ijerph-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Human Biomonitoring of Environmental and Occupational Exposures"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020) | Viewed by 23888

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Giovanna Tranfo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology and Hygiene, INAIL, 00078 Rome, Italy
Interests: occupational toxicology; assessment of the environmental and occupational exposure to chemicals; biomonitoring and health effects
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Human exposure to chemicals is ubiquitous and unavoidable, considering that even the substances emitted from the plants and the oxygen that we breathe are chemicals. However, in both legislation and life science research, great efforts are underway to reduce dangerous exposures in the environment and control exposures in workplaces.

Human biomonitoring is a powerful method for assessing human exposure to chemicals (or their associated effects) by measuring these chemicals, their metabolites and reaction products in human tissues or specimens such as blood, urine or hair.

The swift progress of analytical techniques have rendered very low levels of exposures visible, and new topics like the exposome and metabolomics are being explored, together with the study of the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals, neuro-toxic agents, gender-specific studies, the synergistic effects of multiple occupational/environmental stressors. Statistical data analysis of collected data can be performed by means of artificial intelligence methods.

Papers addressing these topics are invited for this Special Issue, especially those combining a high academic standard coupled with a practical focus.

Dr. Giovanna Tranfo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biological monitoring
  • Exposure biomarkers
  • Effect biomarkers
  • Exposome
  • Metabolomics
  • Dangerous substances
  • Urine
  • Metabolites
  • Data analysis

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (16 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Editorial
The Growing Importance of the Human Biomonitoring of Exposure
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3934; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113934 - 02 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 829
Abstract
The human biological monitoring of exposure is the determination of biomarkers, which can be dose biomarkers, measuring internal exposure levels to be compared with any (if known) biological limit value, effect biomarkers, which highlight early symptoms or dysfunctional situations still reversible with the [...] Read more.
The human biological monitoring of exposure is the determination of biomarkers, which can be dose biomarkers, measuring internal exposure levels to be compared with any (if known) biological limit value, effect biomarkers, which highlight early symptoms or dysfunctional situations still reversible with the improvement of the exposure situations, and susceptibility biomarkers, which express individual differences of genetic or acquired origin [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Biomonitoring of Environmental and Occupational Exposures)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Article
Biological Monitoring of Metal Ions Released from Hip Prostheses
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093223 - 06 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of As, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn, by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the urine of two groups of patients with two [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of As, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn, by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the urine of two groups of patients with two different types of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip prostheses (ASR DePuy®, group A, 25 patients; total Met-Met System Lima®, group B, 28 patients). The determination of metals reflected a steady-state release (group A: 9 years after surgery and group B: 6 years after surgery). The results obtained confirmed the increase of Co and Cr urinary levels in both group when compared with the reference values for the general population adopted by the Italian Society of Reference Values (SIVR). In particular, Co and Cr levels exceeded the threshold values in urine, respectively, of 30 μg and 21 µg, adjusted to creatinine based on the threshold in whole blood of 7 μg/L proposed by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Regarding the other investigated metals, significantly higher values were found in Group A than in Group B. These differences could be due to the type of hip prosthesis implanted, the longer period of time since the implantation, as well as many other factors such as diet, age, drug consumption, physical activity, or presence of dental fillings. The continuous monitoring over the years of metal concentrations in patients carrying a prosthesis could be useful to better identify the sources of these metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Biomonitoring of Environmental and Occupational Exposures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Analysis of Hygrothermal Microclimatic (HTM) Parameters in Specific Food Storage Environments in Slovakia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 2092; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062092 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1068
Abstract
The quality of work environment, temperature changes and humidity must be controlled in every production process and in the locations where employees are present. The aim of this paper is to objectively assess the exposure of employees to microclimatic factors of the workplace [...] Read more.
