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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 16, Issue 16 (August-2 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Chronic joint pain is associated with an increase in the consumption of medication and a decrease [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Social Determinants and Disparities in Active Aging Among Older Taiwanese
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 3005; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16163005 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 17 August 2019 / Accepted: 17 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
This study assesses equity in active aging across social determinants among older Taiwanese. The data were collected from face-to-face interviews with adults aged 55 years or more in Taiwan in 2017 (n = 738). A total of 30 individual-level Taiwan active aging [...] Read more.
This study assesses equity in active aging across social determinants among older Taiwanese. The data were collected from face-to-face interviews with adults aged 55 years or more in Taiwan in 2017 (n = 738). A total of 30 individual-level Taiwan active aging indicators were chosen, and the relationship between social determinants and active aging indicators were analyzed by logistic regression models. Women were more likely to participate in volunteering and other social groups and in lifelong learning activities, whereas men were more likely to be employed, to engage in physical activity, to feel safe from violence, and to use preventive care. Higher education was related to higher employment, social participation, independent living, lifelong learning, and a lower likelihood of poverty and severe cognitive impairment. Those living in rural areas were more likely to be employed, perform physical activity, feel physically safe, have better mental well-being, and have higher social respect and social integration ratings, whereas living in urban areas was related to greater access to medical care, owning assets, less severe cognitive impairment, greater likelihood of using information and communications technology, higher level of education, and higher access to convenient transportation. The significant disparities that exist in active aging may suggest inequality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equity of Health and Health Care in Aging Societies)
Open AccessArticle
Does the Mode of Exercise Influence the Benefits Obtained by Green Exercise?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 3004; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16163004 (registering DOI)
Received: 17 July 2019 / Revised: 7 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
Green exercise studies have tended to use walking as a modality of exercise to establish benefits to mental health. Whether green exercise benefits translate into different forms of green exercise has been deemed an important research gap. A mixed-methods study design was used [...] Read more.
Green exercise studies have tended to use walking as a modality of exercise to establish benefits to mental health. Whether green exercise benefits translate into different forms of green exercise has been deemed an important research gap. A mixed-methods study design was used to compare psychological responses between two forms of green exercise; golf and walking. A total of 20 participants (10 in each group), with a range of ages and experience were recruited to take part in the study. Participants in the walking condition exhibited significantly greater levels of dissociative cognitions than golf condition participants. Consequently, only the walking condition significantly improved in a directed attention test. Results from the Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory questionnaire found the walking condition demonstrated increases in all four subscales, whereas the golf condition showed no significant improvements. Based on the findings from the qualitative analysis, distinct differences were seen with regards to the perception of the environment. Participants in the golf condition noted natural elements as obstacles to effective performance, whereas the walking group noted natural stimuli as evoking positive feelings. In agreement with the Attention Restoration Theory, the current study demonstrates that the benefits of green exercise are somewhat reduced when greater levels of directed attention towards the activity are exhibited during green exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports and Health)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Exogenous N-Acyl-Homoserine Lactone as Signal Molecule on Nitrosomonas Europaea under ZnO Nanoparticle Stress
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 3003; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16163003 (registering DOI)
Received: 16 July 2019 / Revised: 15 August 2019 / Accepted: 17 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
Despite the adverse effects of emerging ZnO nanoparticles (nano-ZnO) on wastewater biological nitrogen removal (BNR) systems being widely documented, strategies for mitigating nanoparticle (NP) toxicity impacts on nitrogen removal have not been adequately addressed. Herein, N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS) was [...] Read more.
Despite the adverse effects of emerging ZnO nanoparticles (nano-ZnO) on wastewater biological nitrogen removal (BNR) systems being widely documented, strategies for mitigating nanoparticle (NP) toxicity impacts on nitrogen removal have not been adequately addressed. Herein, N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS) was investigated for its effects against nano-ZnO toxicity to a model nitrifier, Nitrosomonas europaea. The results indicated that AHL-attenuated nano-ZnO toxicity, which was inversely correlated with the increasing dosage of AHL from 0.01 to 1 µM. At 0.01 µM, AHL notably enhanced the tolerance of N. europaea cells to nano-ZnO stress, and the inhibited cell proliferation, membrane integrity, ammonia oxidation rate, ammonia monooxygenase activity and amoA gene expression significantly increased by 18.2 ± 2.1, 2.4 ± 0.9, 58.7 ± 7.1, 32.3 ± 1.7, and 7.3 ± 5.9%, respectively, after 6 h of incubation. However, increasing the AHL dosage compromised the QS-mediated effects and even aggravated the NPs’ toxicity effects. Moreover, AHLs, at all tested concentrations, significantly increased superoxide dismutase activity, indicating the potential of QS regulations to enhance cellular anti-oxidative stress capacities when facing NP invasion. These results provide novel insights into the development of QS regulation strategies to reduce the impact of nanotoxicity on BNR systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Environmental Risk Assessment)
Open AccessReview
Ecological and Health Effects of Lubricant Oils Emitted into the Environment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 3002; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16163002 (registering DOI)
Received: 12 July 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 11 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
Lubricating oils used in machines with an open cutting system, such as a saw or harvester, are applied in forest areas, gardening, in the household, and in urban greenery. During the operation of the device with an open cutting system, the lubricating oil [...] Read more.
