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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 16, Issue 13 (July-1 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) A growing body of evidence suggests that access to nature and green space can improve health. This [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
The Number of Adverse Childhood Experiences Is Associated with Emotional and Behavioral Problems among Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2446; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132446
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
This study aims to examine the association of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) with emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) among adolescents and the degree to which this association is stronger for more ACE. In addition, we assessed whether socioeconomic position (SEP) modifies the association [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine the association of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) with emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) among adolescents and the degree to which this association is stronger for more ACE. In addition, we assessed whether socioeconomic position (SEP) modifies the association of ACE with EBP. We obtained data from 341 adolescents aged 10–16 (mean age = 13.14 years; 44.0% boys), the baseline of a cohort study. We measured EBP with the strengths and difficulties questionnaire and socioeconomic position (SEP) with self-reported financial status. We used generalized linear models to analyze the association between ACE (0 vs. 1–2 vs. 3 and more) and EBP, and the modifying effect of SEP. Adolescents with 1–2 ACE (regression coefficient: 0.19; 95%-confidence interval (CI): 0.06–0.32) and with 3 ACE and over (0.35; 0.17–0.54) reported more overall problems compared with adolescents without ACE. Moreover, adolescents with 1–2 ACE (0.16; −0.01–0.32, and 0.16; 0.03–0.29) and with 3 and over ACE (0.33; 0.10–0.56, and 0.28; 0.09–0.47) reported more emotional problems and behavioral problems, respectively. The interactions of SEP with ACE were not significant. ACE are related to EBP among adolescents, with a clear dose-response association, and this association similarly holds for all SEP categories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Adolescents and Children Health Research)
Open AccessArticle
Determinants of Health Facility Utilization at Birth in South Sudan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2445; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132445
Received: 5 June 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 6 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
South Sudan has a high maternal mortality ratio estimated at 800 deaths per 100,000 live births. Birth in health facilities with skilled attendants can lower this mortality. In this cross-sectional study, we determined the level and determinants of health facility utilization and skilled [...] Read more.
South Sudan has a high maternal mortality ratio estimated at 800 deaths per 100,000 live births. Birth in health facilities with skilled attendants can lower this mortality. In this cross-sectional study, we determined the level and determinants of health facility utilization and skilled birth attendance in Jubek State, South Sudan. Mothers of children aged less than two years were interviewed in their homes. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with health facility births. Only a quarter of the mothers had given birth at health facilities, 209/810 (25.8%; 95% CI 18.2–35.3) and 207/810 had a skilled birth attendant (defined as either nurse, midwife, clinical officer, or doctor). Factors positively associated with health facility births were four or more antenatal visits (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 19; 95% CI 6.2, 61), secondary or higher education (AOR 7.9; 95% CI 3, 21), high socio-economic status (AOR 4.5; 95% CI 2.2, 9.4), and being primipara (AOR 2.9; 95% CI 1.5, 5.4). These findings highlight the need for efforts to increase health facility births in South Sudan. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Total Dissolved Gas Supersaturation in Fish of Different Sizes and Species
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2444; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132444
Received: 19 May 2019 / Revised: 29 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
Two endemic fish in the upper Yangtze River, the Rock Carp (Procypris rabaudi) and Prenant’s Schizothoracin (Schizothorax prenanti), were used as research objects in this study to assess the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation on fish of [...] Read more.
Two endemic fish in the upper Yangtze River, the Rock Carp (Procypris rabaudi) and Prenant’s Schizothoracin (Schizothorax prenanti), were used as research objects in this study to assess the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation on fish of varying sizes. Fish were exposed to TDG-supersaturated water at the levels of 145, 140, 135, 130, and 125%. The results showed that fish swam slowly, responded clumsily, and then exhibited spiral swimming performance after a period of exposure to TDG-supersaturated water. Fish exhibited exophthalmos, body swelling, gill bleeding, and caudal fin bleeding when they died in the TDG-supersaturated water. With the increase in TDG supersaturation, the tolerance capacity of fish to supersaturated TDG significantly reduced. At high supersaturation, the difference in survival time between species was not significant, while fish with smaller sizes showed greater tolerance capacity. At low supersaturation, the tolerance capacity of fish was mainly affected by species, and the influence of size was relatively small. With the decrease in TDG supersaturation, the catalase (CAT) activity first increased and then decreased. Rock Carp displayed significantly less activity than Prenant’s Schizothoracin on exposure to TDG-supersaturated water. At high supersaturation levels, the CAT activity of Prenant’s Schizothoracin of small size was greater than that of large Prenant’s Schizothoracin. In contrast, small Prenant’s Schizothoracin showed less CAT activity at low TDG levels than did large individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
The New Path to Improve Construction Safety Performance in China: An Evolutionary Game Theoretic Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2443; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132443
Received: 2 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 7 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
Evidence shows that there are many work-related accidents and injuries happening in construction projects and governments have taken a series of administrative measures to reduce casualties in recent years. However, traditional approaches have reached a bottleneck due to ignoring market forces, and thus [...] Read more.
