of a novel two-dimensional monolayer material, TaF4, are investigated using first-principles calculations. The dynamical and thermal stabilities of two-dimensional monolayer TaF4 were confirmed using its phonon dispersion spectrum and molecular dynamics calculations. The band structure obtained via the high-accuracy HSE06 (Heyd–Scuseria–Ernzerhof 2006) functional theory revealed that monolayer two-dimensional TaF4 is an indirect bandgap semiconductor with a bandgap width of 2.58 eV. By extracting the exchange interaction intensities and magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy in a J1-J2-J3-K Heisenberg model, it was found that two-dimensional monolayer TaF4 possesses a Néel-type antiferromagnetic ground state and has a relatively high Néel temperature (208 K) and strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (2.06 meV). These results are verified via the magnon spectrum. Full article
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24 pages, 5331 KiB  
Review
Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing of Ceramics: A Review on Filament-Based Process
by Roberto Spina and Luigi Morfini
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2779; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112779 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 290
Abstract
Additive manufacturing is very important due to its potential to build components and products using high-performance materials. The filament-based 3D printing of ceramics is investigated, revealing significant developments and advancements in ceramic material extrusion technology in recent years. Researchers employ several typologies of [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing is very important due to its potential to build components and products using high-performance materials. The filament-based 3D printing of ceramics is investigated, revealing significant developments and advancements in ceramic material extrusion technology in recent years. Researchers employ several typologies of ceramics and binders to achieve fully dense products. The design of the filament and the necessary technological adaptations for 3D printing are fully investigated. From a material perspective, this paper reviews and analyzes the recent developments in additive manufacturing of material-extruded ceramics products, pointing out the performance and properties achieved with different material-binder combinations. The main gaps to be filled and recommendations for future developments in this field are reported. Full article
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19 pages, 7243 KiB  
Article
Exploring In Vivo Pulmonary and Splenic Toxicity Profiles of Silicon Quantum Dots in Mice
by Roxana-Elena Cristian, Cornel Balta, Hildegard Herman, Alina Ciceu, Bogdan Trica, Beatrice G. Sbarcea, Eftimie Miutescu, Anca Hermenean, Anca Dinischiotu and Miruna S. Stan
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2778; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112778 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 263
Abstract
Silicon-based quantum dots (SiQDs) represent a special class of nanoparticles due to their low toxicity and easily modifiable surface properties. For this reason, they are used in applications such as bioimaging, fluorescent labeling, drug delivery, protein detection techniques, and tissue engineering despite a [...] Read more.
Silicon-based quantum dots (SiQDs) represent a special class of nanoparticles due to their low toxicity and easily modifiable surface properties. For this reason, they are used in applications such as bioimaging, fluorescent labeling, drug delivery, protein detection techniques, and tissue engineering despite a serious lack of information on possible in vivo effects. The present study aimed to characterize and evaluate the in vivo toxicity of SiQDs obtained by laser ablation in the lung and spleen of mice. The particles were administered in three different doses (1, 10, and 100 mg QDs/kg of body weight) by intravenous injection into the caudal vein of Swiss mice. After 1, 6, 24, and 72 h, the animals were euthanized, and the lung and spleen tissues were harvested for the evaluation of antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein expression, and epigenetic and morphological changes. The obtained results highlighted a low toxicity in pulmonary and splenic tissues for concentrations up to 10 mg SiQDs/kg body, demonstrated by biochemical and histopathological analysis. Therefore, our study brings new experimental evidence on the biocompatibility of this type of QD, suggesting the possibility of expanding research on the biomedical applications of SiQDs. Full article
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13 pages, 1290 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of Alkasite Material with Different Curing Modes and Simulated Aging Conditions
by Visnja Negovetic Mandic, Laura Plancak, Danijela Marovic, Zrinka Tarle, Milena Trutina Gavran and Matej Par
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2777; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112777 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 299
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the micro-mechanical and macro-mechanical properties of self-cured and light-cured alkasite and to investigate how accelerated degradation in acidic, alkaline, and ethanol solutions affects the macro-mechanical properties of self-cured and light-cured alkasite. The specimens of the alkasite material (Cention [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the micro-mechanical and macro-mechanical properties of self-cured and light-cured alkasite and to investigate how accelerated degradation in acidic, alkaline, and ethanol solutions affects the macro-mechanical properties of self-cured and light-cured alkasite. The specimens of the alkasite material (Cention Forte, Ivoclar Vivadent) were prepared according to the following three curing modes: (1) light-cured immediately, (2) light-cured after a 5-min delay, and (3) self-cured. Microhardness was tested before and after immersion in absolute ethanol to indirectly determine crosslink density, while flexural strength and flexural modulus were measured using a three-point bending test after accelerated aging in the following solutions: (1) lactic acid solution (pH = 4.0), (2) NaOH solution (pH = 13.0), (3) phosphate-buffered saline solution (pH = 7.4), and (4) 75% ethanol solution. The data were statistically analyzed using a two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. The results showed that the microhardness, flexural strength, and flexural modulus were significantly lower in self-cured specimens compared to light-cured specimens. A 5-min delay between the extrusion of the material from the capsule and light curing had no significant effect on any of the measured properties. A significant effect of the accelerated aging solutions on macro-mechanical properties was observed, with ethanol and alkaline solutions having a particularly detrimental effect. In conclusion, light curing was preferable to self-curing, as it resulted in significantly better micro- and macro-mechanical properties, while a 5-min delay between mixing the capsule and light curing had no negative effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Restorative Dentistry)
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21 pages, 4302 KiB  
Article
Thermophysical Properties of FUNaK (NaF-KF-UF4) Eutectics
by Maxime Fache, Laura Voigt, Jean-Yves Colle, John Hald and Ondřej Beneš
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2776; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112776 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 400
Abstract
General interest in the deployment of molten salt reactors (MSRs) is growing, while the available data on uranium-containing fuel salt candidates remains scarce. Thermophysical data are one of the key parameters for reactor design and understanding reactor operability. Hence, filling in the gap [...] Read more.