Lubricating oils used in machines with an open cutting system, such as a saw or harvester, are applied in forest areas, gardening, in the household, and in urban greenery. During the operation of the device with an open cutting system, the lubricating oil is emitted into the environment. Therefore, the use of an oil base and refining additives of petroleum origin in the content of lubricants is associated with a negative impact on health and the environment. The current legal regulations concerning lubricants applicable in the European Union (EU) assess the degree of biodegradability. Legislation permits the use of biodegradable oils at 60% for a period of 28 days. This means that, in practice, lubricating oil considered to be biodegradable can contain up to 50% of the so-called petroleum oil base. The paper aims to draw public attention to the need to reduce the toxicity and harmful effects, due to their composition, of lubricating oils emitted into the environment on health. The authors discuss the impact of petroleum oil lubricants on soils, groundwater, vegetation, and animals, and the impact of petroleum-origin oil mist on health. An overview of test methods for the biodegradability of lubricating oils is presented, including the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 301 A–F, 310, and 302 A–D tests, as well as their standard equivalents. The current legal regulations regarding the use and control of lubricating oils emitted into the environment are discussed. Legal provisions are divided according to their area of application. Key issues regarding the biodegradability and toxicity of petroleum fractions in lubricating oils are also addressed. It is concluded that lubricating oils, emitted or potentially emitted into the environment, should contain only biodegradable ingredients in order to eliminate the negative impact on both the environment and health. Total biodegradability should be confirmed by widely applied tests. Therefore, a need to develop and implement low-cost and simple control procedures for each type of lubricating oil, ensuring the possibility of an indisputable conclusion about the presence and total absence of petroleum-derived components in oil, as well as the content of natural ingredients, occurs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disturbance Management in Forest Ecosystems)
Open AccessArticle
Occupational Exposure to Solar UV Radiation of a Group of Fishermen Working in the Italian North Adriatic Sea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 3001; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16163001 (registering DOI)
Received: 11 July 2019 / Revised: 16 August 2019 / Accepted: 18 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
Occupational solar radiation exposure is a relevant heath risk in the fishing sector. Our aim was to provide a detailed evaluation of individual UV exposure in three different fishing activities in Italy, with personal UV dosimeters and a simple formula to calculate the [...] Read more.
Occupational solar radiation exposure is a relevant heath risk in the fishing sector. Our aim was to provide a detailed evaluation of individual UV exposure in three different fishing activities in Italy, with personal UV dosimeters and a simple formula to calculate the fraction of ambient erythemal UV dose received by the workers. The potential individual UV exposure of the fishermen was between 65 and 542 Joules/m2. The percentages of the ambient exposure were estimated between 2.5% and 65.3%. Workers’ UV exposure was mainly influenced by the characteristics of the work activity, the postures adopted, and the type of boats. Overall, our data showed that 43% of the daily measurements could result largely above the occupational limits of 1–1.3 standard erythemal dose (i.e., 100 Joules/m2) per day, in case of exposure of uncovered skin areas. Measurements of individual UV exposure are important not only to assess the risk but also to increase workers’ perception and stimulate the adoption of preventive measures to reduce solar UV risk. Furthermore, the simple method proposed, linking ambient erythemal UV dose to the workers’ exposure, can be a promising tool for a reliable assessment of the UV risk, as time series of environmental UV dose are widely available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar UV Radiation: A Neglected Occupational Risk)
Open AccessArticle
Periodontal Health and Use of Oral Health Services: A Comparison of Germans and Two Migrant Groups
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 3000; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16163000 (registering DOI)
Received: 5 June 2019 / Revised: 15 August 2019 / Accepted: 18 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
A cross-sectional study was performed with 251 individuals, consisting of 127 Germans, 68 migrants from Turkey, and 56 resettlers (migrants from the former Soviet Union with German ancestors) to compare periodontal health status, with a special focus on associations with lifestyle and anthropometric [...] Read more.
A cross-sectional study was performed with 251 individuals, consisting of 127 Germans, 68 migrants from Turkey, and 56 resettlers (migrants from the former Soviet Union with German ancestors) to compare periodontal health status, with a special focus on associations with lifestyle and anthropometric factors, and use of dental health services. Maximal pocket depth was used as a clinical surrogate marker for periodontitis. Other variables were obtained by questionnaires administered by a Turkish or Russian interpreter. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in Turks (odds ratio (OR) 2.84, 95% CI = 1.53–5.26) and slightly higher in resettlers (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 0.71–2.49). These differences are partly explained by a differential distribution of known risk factors for periodontitis. A full model showed a higher prevalence of maximal pocket depth above 5 mm in Turks (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 0.99–3.92). Use of oral health services was significantly lower in the two migrant groups. Individuals who reported regular visits to a dentist had significantly less periodontitis, independent of migrant status. A reasonable conclusion is that, since oral health causes major chronic diseases and has a major effect on total health system expenditures, public health efforts both generally and specifically focused on migrant groups are warranted. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O Fluxes from Forest Soil in Permafrost Region of Daxing’an Mountains, Northeast China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2999; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162999 (registering DOI)
Received: 4 June 2019 / Revised: 9 August 2019 / Accepted: 19 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
With global warming, the large amount of greenhouse gas emissions released by permafrost degradation is important in the global carbon and nitrogen cycle. To study the feedback effect of greenhouse gases on climate change in permafrost regions, emissions of CO2, CH [...] Read more.
With global warming, the large amount of greenhouse gas emissions released by permafrost degradation is important in the global carbon and nitrogen cycle. To study the feedback effect of greenhouse gases on climate change in permafrost regions, emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O were continuously measured by using the static chamber-gas chromatograph method, in three forest soil ecosystems (Larix gmelinii, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, and Betula platyphylla) of the Daxing’an Mountains, northeast China, from May 2016 to April 2018. Their dynamic characteristics, as well as the key environmental affecting factors, were also analyzed. The results showed that the flux variation ranges of CO2, CH4, and N2O were 7.92 ± 1.30~650.93 ± 28.12 mg·m−2·h−1, −57.71 ± 4.65~32.51 ± 13.03 ug·m−2·h−1, and −3.87 ± 1.35~31.1 ± 2.92 ug·m−2·h−1, respectively. The three greenhouse gas fluxes showed significant seasonal variations, and differences in soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes between different forest types were significant. The calculation fluxes indicated that the permafrost soil of the Daxing’an Mountains may be a potential source of CO2 and N2O, and a sink of CH4. Each greenhouse gas was controlled using different key environmental factors. Based on the analysis of Q10 values and global warming potential, the obtained results demonstrated that greenhouse gas emissions from forest soil ecosystems in the permafrost region of the Daxing’an Mountains, northeast China, promote the global greenhouse effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Zn Addition on the Cd-Containing Anaerobic Fermentation Process: Biodegradation and Microbial Communities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2998; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162998 (registering DOI)
Received: 9 July 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
Anaerobic fermentation is considered as a cost-effective way of biomass waste disposal. However, the compound heavy metals contained in the biomass may induce complex effects on anaerobic fermentation, which limit the utilization of metal-contaminated biowaste. In this study, the impacts of Cd and [...] Read more.