Evidence shows that there are many work-related accidents and injuries happening in construction projects and governments have taken a series of administrative measures to reduce casualties in recent years. However, traditional approaches have reached a bottleneck due to ignoring market forces, and thus new measures should be conducted. This study develops a perspective of safety performance (SP) for construction projects in China and puts forward a conception of the safety information system by using several brainstorming sessions to strengthen the safety supervision of participants in the construction industry. This system provides rating information to the public, and bad performance contractors enter into a blacklist which will influence their economic activities. Considering the limited rationality of government and various contractors, this paper builds a reasonable evolutionary game model to verify the feasibility of the safety information system. The analysis results show that there is not a single set of evolutionarily stable strategies (ESSs), as different situations may lead to different ESSs. The efficiency of applying the safety information system (the blacklist) in the construction industry can be proved by reducing the government’s safety supervision cost and by enhancing construction safety at the same time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Integrated Effects of Co-Inoculation with Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and N2-Fixing Bacteria on Microbial Population and Soil Amendment Under C Deficiency
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2442; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132442
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
The inoculation of beneficial microorganisms to improve plant growth and soil properties is a promising strategy in the soil amendment. However, the effects of co-inoculation with phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and N2-fixing bacteria (NFB) on the soil properties of typical C-deficient soil [...] Read more.
The inoculation of beneficial microorganisms to improve plant growth and soil properties is a promising strategy in the soil amendment. However, the effects of co-inoculation with phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and N2-fixing bacteria (NFB) on the soil properties of typical C-deficient soil remain unclear. Based on a controlled experiment and a pot experiment, we examined the effects of PSB (M: Bacillus megaterium and F: Pseudomonas fluorescens), NFB (C: Azotobacter chroococcum and B: Azospirillum brasilence), and combined PSB and NFB treatments on C, N, P availability, and enzyme activities in sterilized soil, as well as the growth of Cyclocarya Paliurus seedlings grow in unsterilized soil. During a 60-day culture, prominent increases in soil inorganic N and available P contents were detected after bacteria additions. Three patterns were observed for different additions according to the dynamic bacterial growth. Synergistic effects between NFB and PSB were obvious, co-inoculations with NFB enhanced the accumulation of available P. However, decreases in soil available P and N were observed on the 60th day, which was induced by the decreases in bacterial quantities under C deficiency. Besides, co-inoculations with PSB and NFB resulted in greater performance in plant growth promotion. Aimed at amending soil with a C supply shortage, combined PSB and NFB treatments are more appropriate for practical fertilization at intervals of 30–45 days. The results demonstrate that co-inoculations could have synergistic interactions during culture and application, which may help with understanding the possible mechanism of soil amendment driven by microorganisms under C deficiency, thereby providing an alternative option for amending such soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
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Open AccessReview
Indoor Air Pollution in Cars: An Update on Novel Insights
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2441; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132441
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 29 June 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
From a global viewpoint, a lot of time is spent within the indoor air compartment of vehicles. A German study on mobility has revealed that, on average, people spend 45 minutes per day inside vehicles. In recent years the number of cars has [...] Read more.
From a global viewpoint, a lot of time is spent within the indoor air compartment of vehicles. A German study on mobility has revealed that, on average, people spend 45 minutes per day inside vehicles. In recent years the number of cars has increased to around 43 million vehicles in private households. This means that more than one car can be used in every household. The ratio has been growing, especially in eastern Germany and rural areas. “Overall and especially outside the cities, the car remains by far number one mode of transport, especially in terms of mileage”. Therefore, numerous international studies have addressed different aspects of indoor air hygiene, in the past years. In this paper, meaningful original studies on car indoor air pollution, related to VOCs, COx, PMs, microbials, BFRs, OPFRs, cigarettes, electronic smoking devices, high molecular weight plasticizer, and NOx are summarized in the form of a review. This present review aimed to summarize recently published studies in this important field of environmental medicine and points to the need for further studies with special recommendations for optimizing the interior air hygiene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Cardiopulmonary Health)
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Open AccessCommunication
Doctors Rule: An Analysis of Health Ministers’ Diaries in Australia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2440; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132440
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 3 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
Limited progress in nutrition policy action is often blamed on the close relationships the food industry has with health policy decision-makers. This analysis sought to examine this belief through the analysis of health ministers’ diaries. Entries were downloaded from health ministers’ diaries from [...] Read more.