The quality of work environment, temperature changes and humidity must be controlled in every production process and in the locations where employees are present. The aim of this paper is to objectively assess the exposure of employees to microclimatic factors of the workplace environment: the warehouse, changing rooms, office and cold room refrigerator. Data were obtained in real working conditions. The heat stress due to cold and heat exposure in the individual locations was evaluated using the WBGT (wet bulb globe temperature) indicator. The parameters of the hygrothermal microclimate (HTM) were objectified by a QUES Temp 44/46 T spherical thermometer. The measurements were performed both in cold and hot periods of the year. The measurements confirmed standard temperatures for individual types of interiors in the winter period, but in the summer period there was a variability of results, leading to the thermal discomfort of employees. The assessment of the WBGT index revealed that nearly 80% of employees are susceptible to hypothermia as a result of thermal stress conditions. It was proven that the temperatures measured by a spherical thermometer in the hottest room were 8.62% higher than the calculated operating temperature, while the difference in the cold room refrigerator was only 1.28% higher. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Biomonitoring of Environmental and Occupational Exposures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Occupational Exposure of Plastics Workers to Diisononyl Phthalate (DiNP) and Di(2-propylheptyl) Phthalate (DPHP) in Finland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 2035; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062035 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1300
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess occupational exposure to diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) and di(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP] in Finland. Four companies took part in the research project: A cable factory, a plastic producing company, a producer of coated textiles, and a tarpaulin [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess occupational exposure to diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) and di(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP] in Finland. Four companies took part in the research project: A cable factory, a plastic producing company, a producer of coated textiles, and a tarpaulin producer. The cable factory used DPHP (and occasionally also diisodecyl phthalate, DiDP), the plastic producing company used both DPHP and DiNP, and the latter two companies used DiNP in their production. Exposure was assessed by measuring phthalate metabolites in urine samples (biomonitoring) and by performing air measurements. Low-level occupational exposure to DiNP was observed in the company that produced coated textiles—out of eight workers, one extruder operator was exposed to DiNP at levels exceeding the non-occupationally exposed population background levels. Some workers in the cable factory and the plastics producing company were occupationally exposed to DPHP. Air levels of phthalates were generally low, mostly below the limit of quantification. All phthalate metabolite concentrations were, however, well below the calculated biomonitoring equivalents, which suggests that the health risks related to the exposure are low. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Biomonitoring of Environmental and Occupational Exposures)
Article
Biomonitoring of Mercury in Hair among a Group of Eritreans (Africa)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1911; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061911 - 15 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
Small-scale or artisanal mining, using gold-mercury amalgamation to extract gold from ore, is a significant source of exposure for the workers and nearby populations. Few studies on hair mercury (Hg) have been conducted in Africa despite the fact that Africa has several gold [...] Read more.
Small-scale or artisanal mining, using gold-mercury amalgamation to extract gold from ore, is a significant source of exposure for the workers and nearby populations. Few studies on hair mercury (Hg) have been conducted in Africa despite the fact that Africa has several gold deposits. No studies have been conducted in Eritrea that is one of the emerging gold producing countries in Africa. The aim of the study was to assess the Hg concentration in hair samples (n = 120) of a population living in Asmara, capital of Eritrea, and to evaluate the influence of some factors on the Hg levels in hair. Information on age, height, weight, occupation, smoking and fish consumption of participants were collected via questionnaire. Hair Hg concentration was significantly higher among women compared to men (p < 0.001) and among women preparing spicy products in Medeber market compared to those who did other jobs (p = 0.010). These results highlight the need for routine biomonitoring surveys and for health promotion campaigns devoted to local decision makers and workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Biomonitoring of Environmental and Occupational Exposures)
Article
The Relationship Between Widespread Pollution Exposure and Oxidized Products of Nucleic Acids in Seminal Plasma and Urine in Males Attending a Fertility Center
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1880; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061880 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1444
Abstract
Background: In recent decades, there has been an increase in male infertility, and in many cases, the etiology remains unclear. Several studies relate male hypo-fertility to xenobiotic exposure, even if no data exist about multiple exposure at the environmental level. Methods: The study [...] Read more.
