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Article

Association Between Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Combinations of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Pre-Frailty in Older Adults

by 1,†, 2,† and 3,4,*
1
Department of Sport Rehabilitation, Dong-Ju College, Busan 49318, Korea
2
Health Convergence Medicine Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, 179, Gudeok-Ro, Seo-Gu, Busan 49241, Korea
3
Department of Health Care Science, Dong-A University, Busan 49315, Korea
4
Institute of Convergence Bio-Health, Dong-A University, Busan 49201, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2978; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162978
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 10 August 2019 / Accepted: 11 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geriatrics Syndromes Prevention)
Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been proposed as a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and pre-frailty are reportedly associated with increased CIMT. As the evidence on the association of CIMT with combinations of MCI and pre-frailty is limited, this association is examined. A total of 231 older adults participated. MCI was defined according to clinical consensus or psychometric criteria by a dementia specialist, and considering detailed neuropsychological assessments. Also, pre-frailty was defined as subjects with frail component of 1 or 2. Carotid variables were measured using a B-mode ultrasound. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed to assess independent differences in CIMT among the four groups, according to the cognitive function and frailty status after a multivariate adjustment. Increased CIMT is associated with combinations of MCI and pre-frailty. ANCOVA showed that CIMTs were significantly different among the four groups according to the cognitive function and frailty status. CIMTmax combined with MCI and pre-frailty was the thickest (1.04 ± 0.3 mm), whereas the CIMT of no MCI and no pre-frailty was the thinnest (0.82 ± 0.2 mm). The results suggest that combinations of MCI and pre-frailty are associated with increased CIMT in older adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: mild cognitive impairment; pre-frailty; carotid intima-media thickness; cardiovascular disease; older adults mild cognitive impairment; pre-frailty; carotid intima-media thickness; cardiovascular disease; older adults
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MDPI and ACS Style

Park, J.; Park, J.-H.; Park, H. Association Between Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Combinations of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Pre-Frailty in Older Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2978. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162978

AMA Style

Park J, Park J-H, Park H. Association Between Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Combinations of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Pre-Frailty in Older Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(16):2978. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162978

Chicago/Turabian Style

Park, Jinkee, Jong-Hwan Park, and Hyuntae Park. 2019. "Association Between Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Combinations of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Pre-Frailty in Older Adults" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 16: 2978. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162978

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