Limited progress in nutrition policy action is often blamed on the close relationships the food industry has with health policy decision-makers. This analysis sought to examine this belief through the analysis of health ministers’ diaries. Entries were downloaded from health ministers’ diaries from two states in Australia from January 2013 to June 2018. Entries were coded according to which interest group met with the minister or whether general parliamentary business was undertaken. Coding was also undertaken for any meeting topics related to nutrition policy. Analysis of health ministers’ diaries found that the food industry has limited documented interaction with the two state health ministers in Australia. Instead, medical associations, private hospitals and health services, and sporting associations (rugby league associations) had the most interactions with health ministers. Poor representation was seen on nutrition issues, and there was an apparent lack of nutrition advocates interacting with the health ministers. There are opportunities for nutrition advocates to increase their level of interaction with state health ministers. This could include building alliances with medical associations, as they are in a powerful position, to advocate directly to health ministers. Health ministers’ diaries can provide valuable insights into who is meeting officially with ministers. However, there are also limitations with the dataset. Full article
Open AccessArticle
State-Level Affordability of Factory-Made Cigarettes among Current US Smokers: Findings from the ITC US Survey, 2003–2015
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2439; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132439
Received: 14 April 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 29 June 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
Cigarette affordability measures the price smokers pay for cigarettes in relation to their incomes. Affordability can be measured using the relative income price of cigarettes (RIP), or the price smokers pay to purchase 100 packs of 20 cigarettes divided by their per capita [...] Read more.
Cigarette affordability measures the price smokers pay for cigarettes in relation to their incomes. Affordability can be measured using the relative income price of cigarettes (RIP), or the price smokers pay to purchase 100 packs of 20 cigarettes divided by their per capita household income. Using longitudinal data from 7046 smokers participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) US Survey, the purpose of this study was to test whether affordability significantly changed following the US federal tax increase implemented on 1 April 2009. This study also estimated temporal trends in affordability from 2003–2015 at state and national levels using small area estimation methods and segmented linear mixed effects regression models. RIP increased slightly during 2003–2008. This was followed by a 30% increase during 2008–2010, indicating cigarettes were less affordable after the federal tax increase. RIP continued to increase during 2010–2013 but decreased during 2013–2015, suggesting cigarettes have recently become more affordable for US smokers. State-level trends in RIP were consistent with overall national trends. Controlling for other factors, a $1 increase in the state excise tax was significantly associated with a 9% increase in RIP, indicating state taxes reduced affordability. Tax-induced price increases must keep pace with underlying economic conditions to ensure cigarettes do not become more affordable over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control: Policy Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle
Smart Software Can Increase Sit–Stand Desk Transitions During Active Computer Use
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2438; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132438
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
The objective use of table top adjustable sit–stand desks has yet to be determined, due to the lack of an effective digital evaluation method. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of computer prompt software on table top sit–stand desks [...] Read more.
The objective use of table top adjustable sit–stand desks has yet to be determined, due to the lack of an effective digital evaluation method. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of computer prompt software on table top sit–stand desks to determine if there was a difference in the frequency of desk position changes. This five month, pre-post pilot study on 47 university staff members used a novel USB accelerometer sensor and computer software reminders to continuously record and prompt increases in desk usage to promote physical activity at the workstation. During the baseline phase (3 months), desk usage data were continuously recorded for all workers. Following the baseline, the results from a two-month intervention of personalized computer reminders doubled the number of desk position changes per work day from 1 desk position change every 2 work days to 1 change every work day. Furthermore, those who changed desk positions once or twice a day increased from 4% to 36% from baseline to intervention. Overall, the intervention was encouraging, but longer intervention studies are warranted to determine if the desk usage behavior change can be improved and sustained for years and whether that change results in health gains. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Environmental and Motivational Determinants of Physical Activity among Canadian Inuit in the Arctic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2437; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132437
Received: 28 April 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
Background: Canadian Inuit have transited from a physically active hunter-gatherer subsistence lifestyle into sedentary ways of life. The purpose of the current study was to measure physical activity levels among Nunavut Inuit adults, and explore the socio-cognitive and environmental factors influencing the number [...] Read more.