Anaerobic fermentation is considered as a cost-effective way of biomass waste disposal. However, the compound heavy metals contained in the biomass may induce complex effects on anaerobic fermentation, which limit the utilization of metal-contaminated biowaste. In this study, the impacts of Cd and Zn addition on biogas properties, process stability, substrate biodegradation, enzyme activity, and microbial properties were studied. The results showed that the addition of Cd together with Zn (Cd+Zn) increased the maximum daily and cumulative biogas yields, and brought forward the gas production peak compared with the Cd-added group. Taking the whole fermentation process into account, the promotion effects of adding Zn into the Cd-containing fermentation system on biogas yields were mainly attributable to better process stability, higher average NH4+-N concentration in the later stage of fermentation, reduced COD (p < 0.05), and increased biodegradability of lignocelluloses (p < 0.01), especially cellulose (p < 0.05) and lignin (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, the addition of Zn promoted the coenzyme M activity (p < 0.05), and increased the absolute abundance of Methanothermobacter. The bacteria communities during the fermentation process were responsible for the degradation of lignocelluloses. The results demonstrated that the addition of appropriate Zn into the Cd-containing fermentation system enhanced the efficiency of anaerobic fermentation and utilization of biowaste. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Sustainable Management of Global Non-Renewable Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Public Perception towards Waste-to-Energy as a Waste Management Strategy: A Case from Shandong, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2997; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162997 (registering DOI)
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
Municipal solid waste (MSW) is posing great challenge for most countries in the world, which can cause severe negative impacts to the environment and human health. Waste-to-energy has great potential in China because of its technological maturity and policy support at the national [...] Read more.
Municipal solid waste (MSW) is posing great challenge for most countries in the world, which can cause severe negative impacts to the environment and human health. Waste-to-energy has great potential in China because of its technological maturity and policy support at the national level. However, there are significant conflicts between the huge market demand and strong public opposition. It is imperative to examine the public perception of waste-to-energy, especially for developing countries where a large number of projects are under construction or have been approved. The public perception of waste-to-energy was carried out by a questionnaire survey in this research. A total of 650 questionnaires were distributed and 629 questionnaires were returned, with a response rate of 96.8%. The results show that the public showed general concern in regard to environmental issues. Respondents had an overall positive attitude towards waste-to-energy, but it varied according to the demographic details of residents, such as age, education, and income. Recognition level of the benefits was higher than the concern of associated risks. Multiple linear regression shows that awareness of environmental issues had no impact on public attitude towards waste-to-energy, while public awareness and perceived benefits had notable positive impacts. Perceived risks had a positive correlation with public attitude. In order to promote the development of MSW incinerators, the government should make more publicity efforts. Rural residents, people over 50 years old, and people with low education and low income are the major groups which should be focused on to enhance the public perception. The findings provide a theoretical and practical reference for enhancing the social acceptance of waste-to-energy development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
Open AccessArticle
Social Organization Participation, Government Governance and the Equalization of Basic Public Services: Evidence from China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2996; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162996 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 9 August 2019 / Accepted: 17 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
This paper uses the methods of System Generalized method of moments (SYS-GMM), mediation effect and linkage effect to investigate the relationship among social organization participation, government governance and the equalization of basic public services from 2007 to 2017 in China. The empirical results [...] Read more.
This paper uses the methods of System Generalized method of moments (SYS-GMM), mediation effect and linkage effect to investigate the relationship among social organization participation, government governance and the equalization of basic public services from 2007 to 2017 in China. The empirical results show that the participation of social organizations and improvement in the government governance can promote the equalization of basic public services. The government has a greater capacity to drive the equalization of basic public services, but the density of social organizations can serve as a mediator in the equalization of basic public services. The government governance and social organization density have a strong linkage effect, but the link with social organization quality is weak. Furthermore, a linkage effect is evident in medical and health care, public education, environmental protection, and public culture but not in public science and social welfare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Health Efficiency Evaluation)
Open AccessArticle
Levels of Urinary Biomarkers of Oxidatively Generated Damage to DNA and RNA in Different Groups of Workers Compared to General Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2995; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162995 (registering DOI)
Received: 19 July 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
(1) Background: The products of guanine oxidation in DNA and RNA excreted in urine are 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo). Despite intra and inter-individual variability, it is possible to identify situations that significantly increase the levels of these compounds when [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The products of guanine oxidation in DNA and RNA excreted in urine are 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo). Despite intra and inter-individual variability, it is possible to identify situations that significantly increase the levels of these compounds when comparing urinary concentrations of some workers to those of the general population. (2) Methods: urines from gasoline pump attendants (58 from Saudi Arabia and 102 from Italy), 24 workers of a fiberglass reinforced plastics plant, 17 painters and 6 divers were analyzed by HPLC/MS-MS. To test the individual variability, two subjects provided daily samples for one month, and 132 urine samples from the general population were analyzed. (3) Results: We summarized the results for each biomarker, and found the following were statistically higher than in the general population: 8-oxoGua in fiberglass and Italian gasoline workers; 8-oxodGuo in fiberglass and both Saudi Arabian and Italian gasoline workers; 8-oxoGuo in fiberglass workers, both Saudi Arabian and Italian gasoline workers, and painters after the working shift. (4) Conclusions: these results confirm that both 8-oxodGuo and 8-oxoGuo are valuable biomarkers for occupational exposures to dangerous chemicals and seem to suggest that 8-oxoGuo, related to RNA oxidation, is a suitable biomarker to evaluate short term, reversible effects of occupational exposures even within the health-based limit values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Biomonitoring of Environmental and Occupational Exposures)
Open AccessArticle
Dental Caries and the Erosive Tooth Wear Status of 12-Year-Old Children in Jakarta, Indonesia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2994; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162994 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 17 August 2019 / Accepted: 18 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
Background: Indonesia has the largest population of all countries in southeast Asia. However, little information is available on the oral health status of Indonesian children. The aims of this study were to assess dental caries and erosive tooth wear in 12-year-old children in [...] Read more.