Background: In recent decades, there has been an increase in male infertility, and in many cases, the etiology remains unclear. Several studies relate male hypo-fertility to xenobiotic exposure, even if no data exist about multiple exposure at the environmental level. Methods: The study involved 86 males with diagnosis of idiopathic male infertility (IMI), and 46 controls with no alteration in sperm characteristics. Seminal plasma (SP) and urine samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify biomarkers of exposure (the main metabolites of benzene, toluene, 1,3-butadiene, 3-monochloropropanediol, styrene, and naphthol) and effect (oxidized products of nucleic acids).Results: Biomarker concentrations were similar in subjects with IMI and controls even if a stronger correlation between biomarkers of exposure and effects were observed in SP. Data show that, both in SP and urine, most metabolites were inter-correlated, indicating a simultaneous co-exposure to the selected substances at the environmental level. Principal component analysis showed in SP the clustering of mercapturic acids indicating a preferential metabolic pathway with Glutathione (GSH) depletion and, consequently, an increase of oxidative stress. This result was also confirmed by multivariable analysis through the development of explanatory models for oxidized products of nucleic acids. Conclusions: This study highlights how oxidative stress on the male reproductive tract can be associated with a different representation of metabolic pathways making the reproductive tract itself a target organ for different environmental pollutants. Our results demonstrate that SP is a suitable matrix to assess the exposure and evaluate the effects of reproductive toxicants in environmental/occupational medicine. The statistical approach proposed in this work represents a model appropriate to study the relationship between multiple exposure and effect, applicable even to a wider variety of chemicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Biomonitoring of Environmental and Occupational Exposures)
Article
Biological Monitoring of Occupational Exposure to Metals in Electric Steel Foundry Workers and Its Contribution to 8-Oxo-7,8-Dihydro-2′-Deoxyguanosine Levels
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1811; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061811 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1359
Abstract
In this study, the urinary concentrations of selected metals in workers from an electric steel foundry in Tunisia were assessed and compared with existing biological limit values and general population reference values. Moreover, the association between oxidative DNA damage, measured as urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2’deoxyguanosine [...] Read more.
In this study, the urinary concentrations of selected metals in workers from an electric steel foundry in Tunisia were assessed and compared with existing biological limit values and general population reference values. Moreover, the association between oxidative DNA damage, measured as urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2’deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and co-exposure to metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated. Urinary levels of 12 metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in end-shift spot samples from 89 workers. The urinary levels of phenanthrene (U-PHE), as marker of exposure to PAHs, and 8-oxodG were also available. Median levels ranged from 0.4 µg/L (cobalt, Co, and thallium, Tl) to 895 µg/L (zinc, Zn). Only 1% of samples was above the biological limit values for Co, and up to 13.5% of samples were above limit values for Cd. From 3.4% (Co) to 72% (lead, Pb) of samples were above the reference values for the general population. Multiple linear regression models, showed that manganese (Mn), Zn, arsenic (As), barium (Ba), Tl, and Pb were significant predictors of 8-oxodG (0.012 ≤ p ≤ 0.048); U-PHE was also a significant predictor (0.003 ≤ p ≤ 0.059). The variance explained by models was low (0.11 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.17, p < 0.005), showing that metals and PAHs were minor contributors to 8-oxodG. Overall, the comparison with biological limit values showed that the study subjects were occupationally exposed to metals, with levels exceeding biological limit values only for Cd. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Biomonitoring of Environmental and Occupational Exposures)
Article
Urinary Mercapturic Acids to Assess Exposure to Benzene and Other Volatile Organic Compounds in Coke Oven Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1801; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051801 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1601
Abstract
Coke production was classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Besides polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, coke oven workers may be exposed to benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The aim of this study was to assess the [...] Read more.
Coke production was classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Besides polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, coke oven workers may be exposed to benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to several VOCs in 49 coke oven workers and 49 individuals living in the same area by determining urinary mercapturic acids. Active tobacco smoking was an exclusion criterion for both groups. Mercapturic acids were investigated by a validated isotopic dilution LC-MS/MS method. Linear models were built to correct for different confounding variables. Urinary levels of N-acetyl-S-phenyl-L-cysteine (SPMA) (metabolite of benzene), N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxy-1/2-phenylethyl)-L-cysteine (PHEMA) (metabolite of styrene), N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine (CEMA) (metabolite of acrylonitrile), N-acetyl-S-[1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-propen-1-yl)-L-cysteine and N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-L-cysteine (MHBMA) (metabolites of 1,3-butadiene) were 2–10 fold higher in workers than in controls (p < 0.05). For SPMA, in particular, median levels were 0.02 and 0.31 µg/g creatinine in workers and controls, respectively. Among workers, coke makers were more exposed to PHEMA and SPMA than foremen and engine operators. The comparison with biological limit values shows that the exposure of workers was within 20% of the limit values for all biomarkers, moreover three subjects exceeded the restrictive occupational limit value recently proposed by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) for SPMA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Biomonitoring of Environmental and Occupational Exposures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Formaldehyde, Oxidative Stress, and FeNO in Traffic Police Officers Working in Two Cities of Northern Italy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1655; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051655 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1395
Abstract
Personal air formaldehyde (air-FA) was measured as risk factor of airways inflammation and oxidative stress (SO) induction. Overall, 154 police officers were enrolled from two differently urbanised Italian cities, Turin and Pavia. Urinary F2t-isoprostane (15-F2t-IsoP), a prostaglandin-like compound, was quantified as a biomarker [...] Read more.