General interest in the deployment of molten salt reactors (MSRs) is growing, while the available data on uranium-containing fuel salt candidates remains scarce. Thermophysical data are one of the key parameters for reactor design and understanding reactor operability. Hence, filling in the gap of the missing data is crucial to allow for the advancement of MSRs. This study provides novel data for two eutectic compositions within the NaF-KF-UF4 ternary system which serve as potential fuel candidates for MSRs. Experimental measurements include their melting point, density, fusion enthalpy, and vapor pressure. Additionally, their boiling point was extrapolated from the vapor pressure data, which were, at the same time, used to determine the enthalpy of vaporization. The obtained thermodynamic values were compared with available data from the literature but also with results from thermochemical equilibrium calculations using the JRCMSD database, finding a good correlation, which thus contributed to database validation. Preliminary thoughts on fluoride salt reactor operability based on the obtained results are discussed in this study. Full article
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27 pages, 9024 KiB  
Article
Experimental Analysis of Effect of Machined Material on Cutting Forces during Drilling
by Josef Sklenička, Jan Hnátík, Jaroslava Fulemová, Miroslav Gombár, Alena Vagaská and Aneta Jirásko
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2775; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112775 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Current research studies devoted to cutting forces in drilling are oriented toward predictive model development, however, in the case of mechanistic models, the material effect on the drilling process itself is mostly not considered. This research study aims to experimentally analyze how the [...] Read more.
Current research studies devoted to cutting forces in drilling are oriented toward predictive model development, however, in the case of mechanistic models, the material effect on the drilling process itself is mostly not considered. This research study aims to experimentally analyze how the machined material affects the feed force (Ff) during drilling, alongside developing predictive mathematical–statistical models to understand the main effects and interactions of the considered technological and tool factors on Ff. By conducting experiments involving six factors (feed, cutting speed, drill diameter, point angle, lip relief angle, and helix angle) at five levels, the drilling process of stainless steel AISI1045 and case-hardened steel 16MnCr5 is executed to validate the numerical accuracy of the established prediction models (AdjR = 99.600% for C45 and AdjR = 97.912% for 16MnCr5). The statistical evaluation (ANOVA, RSM, and Lack of Fit) of the data proves that the drilled material affects the Ff value at the level of 17.600% (p < 0.000). The effect of feed represents 44.867% in C45 and 34.087% in 16MnCr5; the cutting speed is significant when machining C45 steel only (9.109%). When machining 16MnCr5 compared to C45 steel, the influence of the point angle (lip relief angle) is lower by 49.198% (by 22.509%). The effect of the helix angle is 163.060% higher when machining 16MnCr5. Full article
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37 pages, 8988 KiB  
Review
Encapsulation of Active Substances in Natural Polymer Coatings
by Emma Akpo, Camille Colin, Aurélie Perrin, Julien Cambedouzou and David Cornu
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2774; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112774 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Already used in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and agrochemical industries, encapsulation is a strategy used to protect active ingredients from external degradation factors and to control their release kinetics. Various encapsulation techniques have been studied, both to optimise the level of protection with [...] Read more.