Background: Indonesia has the largest population of all countries in southeast Asia. However, little information is available on the oral health status of Indonesian children. The aims of this study were to assess dental caries and erosive tooth wear in 12-year-old children in Jakarta, Indonesia and to investigate the associated risk factors. Methods: Samples were selected using cluster sampling. Parents were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire regarding their oral health knowledge, demographic information, their child’s dietary habits, and oral health-related behaviors. Experience of caries and erosive tooth wear were recorded using the Decayed, Missing (due to caries), and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index and the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) index, respectively. Results: Of 779 children invited, 696 participated in the survey. Of these, 61% had experienced caries, and the mean DMFT score was 1.58. Almost all decay was untreated. Children who were female, who had a high frequency of soft drink intake, and whose father’s educational level was low were more likely to have dental caries. Most children had at least one lesion of erosive tooth wear. Children whose mother’s educational level was low were more likely to have erosive tooth wear. Conclusions: The prevalence of dental caries and erosive tooth wear was high in 12-year-old children in Jakarta. Their dietary habits and parental level of education were associated with the presence of these dental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Dental Care)
Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Public Health Expenditure on Health Outcomes in South Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2993; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162993 (registering DOI)
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
Health holds an important position in maintaining economic development since it is both a prerequisite for and an outcome of economic development. This means that health contributes greatly to the attainment of sustainable development and health outcomes. The importance of health is demonstrated [...] Read more.
Health holds an important position in maintaining economic development since it is both a prerequisite for and an outcome of economic development. This means that health contributes greatly to the attainment of sustainable development and health outcomes. The importance of health is demonstrated in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) where three of the eight goals are aimed at improving health outcomes. Despite progress made by other middle-income countries in achieving health-related MDGs, South Africa is still worse off in respect of health outcomes and experiences a challenge in attaining positive outcomes for these goals. This study’s main focus was to identify the association between public health expenditure and health outcomes in South Africa’s nine provinces from 2002 to 2016. The study implemented fixed effects and a random effects panel data estimation technique to control for time effects and individual provincial heterogeneity. This was followed by employing the Hausman specification test to identify the fixed effects model as the appropriate estimator for the study. The study also employed the seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) model and the least squares dummy variable (LSDV) model to examine the impact of public health expenditure on each province separately. The findings elucidated that the relationship between public health expenditure and health outcomes in South Africa varied across provinces depending on provincial management and infrastructure availability. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Spatial Distributions, Sources, Potential Risks of Multi-Trace Metal/Metalloids in Street Dusts from Barbican Downtown Embracing by Xi’an Ancient City Wall (NW, China)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2992; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162992 (registering DOI)
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
A total of 116 dust samples in downtown within the city wall were collected, and the spatial occurrence, source and health risk status of 19 trace metal/metalloids bound in street dusts (SDs) were systematically investigated. Geochemical maps, associations, risk models and indices were [...] Read more.
A total of 116 dust samples in downtown within the city wall were collected, and the spatial occurrence, source and health risk status of 19 trace metal/metalloids bound in street dusts (SDs) were systematically investigated. Geochemical maps, associations, risk models and indices were calculated to define levels of distribution, possible natural or anthropogenic sources, ecological and human health risks. It was found that the wide variations of these 19 trace metals would be observed in spatial maps, which indicated strongly anthropogenic activities inputs. Compared to the calculations of the potential ecological risk index of toxic trace metals, Pb (Eri = 20.32) ranked at the level of considerable ecological risk. The non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk from most trace metals exposed to children and adults were no significant health risks, except for the non-carcinogenic risk of Cr and As to children, and the carcinogenic risk of Cr to adults. The unacceptable risk locations were observed at traffic conjunctions, which should be given attention. The source apportionment results indicated that the trace metals/metalloids Co, Ga, Nb, As, Ni, and Y, coupled with main elements Al, K, Mg, Ca and Si, would possibly originate from “Soil Re-suspension”, whereas Fe, Cu, Rb, La, Ba, Mn, Ti, Ce and Zr were possibly derived from “Brake Wear”. As regards the Na, no valid assumption was formulated about the presence of this element in brake wear, while Cr, Sr, Zn were possibly associated with “Tire Wear”. Comparatively, V would be suggested as a representative source of fuel consumption, and Pb could possibly belong to “Traffic Pigment”. It was noted that the barbican city, surrounded by the Xi’an Ancient City Wall at 12 m high, would trap the trace metal emissions, and consequently increase the health risk for local residents. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Use of Flavored E-Cigarettes and the Type of E-Cigarette Devices Used among Adults and Youth in the US—Results from Wave 3 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (2015–2016)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2991; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162991 (registering DOI)
Received: 24 July 2019 / Revised: 13 August 2019 / Accepted: 18 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
The United States (U.S.) Food and Drug Administration has expressed concern about flavored e-cigarettes (e.g., JUUL brand) because they are appealing to youth who may be unaware that the product is addictive. The Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study Wave 3 provided [...] Read more.