Background: Canadian Inuit have transited from a physically active hunter-gatherer subsistence lifestyle into sedentary ways of life. The purpose of the current study was to measure physical activity levels among Nunavut Inuit adults, and explore the socio-cognitive and environmental factors influencing the number of steps taken per day. Method: Inuit and non-Inuit adults (N = 272) in Nunavut participated in a seven-day pedometer study during summer and winter seasons. Participants were asked to complete the Neighbourhood Environmental Walkability Scale (NEWS) and Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-3). Data analyses included descriptive statistics, hierarchical linear regression, and tests of mediation effects. Results: Participants had limited to low activity at a rate of 5027 ± 1799 and 4186 ± 1446 steps per day, during summer and winter, respectively. There were no seasonal and age effects on the number of steps. Gender effects and community differences were observed. Perceived infrastructure and safety as well as land use mix diversity were found to be positive environmental correlates of steps taken, which were partially mediated by identified motivational regulation. Conclusion: Physical activity levels among Nunavut adults are generally low, but can be promoted by improving the external physical environment and internal motivational regulation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Urban Open Space Is Associated with Better Renal Function of Adult Residents in New Taipei City
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2436; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132436
Received: 7 June 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study is to explore the association between proximity to open space and adult renal function. This was a cross-sectional study. Adult residents of Taipei metropolis were recruited in the analysis. The proximity of each subject to open space was [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to explore the association between proximity to open space and adult renal function. This was a cross-sectional study. Adult residents of Taipei metropolis were recruited in the analysis. The proximity of each subject to open space was measured using the Geographic Information System. Residents were divided into two groups: with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD). We made univariable comparisons between the two groups. The logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio of CKD. Forest plot was used to examine the effect of interaction between distance to open space and subgroup variable on CKD. A total number of 21,656 subjects with mean age 53.6 years were enrolled in the study. Of the subjects, 2226 (10.28%) had CKD. The mean and standard deviation of distance to open space were 117.23 m and 80.19 m, respectively. Every 100 m distance to open space was associated with an odds ratio of 1.071 for CKD. Subgroup analysis revealed that residents of female, without hypertension, or without impaired fasting glucose (IFG) living more than 200 m from open spaces have greater odds of CKD than those living less than 200 m. Conclusions: Proximity to open space was associated with a lower prevalence of CKD among adults in Taiwan. Such association was enhanced among females and healthy adults without hypertension or impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Full article
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Open AccessReview
Narrative Review: The (Mental) Health Consequences of the Northern Iraq Offensive of ISIS in 2014 for Female Yezidis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2435; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132435
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
The Yezidis who represent a religious minority living in Northern Iraq were particularly affected by the persecution by ISIS (Islamic state of Iraq and Syria, syn.: ISIL—Islamic state of Iraq and the Levant) that gained power after 2013. This paper gives an overview [...] Read more.
The Yezidis who represent a religious minority living in Northern Iraq were particularly affected by the persecution by ISIS (Islamic state of Iraq and Syria, syn.: ISIL—Islamic state of Iraq and the Levant) that gained power after 2013. This paper gives an overview of the events and the mental health consequences on the Yezidi community as well as associated influences on affected female Yezidis. Based on a systematic literature search, the aspects of “Persecution by ISIS and actual situation of the Yezidi community”, “Gender-specific aspects of the persecution and its consequences”, “Mental health of the affected women”, and “Cultural–historical and religious context” are worked out. Research indicates a high burden of health strain and mental health problems in the surviving Yezidi women, especially post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and depression. Concerning transgenerational trauma, the recent genocide has revived past experiences in the history of the community. Like the narrow cultural and religious rules of the community, this can be both a resource and a burden. The actual extent of the attacks is neither predictable for the affected individuals nor for the community, consequences could also be passed onto descendants. Long-term care and support of the affected persons, their descendants, and the Yezidi community seems indispensable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Minority Health Issues and Health Disparities)
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Open AccessArticle
Primary Teeth Bite Marks Analysis on Various Materials: A Possible Tool in Children Health Risk Analysis and Safety Assessment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2434; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132434
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
Background: All objects put into a child’s mouth could be hazardous in terms of trauma and toxic substance exposure. The aims of this study were to evaluate morphological characteristics of the primary teeth bite marks inflicted on various materials and to assess material [...] Read more.
Background: All objects put into a child’s mouth could be hazardous in terms of trauma and toxic substance exposure. The aims of this study were to evaluate morphological characteristics of the primary teeth bite marks inflicted on various materials and to assess material wear using experimental model. Methods: Bite marks were analyzed on five materials: rubber, plastic, foil, wood, and silicone. In order to mimic children mouthing behavior an experimental setup has been designed using primary teeth placed in dentures and children’s equipment specimens. Results: Deciduous teeth make visible and recognizable traces when using physiological forces on all investigated materials. The most significant material loss was revealed in silicone samples, but it has been observed in all material groups, while mouthing with incisors using higher mastication forces were identified as significant predictors for material wear. There were no significant differences between type, species, and morphological-morphometric characteristics of the bite marks which are made by incisors, canines, and molars. Conclusions: In the range of physiological bite forces, deciduous teeth lead to wear of material from which toys are made while the analysis of bite marks in children equipment could give some information regarding the risk of trauma and exposure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Traffic-Related Air Pollution: Case Study of Pregnant Women in South Texas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2433; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132433
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 29 June 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
Population groups vulnerable to adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution correspond to children, pregnant women and elderly. Despite these effects, literature is limited in terms of studies focusing on these groups and a reason often cited is the limited information on their mobility [...] Read more.