Already used in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and agrochemical industries, encapsulation is a strategy used to protect active ingredients from external degradation factors and to control their release kinetics. Various encapsulation techniques have been studied, both to optimise the level of protection with respect to the nature of the aggressor and to favour a release mechanism between diffusion of the active compounds and degradation of the barrier material. Biopolymers are of particular interest as wall materials because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and non-toxicity. By forming a stable hydrogel around the drug, they provide a ‘smart’ barrier whose behaviour can change in response to environmental conditions. After a comprehensive description of the concept of encapsulation and the main technologies used to achieve encapsulation, including micro- and nano-gels, the mechanisms of controlled release of active compounds are presented. A panorama of natural polymers as wall materials is then presented, highlighting the main results associated with each polymer and attempting to identify the most cost-effective and suitable methods in terms of the encapsulated drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Green Materials)
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10 pages, 2566 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Sputtering Sequence Engineering in Superlattice-like Sb-Rich-Based Phase Change Materials
by Anding Li, Ruirui Liu, Liu Liu, Yukun Chen and Xiao Zhou
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2773; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112773 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 286
Abstract
This paper presents a comprehensive investigation into the thermal stability of superlattice-like (SLL) thin films fabricated by varying the sputtering sequences of the SLL [Ge8Sb92(25nm)/GeTe(25nm)]1 and SLL [GeTe(25nm)/Ge8Sb92(25nm)]1 configurations. Our results reveal significantly [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comprehensive investigation into the thermal stability of superlattice-like (SLL) thin films fabricated by varying the sputtering sequences of the SLL [Ge8Sb92(25nm)/GeTe(25nm)]1 and SLL [GeTe(25nm)/Ge8Sb92(25nm)]1 configurations. Our results reveal significantly enhanced ten-year data retention (Tten) for both thin films measured at 124.3 °C and 151.9 °C, respectively. These values surpass the Tten of Ge2Sb2Te5 (85 °C), clearly demonstrating the superior thermal stability of the studied SLL configurations. Interestingly, we also observe a distinct difference in the thermal stability between the two SLL configurations. The superior thermal stability of SLL [GeTe(25nm)/Ge8Sb92(25nm)]1 is attributed to the diffusion of the Sb precipitated phase from Ge8Sb92 to GeTe. This diffusion process effectively reduces the impact of the Sb phase on the thermal stability of the thin film. In contrast, in the case of SLL [Ge8Sb92(25nm)/GeTe(25nm)]1, the presence of the Sb precipitated phase in Ge8Sb92 facilitates the crystallization of GeTe, leading to reduced thermal stability. These findings underscore the significant influence of the sputtering sequence on the atomic behavior and thermal properties of superlattice-like phase change materials. Such insights provide a robust foundation for the design and exploration of novel phase change materials with improved thermal performance. Full article
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18 pages, 10855 KiB  
Article
Nondestructive Inspection and Quantification of Select Interface Defects in Honeycomb Sandwich Panels
by Mahsa Khademi, Daniel P. Pulipati and David A. Jack
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2772; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112772 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 285
Abstract
Honeycomb sandwich panels are utilized in many industrial applications due to their high bending resistance relative to their weight. Defects between the core and the facesheet compromise their integrity and efficiency due to the inability to transfer loads. The material system studied in [...] Read more.
Honeycomb sandwich panels are utilized in many industrial applications due to their high bending resistance relative to their weight. Defects between the core and the facesheet compromise their integrity and efficiency due to the inability to transfer loads. The material system studied in the present paper is a unidirectional carbon fiber composite facesheet with a honeycomb core with a variety of defects at the interface between the two material systems. Current nondestructive techniques focus on defect detectability, whereas the presented method uses high-frequency ultrasound testing (UT) to detect and quantify the defect geometry and defect type. Testing is performed using two approaches, a laboratory scale immersion tank and a novel portable UT system, both of which utilize only single-side access to the part. Coupons are presented with defects spanning from 5 to 40 mm in diameter, whereas defects in the range of 15–25 mm and smaller are considered below the detectability limits of existing inspection methods. Defect types studied include missing adhesive, unintentional foreign objects that occur during the manufacturing process, damaged core, and removed core sections. An algorithm is presented to quantify the defect perimeter. The provided results demonstrate successful defect detection, with an average defect diameter error of 0.6 mm across all coupons studied in the immersion system and 1.1 mm for the portable system. The best accuracy comes from the missing adhesive coupons, with an average error of 0.3 mm. Conversely, the worst results come from the missing or damaged honeycomb coupons, with an error average of 0.7 mm, well below the standard detectability levels of 15–25 mm. Full article
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11 pages, 2885 KiB  
Article
Oligoester Identification in the Inner Coatings of Metallic Cans by High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry with Cone Voltage-Induced Fragmentation
by Monika Beszterda-Buszczak and Rafał Frański
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2771; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112771 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 365
Abstract
The application of polyesters as food contact materials is an alternative to epoxy resin coatings, which can be a source of endocrine migrants. By using high-pressure liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS) with cone voltage-induced fragmentation in-source, a number of polyester-derived migrants were detected [...] Read more.