The United States (U.S.) Food and Drug Administration has expressed concern about flavored e-cigarettes (e.g., JUUL brand) because they are appealing to youth who may be unaware that the product is addictive. The Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study Wave 3 provided data on flavor categories, type of e-cigarette product, and smoking status among past 30-day youth and adult e-cigarette users in the US. Most past 30-day youth and adult users reported using only one flavor category, with fruit (53% youth, 31% adult) being the most commonly reported category. Adults were far more likely to report using tobacco flavor alone, compared to any other individual flavor category or flavor category combinations (OR: 21.08, 95%CI: 5.92, 75.12). Whereas, youth were more likely to report using multiple flavor categories (OR: 2.03, 95%CI: 1.55, 2.65), with the most reported pairing being fruit and candy (36%). The variety of flavors on the market appeals to consumers of all ages. Although most past 30-day e-cigarette users reported only one flavor category, non-tobacco flavors were far more common among youth. Differences in flavor preferences among adult versus youth vapers may have implications for the role of flavors in both the initiation of youth vaping and adult vaping for smoking cessation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Cigarettes: Good and Bad Impacts)
Open AccessArticle
Patterns in the Occurrence and Duration of Musculoskeletal Pain and Interference with Work among Eldercare Workers—A One-Year Longitudinal Study with Measurements Every Four Weeks
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2990; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162990 (registering DOI)
Received: 5 July 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine patterns of musculoskeletal pain episodes over time. We conducted a one-year follow-up study among 275 eldercare workers with measurements of musculoskeletal pain (low back pain (LBP) and neck/shoulder pain (NSP)) and pain-related work interference (PWI) [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to examine patterns of musculoskeletal pain episodes over time. We conducted a one-year follow-up study among 275 eldercare workers with measurements of musculoskeletal pain (low back pain (LBP) and neck/shoulder pain (NSP)) and pain-related work interference (PWI) reported via text message every four weeks. We found a constant, high four-weekly prevalence of LBP and NSP (between 61% and 72%). The distributions of pain episodes for LBP and NSP were similar with approximately 30% of the episodes being 7 days or less per four weeks. There was also a high recurrence of pain, with 33% reporting LBP or NSP every four weeks. In addition, 24% had pain at every measurement in both the low back and neck/shoulder regions combined throughout the year. On days with LBP or NSP, approximately 59% also reported interference with work, and 18% of the eldercare workers reported that pain interfered with their work all measurements throughout the year. A high proportion of eldercare workers reported pain every four weeks throughout the year and the four-weekly prevalence of pain remained high and constant on a group level. During most days with pain, eldercare workers were hampered in their regular work activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Occupational Safety and Health)
Open AccessArticle
Differences and Similarities in Diabetes Research between China and the USA
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2989; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162989 (registering DOI)
Received: 5 July 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is one of the major non-communicable diseases (NCD) with increasing prevalence in China. There is a lack of high-quality research focusing on prevention and management of diabetes in low and middle income countries (LMICs) compared to developed countries. This comparative study [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus is one of the major non-communicable diseases (NCD) with increasing prevalence in China. There is a lack of high-quality research focusing on prevention and management of diabetes in low and middle income countries (LMICs) compared to developed countries. This comparative study aims to describe the characteristics of diabetes research conducted in China and the USA. The study included 800 studies on diabetes mellitus from both countries. Compared with studies in the USA, studies in China were more likely to be laboratory-based primary research (50.5% versus 30.8%), more likely to use animal subjects (47% versus 27.5%), more likely to focused on risk factors (22.7% versus. 14.7%), more likely to be case-controlled studies (17.7% versus 10.0%), and more likely to evaluate pharmacological treatments (36.5% versus 20.7%). Further, compared with studies in the USA, studies in China were less likely to involve patients (42.7% versus 60.7%), less likely to be clinical trials (6.2% versus 14.5%), less likely to be cohort studies (8.8% versus. 26.0%), and less likely to evaluate disease management interventions (3.3% versus 13.3%). Clinical studies in China should be more patient-based to facilitate more effective control and management of diabetes. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Factors and Contingencies for the “It Pays to Be Green Hypothesis”. The European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) and Financial Crisis as Contexts
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2988; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162988 (registering DOI)
Received: 24 July 2019 / Revised: 16 August 2019 / Accepted: 18 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
This study provides empirical evidence related to the “it pays to be green” hypothesis. Based on information from panel data approximately 42 industrial companies during an 8-year period, we determine some of the factors and contingences that affect the fulfilment of that hypothesis. [...] Read more.
This study provides empirical evidence related to the “it pays to be green” hypothesis. Based on information from panel data approximately 42 industrial companies during an 8-year period, we determine some of the factors and contingences that affect the fulfilment of that hypothesis. We find that a certain level of proactivity in environmental strategy design is one of the conditions that favors a positive relationship between environmental investment and financial performance. We also provide empirical evidence on how some external conditions affect this positive relationship, such as regulatory pressure from the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) and the financial crisis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
Open AccessArticle
My Mind is Working Overtime—Towards an Integrative Perspective of Psychological Detachment, Work-Related Rumination, and Work Reflection
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2987; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162987 (registering DOI)
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 12 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
In the literature on occupational stress and recovery from work, several facets of thinking about work during off-job time have been conceptualized. However, research on the focal concepts is currently rather diffuse. In this study we take a closer look at the five [...] Read more.