Population groups vulnerable to adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution correspond to children, pregnant women and elderly. Despite these effects, literature is limited in terms of studies focusing on these groups and a reason often cited is the limited information on their mobility important for exposure assessment. The current study presents a method for assessing individual-level exposure to traffic-related air pollution by integrating mobility patterns tracked by global positioning system (GPS) devices with dynamics of air pollutant concentrations. The study is based on a pool of 17 pregnant women residing in Hidalgo County, Texas. The traffic-related particulate matter with diameter of less than 2.5 micrometer (PM2.5) emissions and air pollutant concentrations are predicted using MOVES and AERMOD models, respectively. The daily average traffic-related PM2.5 concentration was found to be 0.32 µg/m3, with the highest concentration observed in transit (0.56 µg/m3), followed by indoors (0.29 µg/m3), and outdoor (0.26 µg/m3) microenvironment. The obtained exposure levels exhibited considerable variation between time periods, with higher levels during peak commuting periods, close to the US–Mexico border region and lower levels observed during midday periods. The study also assessed if there is any difference between traffic-related dynamic exposure, based on time-varying mobility patterns, and static exposure, based solely on residential locations, and found a difference of 9%, which could be attributed to the participants’ activity patterns being focused mostly indoors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Moderating Role of the School Context on the Effects of the Healthy Primary School of the Future
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132432
Received: 13 June 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
Background: The current study investigated the moderating role of the school context on the effects of a Dutch health promoting school initiative on children’s health and health behaviors. Methods: The study used a mixed-methods design. The school context (n = [...] Read more.
Background: The current study investigated the moderating role of the school context on the effects of a Dutch health promoting school initiative on children’s health and health behaviors. Methods: The study used a mixed-methods design. The school context (n = 4) was assessed by the characteristics of the school population, teacher’s health-promoting (HP) practices, implementers’ perceived barriers, school’s HP elements, and dominating organizational issues. Outcomes included objectively assessed BMI z-scores and physical activity (PA), and parent and child-reported dietary intake. Analyses included linear mixed models (four intervention schools versus four control schools), and qualitative comparisons between intervention schools with similar HP changes. Results: Effects on outcomes varied considerably across schools (e.g., range in effect size on light PA of 0.01–0.26). Potentially moderating contextual aspects were the child’s socioeconomic background and baseline health behaviors; practices and perceived barriers of employees; and organizational issues at a school level. Conclusions: Similar HP changes lead to different outcomes across schools due to differences in the school context. The adoption of a complex adaptive systems perspective contributes to a better understanding of the variation in effects and it can provide insight on which contextual aspects to focus on or intervene in to optimize the effects of HP initiatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex Interventions for Public Health Improvement)
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Open AccessArticle
Generational Differences: A Comparison of Weight-Related Cognitions and Behaviors of Generation X and Millennial Mothers of Preschool Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2431; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132431
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 6 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
A ‘generation’ is an identifiable group sharing birth years and significant life events at critical developmental ages. There is a paucity of literature examining how parental cognitions and lifestyle behaviors differ by generation and whether generational differences are substantial enough to warrant consideration [...] Read more.