The application of polyesters as food contact materials is an alternative to epoxy resin coatings, which can be a source of endocrine migrants. By using high-pressure liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS) with cone voltage-induced fragmentation in-source, a number of polyester-derived migrants were detected in the extracts of inner coatings of metallic cans. The polyester-derived migrants were detected in each inner coating of fish product-containing cans (5/5) and in one inner coating of meat product-containing can (1/5). They were not detected in the inner coatings of vegetable/fruit product-containing cans (10 samples). The respective detected parent and product ions enabled differentiation between cyclic and linear compounds, as well as unambiguous identification of diol and diacid units. Most of the detected compounds, cyclic and linear, were composed of neopentyl glycol as diol and two diacid comonomers, namely isophthalic acid and hexahydrophthalic acid. The other detected oligoesters were composed of neopentyl glycol or propylene glycol and adipic acid/isophthalic acid as comonomers. The compounds containing propylene glycol as diol were found to be exclusively linear cooligoesters. On the basis of abundances of [M+Na]+ ions, the relative contents of cyclic and linear oligoesters were evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Technology and Coatings Materials)
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11 pages, 5270 KiB  
Article
Scalable Microwires through Thermal Drawing of Co-Extruded Liquid Metal and Thermoplastic Elastomer
by Pranjal Khakse, Falco Dangers, Rawan Elsersawy and Mohammad Abu Hasan Khondoker
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2770; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112770 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 359
Abstract
This article demonstrates scalable production of liquid metal (LM)-based microwires through the thermal drawing of extrudates. These extrudates were first co-extruded using a eutectic alloy of gallium and indium (EGaIn) as a core element and a thermoplastic elastomer, styrene–ethylene/butylene–styrene (SEBS), as a shell [...] Read more.
This article demonstrates scalable production of liquid metal (LM)-based microwires through the thermal drawing of extrudates. These extrudates were first co-extruded using a eutectic alloy of gallium and indium (EGaIn) as a core element and a thermoplastic elastomer, styrene–ethylene/butylene–styrene (SEBS), as a shell material. By varying the feed speed of the co-extruded materials and the drawing speed of the extrudate, it was possible to control the dimensions of the microwires, such as core diameter and shell thickness. How the extrusion temperature affects the dimensions of the microwire was also analyzed. The smallest microwire (core diameter: 52 ± 14 μm and shell thickness: 46 ± 10 μm) was produced from a drawing speed of 300.1 mm s−1 (the maximum attainable speed of the apparatus used), SEBS extrusion speed of 1.50 mm3 s−1, and LM injection rate of 5 × 105 μL s−1 at 190 °C extrusion temperature. The same extrusion condition without thermal drawing generated significantly large extrudates with a core diameter of 278 ± 26 μm and shell thickness of 430 ± 51 μm. The electrical properties of the microwires were also characterized under different degrees of stretching and wire kinking deformation which proved that these LM-based microwires change electrical resistance as they are deformed and fully self-heal once the load is removed. Finally, the sewability of these microwires was qualitatively tested by using a manual sewing machine to pattern microwires on a traditional cotton fabric. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Metals: From Fundamentals to Applications)
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15 pages, 2723 KiB  
Article
A Hydration Model to Evaluate the Properties of Cement–Quartz Powder Hybrid Concrete
by Bo Yang, Yao Liu and Xiao-Yong Wang
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2769; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112769 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 341
Abstract
Although quartz powder is a common concrete filling material, the importance and originality of this study lies in the development of a hydration model for quartz powder–cement binary mixtures and the adoption of this model to predict the development of concrete material properties. [...] Read more.
Although quartz powder is a common concrete filling material, the importance and originality of this study lies in the development of a hydration model for quartz powder–cement binary mixtures and the adoption of this model to predict the development of concrete material properties. The purpose of this study is to use this model to promote the material design of environmentally friendly concrete and to elucidate the relationships in the development of the various properties of quartz powder concrete. The method used in this study was as follows: The parameters of the hydration model were obtained through seven days of hydration heat experiments. The hydration heat up to 28 days was also calculated, and the various properties of the concrete were predicted from the heat of hydration. The main findings of this study were as follows: (1) The ultimate hydration heat released per gram of cement for the different quartz powder substitution rates and quartz powder particle fineness was the same, at 390.145 J/g cement, as was the shape index of the hydration model at −1.003. (2) Moreover, through the model calculations, we found that, at the twenty-eighth day of the curing period for the quartz powder specimens with different quartz powder substitution amounts and different fineness, the reaction level of the cement was similar, at 0.963, as were the values of the cumulative heat of hydration, with both at 375.5 J/g cement. (3) The model showed that, in the late stage (28 days) of hydration for quartz powders of different fineness and when the substitution amount was the same, the cumulative heat of hydration over 28 days was similar. (4) The properties of concrete were evaluated using the calculated hydration heat. Overall, the predictive performance of the power and linear functions was similar, with no significant differences being found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction and Building Materials)
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11 pages, 1628 KiB  
Article
A Study on Ammonium Chloride Dendrite Tip Kinetics: The Importance of the Solid–Liquid Density Change and Interfacial Kinetics
by Nashmi Alrasheedi, Mihaela Stefan-Kharicha, Ibrahim Sari, Mahmoud Ahmadein and Abdellah Kharicha
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2768; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112768 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 352
Abstract
Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) has been extensively studied as a transparent analogue for investigating the solidification of metals due to its distinctive properties and the simplicity of the experimentation. Furthermore, NH4Cl exhibits a striking resemblance in solidification behavior to the [...] Read more.
Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) has been extensively studied as a transparent analogue for investigating the solidification of metals due to its distinctive properties and the simplicity of the experimentation. Furthermore, NH4Cl exhibits a striking resemblance in solidification behavior to the majority of binary eutectic alloy systems, rendering it a valuable model for studying phase transition phenomena. Experiments conducted on ammonium chloride are frequently employed to validate numerical models for predicting grain structures, macrosegregation, and the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). This latter phenomenon arises due to differences in the velocities of columnar dendrite tips and the liquidus isosurface. However, the kinetics of dendrite tip growth, as a function of supersaturation, remains poorly understood for this commonly used alloy. The objective of this study was to utilize the available experimental data in conjunction with Ivantsov correlations to shed light on the ambiguous kinetics. The results indicate that when considering the crystal–melt density ratio, the Ivantsov solution offers a good correlation. Furthermore, incorporating a moderate interfacial kinetic coefficient enhances the correlations further. This correlation can be implemented in numerical models, which will aid in the determination of the columnar front, the columnar-to-equiaxed transition, and the equiaxed growth velocities. Full article
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13 pages, 4593 KiB  
Article
Effect of Carbon Fiber Paper with Thickness Gradient on Electromagnetic Shielding Performance of X-Band
by Zhi Liu, Meiping Song, Weiqi Liang, Xueping Gao and Bo Zhu
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2767; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112767 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 319
Abstract
Flexible paper-based materials play a crucial role in the field of flexible electromagnetic shielding due to their thinness and controllable shape. In this study, we employed the wet paper forming technique to prepare carbon fiber paper with a thickness gradient. The electromagnetic shielding [...] Read more.
Flexible paper-based materials play a crucial role in the field of flexible electromagnetic shielding due to their thinness and controllable shape. In this study, we employed the wet paper forming technique to prepare carbon fiber paper with a thickness gradient. The electromagnetic shielding performance of the carbon fiber paper varies with the ladder-like thickness distribution. Specifically, an increase in thickness gradient leads to higher reflectance of the carbon fiber paper. Within the X-band frequency range (8.2–12.4 GHz), reflectivity decreases as electromagnetic wave frequency increases, indicating enhanced penetration of electromagnetic waves into the interior of the carbon fiber paper. This enhancement is attributed to an increased fiber content per unit area resulting from a greater thickness gradient, which further enhances reflection loss and promotes internal multiple reflections and scattering effects, leading to increased absorption loss. Notably, at a 5 mm thickness, our carbon fiber paper exhibits an impressive average overall shielding performance, reaching 63.46 dB. Moreover, it exhibits notable air permeability and mechanical properties, thereby assuming a pivotal role in the realm of flexible wearable devices in the foreseeable future. Full article
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2 pages, 533 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Rajabi et al. Solvent-Free Preparation of 1,8-Dioxo-Octahydroxanthenes Employing Iron Oxide Nanomaterials. Materials 2019, 12, 2386
by Fatemeh Rajabi, Mohammad Abdollahi, Elham Sadat Diarjani, Mikhail G. Osmolowsky, Olga M. Osmolovskaya, Paulette Gómez-López, Alain R. Puente-Santiago and Rafael Luque
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2766; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112766 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 195
Abstract
It has been brought to the attention of the Editorial Office that Figure 1 in the original publication [...] Full article
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15 pages, 5357 KiB  
Article
Metal 3D-Printed Bioinspired Lattice Elevator Braking Pads for Enhanced Dynamic Friction Performance
by Nikolaos Kladovasilakis, Eleftheria Maria Pechlivani, Ioanna K. Sfampa, Konstantinos Tsongas, Apostolos Korlos, Constantine David and Dimitrios Tzovaras
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2765; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112765 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 351
Abstract
The elevator industry is constantly expanding creating an increased demand for the integration of high technological tools to increase elevator efficiency and safety. Towards this direction, Additive Manufacturing (AM), and especially metal AM, is one of the technologies that could offer numerous competitive [...] Read more.