Personal air formaldehyde (air-FA) was measured as risk factor of airways inflammation and oxidative stress (SO) induction. Overall, 154 police officers were enrolled from two differently urbanised Italian cities, Turin and Pavia. Urinary F2t-isoprostane (15-F2t-IsoP), a prostaglandin-like compound, was quantified as a biomarker of general OS in vivo and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was measured for monitoring local inflammatory processes. Urinary cotinine was quantified as a biomarker of tobacco smoking exposure. Traffic police officers living in Turin showed an increased level of log air-FA (p < 0.001), equal to +53.6% (p < 0.001). Log air-(FA) mean values were 3.38 (C.I. 95% 3.33–3.43) and 2.84 (C.I. 95% 2.77–2.92) in Turin and Pavia, respectively. Log (air-FA) was higher in “outdoor workers” (3.18, C.I. 95% 3.13–3.24, p = 0.035) compared to “indoor workers”, showing an increase of +9.3%, even controlling for sex and city. The analyses on 15-F2t-IsoP and FeNO, both adjusted for log air-FA, highlighted that OS and inflammation were higher (+66.8%, p < 0.001 and +75%, p < 0.001, respectively) in Turin traffic police officers compared to those from Pavia. Our findings suggest that even low exposures to traffic-related emissions and urbanisation may influence both general oxidative stress levels and local inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Biomonitoring of Environmental and Occupational Exposures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Levels of Urinary Biomarkers of Oxidatively Generated Damage to DNA and RNA in Different Groups of Workers Compared to General Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2995; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162995 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1512
Abstract
(1) Background: The products of guanine oxidation in DNA and RNA excreted in urine are 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo). Despite intra and inter-individual variability, it is possible to identify situations that significantly increase the levels of these compounds when [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The products of guanine oxidation in DNA and RNA excreted in urine are 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo). Despite intra and inter-individual variability, it is possible to identify situations that significantly increase the levels of these compounds when comparing urinary concentrations of some workers to those of the general population. (2) Methods: urines from gasoline pump attendants (58 from Saudi Arabia and 102 from Italy), 24 workers of a fiberglass reinforced plastics plant, 17 painters and 6 divers were analyzed by HPLC/MS-MS. To test the individual variability, two subjects provided daily samples for one month, and 132 urine samples from the general population were analyzed. (3) Results: We summarized the results for each biomarker, and found the following were statistically higher than in the general population: 8-oxoGua in fiberglass and Italian gasoline workers; 8-oxodGuo in fiberglass and both Saudi Arabian and Italian gasoline workers; 8-oxoGuo in fiberglass workers, both Saudi Arabian and Italian gasoline workers, and painters after the working shift. (4) Conclusions: these results confirm that both 8-oxodGuo and 8-oxoGuo are valuable biomarkers for occupational exposures to dangerous chemicals and seem to suggest that 8-oxoGuo, related to RNA oxidation, is a suitable biomarker to evaluate short term, reversible effects of occupational exposures even within the health-based limit values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Biomonitoring of Environmental and Occupational Exposures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Study Design, Rationale and Procedures for Human Biomonitoring of Hazardous Chemicals from Foods and Cooking in Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2583; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142583 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
Objectives: A nationwide biomonitoring program identified the long-term trends of environmental exposures to hazardous chemicals in the general population and found geographical locations where body burdens of an exposed group significantly differed from those of the general population. The purpose of this [...] Read more.
Objectives: A nationwide biomonitoring program identified the long-term trends of environmental exposures to hazardous chemicals in the general population and found geographical locations where body burdens of an exposed group significantly differed from those of the general population. The purpose of this study is to analyze the hazardous compounds associated with foods and cooking in the nationwide general population for evaluation of the environmental exposures and health risk factors and for the establishment of the reference levels at the national level. Methods: During 2009–2010, the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation (NIFDS) conducted a nationwide human biomonitoring study, including a questionnaire survey and environmental exposure assessments for specific hazardous compounds from foods and cooking among the general population in South Korea. Results: A total of 2139 individuals voluntarily participated in 98 survey units in South Korea, including 889 (41.6%) men and 1250 women (58.4%). Bio-specimens (serum and urine) and questionnaires were collected from the study population. Acrylamides, heterocyclic amines (HCAs), phenols, and phthalates were analyzed from urine, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and organic chloride pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed from serum samples. The information on exposure pathway and geographical locations for all participants was collected by questionnaire interviews, which included demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, history of family diseases, conditions of the indoor and outdoor environment, lifestyles, occupational history, and food and dietary information. Conclusion: We describe the design of the study and sampling of human biospecimen procedures including bio-sample repository systems. The resources produced from this nationwide human biomonitoring study and survey will be valuable for use in future biomarkers studies and for the assessment of exposure to hazardous compounds associated with foods and cooking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Biomonitoring of Environmental and Occupational Exposures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Analytical Quality Requirements in Human Biomonitoring Programs: Trace Elements in Human Blood
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2287; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132287 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1233
Abstract
Human biomonitoring (HBM) programs consist of several interrelated and equally important steps. Of these steps, the study design must answer a specific question: How many individuals must be recruited in order to define the spatial or temporal trends of exposure to environmental pollutants [...] Read more.