A ‘generation’ is an identifiable group sharing birth years and significant life events at critical developmental ages. There is a paucity of literature examining how parental cognitions and lifestyle behaviors differ by generation and whether generational differences are substantial enough to warrant consideration during the development of health interventions. This study compared generational differences in weight-related cognitions and lifestyle behaviors of mothers of young children who were categorized as Generation X (born 1965–1981, n = 158) and Generation Y (aka Millennials; born 1982–1999, n = 162). Survey results indicated that Generation X had significantly higher family affluence; thus, this was controlled in subsequent analyses. Analysis of covariance indicated that Millennials had more positive expectations about the benefits of engaging in healthy eating and physical activity than comparators, but not significantly so. Millennial mothers placed significantly higher value on physical activity for themselves than Generation X mothers, but both generations were neutral on the value of personal physical activity. No generational differences were noted in self-efficacy of mothers for promoting childhood obesity-prevention practices to children and self-efficacy for personally engaging in weight-protective behaviors. Millennial mothers had significantly more family meals/week, however generations did not differ on the value placed on family meals, where family meals were eaten, or whether media devices were used at mealtime. Few differences were noted between the generations for most child feeding behaviors, except that Millennials reported placing significantly less pressure on children to eat. Mothers’ modeling of weight-related behaviors as a means for children’s observational learning about healthy eating, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors did not differ by generational group. The eating behaviors of mothers differed little between generations. Millennial mothers allowed significantly more media devices in children’s bedrooms and personally engaged in more screen time daily than comparators. Overall, the two generational groups were more similar than different in weight-related cognitions as well as for personal and parenting lifestyle behaviors. The results suggest that tailoring interventions for individuals at a similar life-stage (e.g., mothers of young children) by generation may not be warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution and Potential Ecological Risk in Sewage Sludge from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Located in the Most Industrialized Region in Poland—Case Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132430
Received: 13 June 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 6 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
This study aimed to assess the pollution and potential ecological risk of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the sewage sludge collected from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), located in the most industrialized region of Poland (Silesian [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the pollution and potential ecological risk of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the sewage sludge collected from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), located in the most industrialized region of Poland (Silesian Voivodeship). The concentrations of heavy metals were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry (ICP-OES) and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). The chemical forms (chemical speciation) of heavy metals were determined using the three-step chemical sequential extraction procedure, developed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). To assess the pollution level and potential ecological risk, the following indices were used: Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Potential Ecological Risk Factor (ER), Individual Contamination Factor (ICF), Risk Assessment Code (RAC), and Ecological Risk Factor (ERF)—the author’s index. Sludge samples were collected at successive stages of processing. The results revealed that the activated sludge process and sludge thickening have a significant impact on heavy metal distribution, while anaerobic digestion and dehydration decrease their mobility. The most dominant metals in the sludge samples were Zn and Cu. However, the content of heavy metals in sewage sludge did not exceed the permissible standards for agricultural purposes. The concentrations of heavy metals bound to the immobile fractions exhibited higher concentrations, compared to those bound to mobile fractions (except Zn). The values of the total indices indicated that sludge samples were moderately to highly contaminated with Zn, Hg, Cd, Cu, and Pb, of which only Hg, Cd, and Cu posed a potential ecological risk, while according to the speciation indices, sludge samples were moderately to very highly polluted with Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Ni, of which Zn, Ni, and Cd were environmentally hazardous. The obtained results proved that assessment of the pollution level and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge requires knowledge on both their total concentrations and their chemical forms. Such an approach will help prevent secondary pollution of soils with heavy metals, which may influence the reduction of health risks associated with the consumption of plants characterized by a high metal content. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Environmental Risk Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals: A Mixed Methods Study of Health-Related Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) for Indigenous Shawi in the Peruvian Amazon
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132429
Received: 1 June 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG-6) addresses poor water quality, inadequate sanitation, and improper hygiene, all of which negatively impact health and disproportionately impact Indigenous Peoples’ health. Understanding and responding to local contexts is critical to effectively improve water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH); however, [...] Read more.
Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG-6) addresses poor water quality, inadequate sanitation, and improper hygiene, all of which negatively impact health and disproportionately impact Indigenous Peoples’ health. Understanding and responding to local contexts is critical to effectively improve water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH); however, in-depth understanding of local knowledge, practices, and perceptions are often overlooked. As such, this study described the knowledge, practices, and perceptions of WASH held by residents of two Indigenous Shawi communities in the Peruvian Amazon. Quantitative data were collected via a cross-sectional survey and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were collected via interviews, PhotoVoice, focus group discussions, and participatory transect walks, and analyzed using a constant comparative approach to thematic analysis. Emergent themes included characterizing water sources, collection methods, and consumption patterns; knowledge, perceptions, and practices related to WASH; and knowledge and perceptions of health issues related to WASH. This study provides insight into the ongoing challenges related to WASH in Indigenous communities in the Peruvian Amazon and highlights the need to prioritize interventions that will advance WASH-related SDGs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Uncertainty Analysis of Mobile Phone Use and Its Effect on Cognitive Function: The Application of Monte Carlo Simulation in a Cohort of Australian Primary School Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2428; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132428
Received: 5 June 2019 / Revised: 30 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
Previous epidemiological studies on health effects of radiation exposure from mobile phones have produced inconsistent results. This may be due to experimental difficulties and various sources of uncertainty, such as statistical variability, measurement errors, and model uncertainty. An analytical technique known as the [...] Read more.