In the literature on occupational stress and recovery from work, several facets of thinking about work during off-job time have been conceptualized. However, research on the focal concepts is currently rather diffuse. In this study we take a closer look at the five most well-established concepts: (1) psychological detachment, (2) affective rumination, (3) problem-solving pondering, (4) positive work reflection, and (5) negative work reflection. More specifically, we scrutinized (1) whether the five facets of work-related rumination are empirically distinct, (2) whether they yield differential associations with different facets of employee well-being (burnout, work engagement, thriving, satisfaction with life, and flourishing), and (3) to what extent the five facets can be distinguished from and relate to conceptually similar constructs, such as irritation, worry, and neuroticism. We applied structural equation modeling techniques to cross-sectional survey data from 474 employees. Our results provide evidence for (1) five correlated, yet empirically distinct facets of work-related rumination. (2) Each facet yields a unique pattern of association with the eight aspects of employee well-being. For instance, detachment is strongly linked to satisfaction with life and flourishing. Affective rumination is linked particularly to burnout. Problem-solving pondering and positive work reflection yield the strongest links to work engagement. (3) The five facets of work-related rumination are distinct from related concepts, although there is a high overlap between (lower levels of) psychological detachment and cognitive irritation. Our study contributes to clarifying the structure of work-related rumination and extends the nomological network around different types of thinking about work during off-job time and employee well-being. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Field Study on the Microclimate of Public Spaces in Traditional Residential Areas in a Severe Cold Region of China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2986; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162986 (registering DOI)
Received: 8 July 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
As residential environment science advances, the environmental quality of outdoor microclimates has aroused increasing attention of scholars majoring in urban climate and built environments. Taking the microclimate of a traditional residential area in a severe cold city as the study object, this study [...] Read more.
As residential environment science advances, the environmental quality of outdoor microclimates has aroused increasing attention of scholars majoring in urban climate and built environments. Taking the microclimate of a traditional residential area in a severe cold city as the study object, this study explored the influence of spatial geometry factors on the microclimate of streets and courtyards by field measurements, then compared the differences in microclimate of distinct public spaces. The results are as follows. (1) The temperature of a NE-SW (Northeast-Southwest) oriented street was higher than that of a NW-SE (Northwest-Southeast) oriented street in both summer and winter, with an average temperature difference of 0.7–1.4 °C. The wind speeds in the latter street were slower, and the difference in average wind speed was 0.2 m/s. (2) In the street with a higher green coverage ratio, the temperature was much lower, a difference that was more obvious in summer. The difference in mean temperature was up to 1.2 °C. The difference in wind speed between the two streets was not obvious in winter, whereas the wind speed in summer was significantly lower for the street with a higher green coverage ratio, and the difference in average wind speed was 0.7 m/s. (3) The courtyards with higher SVF (sky view factor) had higher wind speeds in winter and summer, and the courtyards with larger SVF values had higher temperatures in summer, with an average temperature difference of 0.4 °C. (4) When the spaces had the same SVF values and green coverage ratios, the temperature of the street and courtyard were very similar, in both winter and summer. The wind speed of the street was significantly higher than the courtyard in summer, and the wind speed difference was 0.4 m/s. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Safety Warning on Domperidone Prescribing for Geriatric Patients in South Korea: Analysis of National Insurance Claim Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2985; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162985 (registering DOI)
Received: 10 June 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
Domperidone is a dopamine antagonist used for the symptomatic management of nausea and vomiting. Many countries banned or add a black box warning due to an increased risk of serious adverse cardiac effects. In 2014, the Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety [...] Read more.
Domperidone is a dopamine antagonist used for the symptomatic management of nausea and vomiting. Many countries banned or add a black box warning due to an increased risk of serious adverse cardiac effects. In 2014, the Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety also released a safety warning to carefully consider adverse cardiac effects when prescribing domperidone. Therefore, we conducted this study to analyze the impact of the safety warning on domperidone prescribing. This study included patients 65 years or older who used national health insurance services in the years 2011 and 2016, using the national patient sample dataset in South Korea. We analyzed the characteristics of domperidone prescribing and compared on pre- and post-safety warning. Prescribing frequency of domperidone was significantly reduced from 603,962 cases in 2011 to 24,623 cases in 2016. In 2011, 53,272 (8.8%) prescriptions were for greater than 30 mg/day, whereas only 200 (0.8%) prescriptions were in 2016. The number of patients with one or more comorbidities and electrocardiogram monitoring showed positive changes after the safety warning. In conclusion, after the 2014 safety letter was issued, domperidone was more safely prescribed in various aspects in elderly patients, including frequency of prescribing, maximum daily dose, and duration of continuous prescription. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Care Sciences & Services)
Open AccessArticle
Prediction and Analysis of Electrical Accidents and Risk Due to Climate Change
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2984; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162984 (registering DOI)
Received: 10 July 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
The industrial development and the increase in the use of fossil fuels have been accelerating global warming and climate change, thereby causing more frequent and intense natural disasters than ever before. Since electrical facilities are generally installed outdoors, they are greatly affected by [...] Read more.
The industrial development and the increase in the use of fossil fuels have been accelerating global warming and climate change, thereby causing more frequent and intense natural disasters than ever before. Since electrical facilities are generally installed outdoors, they are greatly affected by natural disasters, thus accidents related to electrical equipment has been on the rise. In this paper, we present the risk rating associated with climate change by analyzing the statistics of electrical fires, electric shock accidents and electrical equipment accidents caused by domestic climate change. Further, we present a risk rating analysis model for electrical fires on a monthly basis through the data analysis of electrical hazards associated with various regional (metropolitan city) climatic conditions (temperature, humidity), and analyze the accident risk rating for natural disasters related to low and high voltage equipment. Through this risk analysis model for each region and type of equipment, we presented a basic prediction model for electrical hazards. Therefore, it is possible to provide electrical safety services in the future by displaying a risk prediction map of electrical hazards for each region and type of electrical equipment through web sites or smart phone apps using the presented analysis data. Further, efforts should be made to increase the robustness or reliability of electrical equipment in order to prevent electrical accidents caused by natural disasters due to climate change in advance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climate Change and Health)
Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Particulate Matter on Outdoor Activity and Mental Health: A Matching Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2983; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162983 (registering DOI)
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 28 July 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
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Abstract
Exposure to air pollution affects human activity and health. Particularly, in Asian countries, the influence of particulate matter on humans has received wide attention. However, there is still a lack of research about the effects of particulate matter on human outdoor activities and [...] Read more.