The elevator industry is constantly expanding creating an increased demand for the integration of high technological tools to increase elevator efficiency and safety. Towards this direction, Additive Manufacturing (AM), and especially metal AM, is one of the technologies that could offer numerous competitive advantages in the production of industrial parts, such as integration of complex geometry, high manufacturability of high-strength metal alloys, etc. In this context, the present study has 3D designed, 3D printing manufactured, and evaluated novel bioinspired structures for elevator safety gear friction pads with the aim of enhancing their dynamic friction performance and eliminating the undesired behavior properties observed in conventional pads. Four different friction pads with embedded bioinspired surface lattice structures were formed on the template of the friction surface of the conventional pads and 3D printed by the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process utilizing tool steel H13 powder as feedstock material. Each safety gear friction pad underwent tribological tests to evaluate its dynamic coefficient of friction (CoF). The results indicated that pads with a high contact surface area, such as those with car-tire-like and extended honeycomb structures, exhibit high CoF of 0.549 and 0.459, respectively. Based on the acquired CoFs, Finite Element Models (FEM) were developed to access the performance of braking pads under realistic operation conditions, highlighting the lower stress concentration for the aforementioned designs. The 3D-printed safety gear friction pads were assembled in an existing emergency progressive safety gear system of KLEEMANN Group, providing sufficient functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Additive Manufacturing: Design, Performance, and Applications)
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16 pages, 5345 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Particle Rotation Characteristics and Compaction Quality Control of Asphalt Pavement Using the Discrete Element Method
by Zhi Zhang, Hancheng Dan, Hongyu Shan and Songlin Li
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2764; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112764 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 290
Abstract
The compaction of asphalt pavement is a crucial step to ensure its service life. Although intelligent compaction technology can monitor compaction quality in real time, its application to individual asphalt surface courses still faces limitations. Therefore, it is necessary to study the compaction [...] Read more.
The compaction of asphalt pavement is a crucial step to ensure its service life. Although intelligent compaction technology can monitor compaction quality in real time, its application to individual asphalt surface courses still faces limitations. Therefore, it is necessary to study the compaction mechanism of asphalt pavements from the particle level to optimize intelligent compaction technology. This study constructed an asphalt pavement compaction model using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). First, the changes in pavement smoothness during the compaction process were analyzed. Second, the changes in the angular velocity of the mixture and the triaxial angular velocity (TAV) of the mortar, aggregates, and mixture during vibratory compaction were examined. Finally, the correlations between the TAV amplitude and the coordination number (CN) amplitude with the compaction degree of the mixture were investigated. This study found that vibratory compaction can significantly reduce asymmetric wave deformation, improving pavement smoothness. The mixture primarily rotates in the vertical plane during the first six passes of vibratory compaction and within the horizontal plane during the seventh pass. Additionally, TAV reveals the three-dimensional dynamic rotation characteristics of the particles, and the linear relationship between its amplitude and the pavement compaction degree aids in controlling the compaction quality of asphalt pavements. Finally, the linear relationship between CN amplitude and pavement compaction degree can predict the stability of the aggregate structure. This study significantly enhances quality control in pavement compaction and advances intelligent compaction technology development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction and Building Materials)
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16 pages, 4302 KiB  
Article
CaAl-Layered Double Hydroxides-Modified Biochar Composites Mitigate the Toxic Effects of Cu and Pb in Soil on Pea Seedlings
by Yuanzheng Wang, Yuhao Cai, Yuxuan Wu, Caiya Yan, Zhi Dang and Hua Yin
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2763; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112763 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 287
Abstract
Compound contamination of soil with heavy metals copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) triggered by mining development has become a serious problem. To solve this problem, in this paper, corncob kernel, which is widely available and inexpensive, was used as the raw material of [...] Read more.