Previous epidemiological studies on health effects of radiation exposure from mobile phones have produced inconsistent results. This may be due to experimental difficulties and various sources of uncertainty, such as statistical variability, measurement errors, and model uncertainty. An analytical technique known as the Monte Carlo simulation provides an additional approach to analysis by addressing uncertainty in model inputs using error probability distributions, rather than point-source data. The aim of this investigation was to demonstrate using Monte Carlo simulation of data from the ExPOSURE (Examination of Psychological Outcomes in Students using Radiofrequency dEvices) study to quantify uncertainty in the output of the model. Data were collected twice, approximately one year apart (between 2011 and 2013) for 412 primary school participants in Australia. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate output uncertainty in the model due to uncertainties in the call exposure data. Multiple linear regression models evaluated associations between mobile phone calls with cognitive function and found weak evidence of an association. Similar to previous longitudinal analysis, associations were found for the Go/No Go and Groton maze learning tasks, and a Stroop time ratio. However, with the introduction of uncertainty analysis, the results were closer to the null hypothesis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Human Error: The Impact of Job Insecurity on Attention-Related Cognitive Errors and Error Detection
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132427
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
(1) Background: Work-related stress is a major contributor to human error. One significant workplace stressor is job insecurity, which has been linked to an increased likelihood of experiencing burnout. This, in turn, might affect human error, specifically attention-related cognitive errors (ARCES) and the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Work-related stress is a major contributor to human error. One significant workplace stressor is job insecurity, which has been linked to an increased likelihood of experiencing burnout. This, in turn, might affect human error, specifically attention-related cognitive errors (ARCES) and the ability to detect errors. ARCES can be costly for organizations and pose a safety risk. Equally detrimental effects can be caused by failure to detect errors before they can cause harm. (2) Methods: We gathered self-report and behavioral data from 148 employees working in educational, financial and medical sectors in China. We designed and piloted an error detection task in which employees had to compare fictitious customer orders to deliveries of an online shop. We tested for indirect effects using the PROCESS macro with bootstrapping (3) Results: Our findings confirmed indirect effects of job insecurity on both ARCES and the ability to detect errors via burnout. (4) Conclusions: The present research shows that job insecurity influences making and detecting errors through its relationship with burnout. These findings suggest that job insecurity could increase the likelihood for human error with potential implications for employees’ safety and the safety of others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Job Insecurity on Non-Traditional Outcomes)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlations between Forgetfulness and Social Participation: Community Diagnosing Indicators
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2426; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132426
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 3 July 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
We analyzed the relationships between forgetfulness and social participation, social contact, and social support by municipality to develop community diagnosing indicators. The analysis subjects included 105 municipalities that agreed to provide data for the 2013 Survey of Needs in Spheres of Daily Life [...] Read more.
We analyzed the relationships between forgetfulness and social participation, social contact, and social support by municipality to develop community diagnosing indicators. The analysis subjects included 105 municipalities that agreed to provide data for the 2013 Survey of Needs in Spheres of Daily Life in Japan (n = 338,659 people). Forgetfulness as a risk factor for dementia was used as the dependent variable. The variables of social environment factors were (1) social participation, (2) social contact, and (3) social support. The ratio of people responding that they experienced forgetfulness differed among municipalities, with a mean of 19.0% (7.1–35.6%). Higher levels of social participation, social contact, and social support were associated with lower levels of forgetfulness, even after adjusting for age and regional variables. The results of the present study suggest that it is appropriate to use forgetfulness and social participation at least a few times a year in any social activity as community diagnosing indicators. Municipalities could encourage their inhabitants to participate by developing and providing engaging social activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Aging and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Does Parental Mediation of Technology Use Moderate the Associations between Cyber Aggression Involvement and Substance Use? A Three-Year Longitudinal Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2425; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132425
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 30 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
The goal of this three-year longitudinal study was to examine the buffering effect of parental mediation of adolescents’ technology use (i.e., restrictive, co-viewing, and instructive) on the relationships among cyber aggression involvement and substance use (i.e., alcohol use, marijuana use, cigarette smoking, and [...] Read more.
The goal of this three-year longitudinal study was to examine the buffering effect of parental mediation of adolescents’ technology use (i.e., restrictive, co-viewing, and instructive) on the relationships among cyber aggression involvement and substance use (i.e., alcohol use, marijuana use, cigarette smoking, and non-marijuana illicit drug use). Overall, 867 (Mage = 13.67, age range from 13–15 years, 51% female, 49% White) 8th grade adolescents from the Midwestern United States participated in this study during the 6th grade (Wave 1), 7th grade (Wave 2), and 8th grade (Wave 3). Results revealed that higher levels of Wave 2 instructive mediation weakened the association between Wave 1 cyber victimization and Wave 3 alcohol use and Wave 3 non-marijuana illicit drug use. The relationship was stronger between Wave 1 cyber victimization and Wave 3 alcohol use and Wave 3 non-marijuana illicit drug use when adolescents reported lower levels of Wave 2 instructive mediation. At lower levels of Wave 2 instructive mediation, the association between Wave 1 cyber aggression perpetration and Wave 3 non-marijuana illicit drug use was stronger. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of parents recognizing their role in helping to mitigate the negative consequences associated with adolescents’ cyber aggression involvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyber-Aggression among Adolescents and Psychological Wellbeing)
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Active Video Games on Body Mass Index in Children and Adolescents: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Evaluating the Quality of Primary Studies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2424; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132424
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
Objective: To study the impact of active video games on Body Mass Index (BMI) in children and adolescents. Design and Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Data were pooled in meta-analysis using the method of random effects or fixed effects, as appropriate, after [...] Read more.