Human biomonitoring (HBM) programs consist of several interrelated and equally important steps. Of these steps, the study design must answer a specific question: How many individuals must be recruited in order to define the spatial or temporal trends of exposure to environmental pollutants in a given HBM study? Two components must be considered at this stage: the population variability of the expected exposure and the performance characteristics of the analytical methods used. The objective of the present study was to quantify the contribution to the required sample size arising from (i) measurement uncertainty and (ii) inter-laboratory measurement variability. For this purpose, the sample size was calculated using the measurement uncertainty of one laboratory, inter-laboratory comparison exercise data, and population variability for commonly studied metals (mercury, cadmium, and lead) in blood. Measurement uncertainty within one laboratory proved to have little influence on the sample size requirements, while the inter-laboratory variability of the three metals increased the requirements considerably, particularly in cases of low population variability. The multiple laboratories approach requires that laboratory variability be considered as early as the planning stage; a single-laboratory approach is thus a cost-effective compromise in HBM to reduce variability due to the participation of different laboratories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Biomonitoring of Environmental and Occupational Exposures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Inter-Day Variability of Metabolites of DEHP and DnBP in Human Urine—Comparability of the Results of Longitudinal Studies with a Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16061029 - 21 Mar 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1413
Abstract
In the current paper, we compare the inter-day variability of the metabolite concentration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) in 247 morning urine samples obtained from 19 probands of different age and sex with the metabolite concentration in morning [...] Read more.
In the current paper, we compare the inter-day variability of the metabolite concentration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) in 247 morning urine samples obtained from 19 probands of different age and sex with the metabolite concentration in morning urine obtained from 215 probands of the “Tübingen Survey” cross-sectional study. In the first longitudinal study the morning urine of seven volunteers was collected four times a year for seven consecutive days (course of the year study). In a second study the morning urine of 12 students of a boarding school was collected on five consecutive days (course of a week study). For participants of the two different longitudinal studies we obtained mean concentrations in first void morning urine for mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP) in the range from 21.3 to 110 µg/L, 10.5 to 35.6 µg/L for mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), and 45.5 to 143 µg/L for mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP). The corresponding relative standard deviations (rel. Std.D in %) for these DEHP-metabolites vary between 45.2% and 262%. The 50th percentiles vary for 5OH-MEHP between 17.5 and 65.6 µg/L, for 5oxo-MEHP between 9.0 and 20.3 µg/L and for 5cx-MEPP between 42.5 and 82.0 µg/L. For participants of the “Tübingen Survey” cross-sectional study the means vary for 5OH-MEHP between 58.2 and 85.0 µg/L, between 33.6 and 38.7 µg/L for 5oxo-MEHP and between 110 and 158 µg/L for 5cx-MEPP with rel. standard deviations in a range between 86.5 to 175%. The corresponding 50th percentiles vary for 5OH-MEHP between 26.5 and 42.3 µg/L, for 5oxo-MEHP between 18.0 and 26.3 µg/L, and for 5cx-MEPP between 57.2 and 77.6 µg/L. In order to compare the data from the longitudinal studies with the data from the cross-sectional study, the frequency distribution of the results of both types of studies was compared first. In a second step, the results of a t-test (p-values) was used to check whether the results of the long-term studies differ statistically significantly from the results of the cross-sectional study (p < 0.05). The present data show that the frequency distributions of DEHP-metabolites are comparable. For most of the participants respectively subject groups t-test results prove that no statistical significant difference between results obtained from longitudinal studies compared to the results of the cross-sectional study are apparent. The available data on the exposure of individual subjects mirror the data obtained from cross-sectional studies of the general population and give hints to the risk of individual increased DEHP exposure. Results also highlight the importance of living conditions on the risk of increased DEHP exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Biomonitoring of Environmental and Occupational Exposures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Review
Systematic Literature Review of the Take-Home Route of Pesticide Exposure via Biomonitoring and Environmental Monitoring
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2177; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122177 - 19 Jun 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2437
Abstract