Compound contamination of soil with heavy metals copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) triggered by mining development has become a serious problem. To solve this problem, in this paper, corncob kernel, which is widely available and inexpensive, was used as the raw material of biochar and modified by loading CaAl-layered double hydroxides to synthesize biochar-loaded CaAl-layered double hydroxide composites (CaAl-LDH/BC). After soil remediation experiments, either BC or CaAl-LDH/BC can increase soil pH, and the available phosphorus content and available potassium content in soil. Compared with BC, CaAl-LDH/BC significantly reduced the available content of Cu and Pb in the active state (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extractable state) in the soil, and the passivation rate of Cu and Pb by a 2% dosage of CaAl-LDH/BC reached 47.85% and 37.9%, respectively. CaAl-LDH/BC can significantly enhance the relative abundance of beneficial microorganisms such as Actinobacteriota, Gemmatimonadota, and Luteimonas in the soil, which can help to enhance the tolerance and reduce the enrichment ability of plants to heavy metals. In addition, it was demonstrated by pea seedling (Pisum sativum L.) growing experiments that CaAl-LDH/BC increased plant fresh weight, root length, plant height, catalase (CAT) activity, and protein content, which promoted the growth of the plant. Compared with BC, CaAl-LDH/BC significantly reduced the Cu and Pb contents in pea seedlings, in which the Cu and Pb contents in pea seedlings were reduced from 31.97 mg/kg and 74.40 mg/kg to 2.92 mg/kg and 6.67 mg/kg, respectively, after a 2% dosage of CaAl-LDH/BC, which was a reduction of 90.84% and 91.03%, respectively. In conclusion, compared with BC, CaAl-LDH/BC improved soil fertility and thus the plant growth environment, and also more effectively reduced the mobility of heavy metals Cu and Pb in the soil to reduce the enrichment of Cu and Pb by plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomass Conversion)
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26 pages, 10957 KiB  
Article
Micro-Inclusion Engineering via Sc Incompatibility for Luminescence and Photoconversion Control in Ce3+-Doped Tb3Al5−xScxO12 Garnet
by Karol Bartosiewicz, Robert Tomala, Damian Szymański, Benedetta Albini, Justyna Zeler, Masao Yoshino, Takahiko Horiai, Paweł Socha, Shunsuke Kurosawa, Kei Kamada, Pietro Galinetto, Eugeniusz Zych and Akira Yoshikawa
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2762; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112762 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Aluminum garnets display exceptional adaptability in incorporating mismatching elements, thereby facilitating the synthesis of novel materials with tailored properties. This study explored Ce3+-doped Tb3Al5−xScxO12 crystals (where x ranges from 0.5 to 3.0), revealing a [...] Read more.
Aluminum garnets display exceptional adaptability in incorporating mismatching elements, thereby facilitating the synthesis of novel materials with tailored properties. This study explored Ce3+-doped Tb3Al5−xScxO12 crystals (where x ranges from 0.5 to 3.0), revealing a novel approach to control luminescence and photoconversion through atomic size mismatch engineering. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the coexistence of garnet and perovskite phases, with Sc substitution significantly influencing the garnet lattice and induced A1g mode softening up to Sc concentration x = 2.0. The Sc atoms controlled sub-eutectic inclusion formation, creating efficient light scattering centers and unveiling a compositional threshold for octahedral site saturation. This modulation enabled the control of energy transfer dynamics between Ce3+ and Tb3+ ions, enhancing luminescence and mitigating quenching. The Sc admixing process regulated luminous efficacy (LE), color rendering index (CRI), and correlated color temperature (CCT), with adjustments in CRI from 68 to 84 and CCT from 3545 K to 12,958 K. The Ce3+-doped Tb3Al5−xScxO12 crystal (where x = 2.0) achieved the highest LE of 114.6 lm/W and emitted light at a CCT of 4942 K, similar to daylight white. This approach enables the design and development of functional materials with tailored optical properties applicable to lighting technology, persistent phosphors, scintillators, and storage phosphors. Full article
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13 pages, 2316 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Thermal Stabilization of Poly(Lactic Acid)
by Jannik Hallstein, Elke Metzsch-Zilligen and Rudolf Pfaendner
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2761; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112761 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 269
Abstract
To use polylactic acid in demanding technical applications, sufficient long-term thermal stability is required. In this work, the thermal aging of polylactic acid (PLA) in the solid phase at 100 °C and 150 °C is investigated. PLA has only limited aging stability without [...] Read more.
To use polylactic acid in demanding technical applications, sufficient long-term thermal stability is required. In this work, the thermal aging of polylactic acid (PLA) in the solid phase at 100 °C and 150 °C is investigated. PLA has only limited aging stability without the addition of stabilizers. Therefore, the degradation mechanism in thermal aging was subsequently investigated in more detail to identify a suitable stabilization strategy. Investigations using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that, contrary to expectations, even under thermal aging conditions, hydrolytic degradation rather than oxidative degradation is the primary degradation mechanism. This was further confirmed by the investigation of suitable stabilizers. While the addition of phenols, phosphites and thioethers as antioxidants leads only to a limited improvement in aging stability, the addition of an additive composition to provide hydrolytic stabilization results in extended durability. Efficient compositions consist of an aziridine-based hydrolysis inhibitor and a hydrotalcite co-stabilizer. At an aging temperature of 100 °C, the time until significant polymer chain degradation occurs is extended from approx. 500 h for unstabilized polylactic acid to over 2000 h for stabilized polylactic acid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Polymeric Materials)
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14 pages, 5705 KiB  
Article
Effect of Secondary Phase on Passivation Layer of Super Duplex Stainless Steel UNS S 32750: Advanced Safety of Li-Ion Battery Case Materials
by Byung-Hyun Shin, Seongjun Kim, Jinyong Park, Jung-Woo Ok, Dohyung Kim and Jang-Hee Yoon
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2760; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112760 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 270
Abstract
Aluminum, traditionally the primary material for battery casings, is increasingly being replaced by UNS S 30400 for enhanced safety. UNS S 30400 offers superior strength and corrosion resistance compared to aluminum; however, it undergoes a phase transformation owing to stress during processing and [...] Read more.