Exposure to air pollution affects human activity and health. Particularly, in Asian countries, the influence of particulate matter on humans has received wide attention. However, there is still a lack of research about the effects of particulate matter on human outdoor activities and mental health. Therefore, we aimed to explore the association between exposure to particulate matter with a diameter of less than 10 µm (PM10) and outdoor activity along with mental health in South Korea where issues caused by particulate matter increasingly have social and economic impacts. We examined this relationship by combining the physical and habitual factors of approximately 100,000 people in 2015 from the Korean National Health Survey. To measure each individual’s exposure to particulate matter, we computed the total hours exposed to a high PM10 concentration (>80 μg/m3) in a given district one month before the survey was conducted. After dividing all districts into six groups according to the exposed level of the high PM10, we applied the propensity score-weighting method to control for observable background characteristics. We then estimated the impact of the high PM10 on outdoor activity and mental health between the weighted individuals in each group. Our main findings suggest that the impact of PM10 on outdoor activity and stress shows an inverted-U shaped function, which is counterintuitive. Specifically, both outdoor activity and stress levels tend to be worsened when the exposure time to a high PM10 (>80 μg/m3) was more than 20 h. Related policy implications are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Location-Routing Problem in Emergency Logistics Considering Carbon Emissions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2982; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162982
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 2 August 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
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Abstract
In order to solve the optimization problem of emergency logistics system, this paper provides an environmental protection point of view and combines with the overall optimization idea of emergency logistics system, where a fuzzy low-carbon open location-routing problem (FLCOLRP) model in emergency logistics [...] Read more.
In order to solve the optimization problem of emergency logistics system, this paper provides an environmental protection point of view and combines with the overall optimization idea of emergency logistics system, where a fuzzy low-carbon open location-routing problem (FLCOLRP) model in emergency logistics is constructed with the multi-objective function, which includes the minimum delivery time, total costs and carbon emissions. Taking into account the uncertainty of the needs of the disaster area, this article illustrates a triangular fuzzy function to gain fuzzy requirements. This model is tackled by a hybrid two-stage algorithm: Particle swarm optimization is adopted to obtain the initial optimal solution, which is further optimized by tabu search, due to its global optimization capability. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified by the classic database in LRP. What’s more, an example of a post-earthquake rescue is used in the model for acquiring reliable conclusions, and the application of the model is tested by setting different target weight values. According to these results, some constructive proposals are propounded for the government to manage emergency logistics and for the public to aware and measure environmental emergency after disasters. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Colonization of Dental Unit Waterlines by Helicobacter pylori: Risk of Exposure in Dental Practices
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2981; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162981
Received: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 7 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
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Abstract
Dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) can be considered one of the possible routes of H. pylori transmission, although its presence in DUWLs has not yet been investigated thoroughly. The present study aimed to discover the prevalence of H. pylori and oral streptococci (S. [...] Read more.
Dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) can be considered one of the possible routes of H. pylori transmission, although its presence in DUWLs has not yet been investigated thoroughly. The present study aimed to discover the prevalence of H. pylori and oral streptococci (S. oralis and S. mutans) in DUWLs to evaluate the risk of exposure to human pathogens in dental practices. We collected the output water from 60 dental chair units (DCUs) in 26 private dentistry settings in Turin, searching for H. pylori and oral streptococci (OS) DNA, with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. At the same time, dentists completed a questionnaire about their DCUs, their main activities, the presence of anti-retraction devices, their attitudes about disinfection, etc. No dental chair unit tested was contaminated with H. pylori or S. mutans; only one dental chair was contaminated with S. oralis (1.7%). Considering the results, we can state that: (i) the lack of H. pylori DNA in water samples analyzed, suggests that municipal water is presumably treated with a sufficient chlorine level to inactivate DNA over time; (ii) the aspiration of oral fluids is limited by anti-retraction valves fitted distally to hand pieces; (iii) propidium monoazide qPCR (PMA-qPCR) could be a good technique to investigate and monitor potential environmental sources of infections such as DUWLs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evolution of the Physical and Social Spaces of ‘Village Resettlement Communities’ from the Production of Space Perspective: A Case Study of Qunyi Community in Kunshan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2980; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162980
Received: 12 July 2019 / Revised: 15 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
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Abstract
Village resettlement communities (VRCs) are a special type of urban community that the government has promoted considerably during China’s rapid urbanization. This study uses the theory of the production of space as a basis to explore the processes and mechanisms of the physical [...] Read more.
Village resettlement communities (VRCs) are a special type of urban community that the government has promoted considerably during China’s rapid urbanization. This study uses the theory of the production of space as a basis to explore the processes and mechanisms of the physical and social space evolution of VRCs through a case study of Qunyi Community, one of the largest VRCs in Kunshan. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were employed in this study. Results indicate that the coupling relationship between local government power and diversified capital is the fundamental reason that promotes the production of macrophysical space. Moreover, the economic and social relationships among residents promote the reproduction of microsocial space. Landless farmers are the most important spatial producers in the microsocial space. The individual needs and cultural differences of immigrant workers also have significant effects on microspatial production. Furthermore, the production and reproduction of the physical and social spaces, respectively, of VRCs deduce the adjustment relationship among the urbanization processes of land, population, and individuals. Results also indicate that the urbanization of individuals appears to lag behind the previous two processes. This study can provide a theoretical basis for the spatial renovation and management optimization of VRCs, as well as the promotion of a new type of “people-centered” urbanization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding the Barriers and Pathways to Male Help-Seeking and Help-Offering: A Mixed Methods Study of the Impact of the Mates in Construction Program
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2979; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162979
Received: 14 June 2019 / Revised: 15 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
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Abstract
The Mates in Construction (MATES) program was developed to address the issue of high suicide rates among males in the Australian construction industry. The program delivers early intervention training and support to construction workers. This mixed-methods study aimed to (1) examine the effectiveness [...] Read more.