Background: Exposure to pesticides via take-home can be an important pathway for farmworkers’ families. Objective: The aim of this review was to summarize and analyze the literature published during the last decade of exposure to pesticides via take-home pathway in farmworkers’ families. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Exposure to pesticides via take-home can be an important pathway for farmworkers’ families. Objective: The aim of this review was to summarize and analyze the literature published during the last decade of exposure to pesticides via take-home pathway in farmworkers’ families. Methods: We conducted a systematic review to identify peer-reviewed articles of interest; only articles related to take-home pathway that included some sort of pesticide monitoring were considered for inclusion. Systematic reviews, literature reviews, and meta-analyses were excluded, resulting in a total of 39 articles elected for analysis. The articles were summarized based on the location of the study, population (sample size), pesticide analyzed, and type of sample. Results: The majority of the reviewed studies were conducted in the U.S., but there seems to be an increase in literature on pesticide take-home pathway in developing countries. Most of the articles provided evidence that farmworkers’ families are exposed to pesticides at higher levels than non-farmworkers’ families. The levels may depend on several factors such as seasonality, parental occupation, cohabitation with a farmworker, behavior at work/home, age, and gender. Community-based interventions disrupting the take-home pathway seem to be effective at reducing pesticide exposure. Discussion/Conclusion: The take-home pathway is an important contributor to overall residential exposures, but other pathways such as pesticide drift, indoor-residential applications, and dietary intake need to be considered. A more comprehensive exposure assessment approach is necessary to better understand exposures to pesticides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Biomonitoring of Environmental and Occupational Exposures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
A Review of Biomarkers Used for Assessing Human Exposure to Metals from E-Waste
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1802; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101802 - 21 May 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2101
Abstract
Electronic waste recycling presents workers and communities with a potential for exposures to dangerous chemicals, including metals. This review examines studies that report on blood, hair, and urine biomarkers of communities and workers exposed to metals from e-waste. Our results from the evaluation [...] Read more.
Electronic waste recycling presents workers and communities with a potential for exposures to dangerous chemicals, including metals. This review examines studies that report on blood, hair, and urine biomarkers of communities and workers exposed to metals from e-waste. Our results from the evaluation of 19 publications found that there are consistently elevated levels of lead found in occupationally and non-occupationally exposed populations, in both the formal and the informal e-waste recycling sectors. Various other metals were found to be elevated in different exposure groups assessed using various types of biomarkers, but with less consistency than found in lead. Antimony and cadmium generally showed higher concentrations in exposed groups compared to reference group(s). Mercury and arsenic did not show a trend among exposure groups due to the dietary and environmental considerations. Observed variations in trends amongst exposure groups within studies using multiple biomarkers highlights the need to carefully select appropriate biomarkers. Our study concludes that there is a need for more rigorous research that moves past cross-sectional study designs, involves more thoughtful and methodical selection of biomarkers, and a systematic reporting standard for exposure studies to ensure that results can be compared across studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Biomonitoring of Environmental and Occupational Exposures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
On the Use of Hair Analysis for Assessing Arsenic Intoxication
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060977 - 18 Mar 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1770
Abstract
Correlations between the concentrations of arsenic in scalp hair and in drinking water as well as in blood and/or urine have been reported. These correlations clearly show exposure–absorption–excretion relationships. In addition, arsenic metabolites such as monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid have been identified [...] Read more.
Correlations between the concentrations of arsenic in scalp hair and in drinking water as well as in blood and/or urine have been reported. These correlations clearly show exposure–absorption–excretion relationships. In addition, arsenic metabolites such as monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid have been identified and quantified in these tissues and fluids, leaving little doubt that elevated levels of arsenic in the hair can reflect systemic arsenic intoxication. Consequently, hair analysis has potential merit as a screening procedure for poisoning by arsenic. However, questions regarding the exogenous versus the endogenous deposition of arsenic in the hair, and uncertainties about the normal level of arsenic in the hair remain unresolved. Pending their resolution, the determination of arsenic in hair should remain a screening tool, and clinical signs and symptoms should be employed to complete the diagnosis of arsenic poisoning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Biomonitoring of Environmental and Occupational Exposures)
Back to TopTop