Aluminum, traditionally the primary material for battery casings, is increasingly being replaced by UNS S 30400 for enhanced safety. UNS S 30400 offers superior strength and corrosion resistance compared to aluminum; however, it undergoes a phase transformation owing to stress during processing and a lower high-temperature strength. Duplex stainless steel UNS S 32750, consisting of both austenite and ferrite phases, exhibits excellent strength and corrosion resistance. However, it also precipitates secondary phases at high temperatures, which are known to form through the segregation of Cr and Mo. Various studies have investigated the corrosion resistance of UNS S 32750; however, discrepancies exist regarding the formation and thickness of the passivation layer. This study analyzed the oxygen layer on the surface of UNS S 32750 after secondary-phase precipitation. The microstructure, volume fraction, chemical composition, and depth of O after the precipitation of the secondary phases in UNS S 32750 was examined using FE-SEM, EDS, EPMA and XRD, and the surface chemical composition and passivation layer thickness were analyzed using electron probe microanalysis and glow-discharge spectroscopy. This study demonstrated the segregation of alloy elements and a reduction in the passivation-layer thickness after precipitation from 25 μm to 20 μm. The findings of the analysis aid in elucidating the impact of secondary-phase precipitation on the passivation layer. Full article
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14 pages, 2287 KiB  
Article
Effect of Secondary Foaming on the Structural Properties of Polyurethane Polishing Pad
by Minxuan Chen, Zhenlin Jiang, Min Zhu, Baoxiu Wang, Jiapeng Chen and Wenjun Wang
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2759; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112759 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 246
Abstract
Polyurethane polishing pads are important in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). Thus, understanding how to decrease the density but increase the porosity is a crucial aspect of improving the efficiency of a polyurethane polishing pad. According to the principle of gas generation by thermal [...] Read more.
Polyurethane polishing pads are important in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). Thus, understanding how to decrease the density but increase the porosity is a crucial aspect of improving the efficiency of a polyurethane polishing pad. According to the principle of gas generation by thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate, polyurethane polishing pad was prepared by a secondary foaming method. The influence of adding such an inorganic foaming agent as an auxiliary foaming agent on the structure, physical properties, and mechanical properties of polyurethane polishing pads was discussed. The results showed that compared with the polyurethane polishing pad without an inorganic foaming agent, the open-pore structure increased, the density decreased, and the porosity and water absorption increased significantly. The highest porosity and material removal rate (MRR) with sodium bicarbonate added was 3.3% higher than those without sodium bicarbonate and 33.8% higher than those without sodium bicarbonate. In addition, the highest porosity and MRR with ammonium bicarbonate were 7.2% higher and 47.8% higher than those without ammonium bicarbonate. Therefore, it was finally concluded that the optimum amount of sodium bicarbonate to be added was 3 wt%, and the optimum amount of ammonium bicarbonate to be added was 1 wt%. Full article
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13 pages, 8022 KiB  
Communication
Hydrothermal Growth and Orientation of LaFeO3 Epitaxial Films
by Guang Xian, Tongxin Zheng, Yaqiu Tao and Zhigang Pan
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2758; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112758 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 296
Abstract
LaFeO3 thin films were successfully epitaxially grown on single-crystalline SrTiO3 substrates by the one-step hydrothermal method at a temperature of 320 °C in a 10 mol/L KOH aqueous solution using La(NO3)3 and Fe(NO3)3 as the [...] Read more.
LaFeO3 thin films were successfully epitaxially grown on single-crystalline SrTiO3 substrates by the one-step hydrothermal method at a temperature of 320 °C in a 10 mol/L KOH aqueous solution using La(NO3)3 and Fe(NO3)3 as the raw materials. The growth of the films was consistent with the island growth mode. Scanning electronic microscopy, elemental mapping, and atomic force microscopy demonstrate that the LaFeO3 thin films cover the SrTiO3 substrate thoroughly. The film subjected to hydrothermal treatment for 4 h exhibits a relatively smooth surface, with an average surface roughness of 10.1 nm. X-ray diffraction in conventional Bragg–Brentano mode shows that the LaFeO3 thin films show the same out-of-plane orientation as that of the substrate (i.e., (001)LaFeO3||(001)SrTiO3). The in-plane orientation of the films was analyzed by φ-scanning, revealing that the orientational relationship is [001]LaFeO3||[001]SrTiO3. The ω-rocking curve indicates that the prepared LaFeO3 films are of high quality with no significant mosaic defects. Full article
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