The Mates in Construction (MATES) program was developed to address the issue of high suicide rates among males in the Australian construction industry. The program delivers early intervention training and support to construction workers. This mixed-methods study aimed to (1) examine the effectiveness of training for MATES connectors and (2) examine the barriers, motivations and pathways to help-seeking and help-offering for both MATES connectors and clients. A total of 104 volunteers completed a short survey before and after connector training sessions. Quantitative data analysis showed significant increases in connectors’ self-reported suicide awareness, and willingness to offer help to workmates and seek help themselves. For the qualitative component, 27 connectors and clients participated in focus groups and individual interviews. Thematic analysis identified six themes from the connectors’ data: awareness, skills and confidence; removing stigma; making a difference; simplicity of the model; understanding the industry; and visibility, camaraderie and passion. For clients, three key themes emerged: barriers and pathways to help-seeking; speaking the same language; and flow-on effects. The results provide evidence for the effectiveness of connector training and indicate that MATES’s peer support model is enabling workers to overcome traditional barriers and attitudes to seeking and offering help. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Association Between Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Combinations of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Pre-Frailty in Older Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2978; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162978
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 10 August 2019 / Accepted: 11 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
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Abstract
Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been proposed as a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and pre-frailty are reportedly associated with increased CIMT. As the evidence on the association of CIMT with combinations of MCI and pre-frailty is limited, this [...] Read more.
Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been proposed as a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and pre-frailty are reportedly associated with increased CIMT. As the evidence on the association of CIMT with combinations of MCI and pre-frailty is limited, this association is examined. A total of 231 older adults participated. MCI was defined according to clinical consensus or psychometric criteria by a dementia specialist, and considering detailed neuropsychological assessments. Also, pre-frailty was defined as subjects with frail component of 1 or 2. Carotid variables were measured using a B-mode ultrasound. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed to assess independent differences in CIMT among the four groups, according to the cognitive function and frailty status after a multivariate adjustment. Increased CIMT is associated with combinations of MCI and pre-frailty. ANCOVA showed that CIMTs were significantly different among the four groups according to the cognitive function and frailty status. CIMTmax combined with MCI and pre-frailty was the thickest (1.04 ± 0.3 mm), whereas the CIMT of no MCI and no pre-frailty was the thinnest (0.82 ± 0.2 mm). The results suggest that combinations of MCI and pre-frailty are associated with increased CIMT in older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geriatrics Syndromes Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
College Students’ Experience of a Food Safety Class and Their Responses to the MSG Issue
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2977; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162977
Received: 12 July 2019 / Revised: 13 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
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Abstract
This study examines whether students’ experience in a food safety class affected their responses to the monosodium glutamate (MSG) issue and to message framing. We differentiated students into two groups depending on their involvement in a food safety class. The data were collected [...] Read more.
This study examines whether students’ experience in a food safety class affected their responses to the monosodium glutamate (MSG) issue and to message framing. We differentiated students into two groups depending on their involvement in a food safety class. The data were collected through in-class surveys in South Korea. A structural equation model was used where the dependent variable was students’ intention to avoid MSG; the mediating variables were knowledge, trust, attitude, and risk perception; and the exogenous variable was class experience. A difference-in-differences scheme was used to analyze the interaction between class experience and message frame. Empirical results show that students who took the class had relatively more knowledge of MSG along with lower risk perceptions or fears of MSG and thus a reduced intention to avoid it. The class experience also affected their trust in overall food safety in the domestic market as well as in food-related institutions and groups. Students showed sensitivity to message framing, although the sensitivity did not statistically differ by students’ class experience status. Our results imply that cultivating students’ knowledge of food additives through a food safety class enables them to respond more reasonably toward food additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Air Pollution Exposure and Cognitive Function in Taiwanese Older Adults: A Repeated Measurement Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2976; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162976
Received: 11 July 2019 / Revised: 15 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
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Abstract
Studies related to air pollution exposure and neurocognitive disorders, specifically cognitive impairment, among older adults are limited. We investigated the association between short-term and long-term exposure to ambient air pollution (i.e., particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <10 μm and ozone) and [...] Read more.
Studies related to air pollution exposure and neurocognitive disorders, specifically cognitive impairment, among older adults are limited. We investigated the association between short-term and long-term exposure to ambient air pollution (i.e., particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <10 μm and ozone) and the effects of their interaction on cognitive function in a community-dwelling, free-living elderly population. Study participants were in a multiple-wave representative sample, namely the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (n = 2241). In four surveys between 1996 and 2007, their cognitive function was assessed using the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). We estimated air pollution from 1993 to 2007, including daily concentrations of PM10 and O3 from air quality monitoring stations, based on the administrative zone of each participant’s residence. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine these associations after adjusting for covariates. We found that long-term exposure to PM10 and O3 was significantly associated with cognitive impairment (OR = 1.094, 95% CI: 1.020, 1.174 for PM10; OR = 1.878, 95% CI: 1.363, 2.560 for O3). The joint effect of exposure to PM10 and O3 was associated with cognitive impairment (p < 0.001). Co-exposure to ambient PM10 and O3 may deteriorate cognitive function in older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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