Objective: To study the impact of active video games on Body Mass Index (BMI) in children and adolescents. Design and Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Data were pooled in meta-analysis using the method of random effects or fixed effects, as appropriate, after examination of statistical heterogeneity. Data sources and eligibility criteria for selecting studies. A comprehensive literature research was conducted in Medline (PubMed), ISI web of Knowledge, and SCOPUS up to April 2018, in relation to clinical trials (both controlled and non-controlled) in children and adolescents, whose intervention was based on active video games. Results: The overall intragroup effect of the intervention based on active video games was in favor of the intervention, reaching statistical significance using the fixed effects model: (standardized mean difference (SMD) = −0.138; 95% CI (−0.237 to −0.038), p = 0.007 and was of borderline statistical significance in the random effects model: SMD= −0.191; 95% CI (−0.386 to 0.003), p = 0.053. The individual results of the determinations of the 15 included studies for this analysis showed a high heterogeneity among them (I2 = 82.91%). When the intervention was applied to children and adolescents with greater than or equal to 85 (overweight or obese) BMI percentile showed a greater effect in favor of the active video games: SMD= −0.483, p = 0.012. The overall intra-group effect in the control group was close to zero (SMD = 0.087). With respect to the non-standardized mean difference (MD) between groups, it was also in favor of active video games for both BMI (Kg/m2): DM = −0.317, 95% CI (−0.442 to −0.193), p = < 0.001 and BMI z-score: DM = −0.077, 95% CI (−0.139 to −0.016), p = 0.013. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis show a statistically significant effect in favor of using active video games on BMI in children and adolescents. The clinical relevance of this positive effect must be evaluated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Alcohol Use Disorder among Patients Suffered from Road Collisions in a Vietnamese Delta Province
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2423; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132423
Received: 6 May 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
Traffic collisions have continuously been ranked amongst the top causes of deaths in Vietnam. In particular, drinking has been recognized as a major factor amplifying the likelihood of traffic collisions in various settings. This study aims to examine the relationship between alcohol use [...] Read more.
Traffic collisions have continuously been ranked amongst the top causes of deaths in Vietnam. In particular, drinking has been recognized as a major factor amplifying the likelihood of traffic collisions in various settings. This study aims to examine the relationship between alcohol use and traffic collisions in the current context of Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 413 traffic collisions patients in six health facilities in the Thai Binh Province to investigate the level of alcohol consumption and identify factors influencing alcohol use among these patients. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) scale was used to determine the problematic drinking behavior of the participants. The percentage of patients having problematic drinking was more than 30%. Being male, having a high household income, and working as farmer/worker were risk factors for alcohol abuse. People causing accidents and patients with a traumatic brain injury had a higher likelihood of drinking alcohol before the accidents. This study highlights the necessity of more stringent laws on reducing drink-driving in Vietnam. In addition, more interventions, especially those utilizing mass media like educational campaign of good behavior on social networks, are necessary to reduce alcohol consumption in targeted populations in order to decrease the prevalence and burden of road injuries. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Changes in Substance Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviors over 12-Month Methadone Maintenance Treatment among Vietnamese Patients in Mountainous Provinces
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2422; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132422
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programs have been used worldwide to reduce the number of drug users and for HIV prevention; however, evidence of their effectiveness in mountainous areas is limited. This study aimed to identify changes in substance abuse and sexual practices among [...] Read more.
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programs have been used worldwide to reduce the number of drug users and for HIV prevention; however, evidence of their effectiveness in mountainous areas is limited. This study aimed to identify changes in substance abuse and sexual practices among MMT patients after treatment in three Vietnamese mountainous provinces. A survey on risk behaviors was conducted among 300 drug users in six MMT clinics prior to and following one year of MMT. Cramér’s effect size of changes was extrapolated to justify the magnitude of the intervention’s effectiveness. A generalized estimation equation was used to find the factors associated with respondents’ substance use and sexual risk behavior. While drug-related risk behaviors were significantly reduced, alcohol and sex-related behaviors remained risk factors for HIV in this group. Additionally, condom use was common among participants at both time points, but not among those having sex with sex workers. Socio-economic characteristics of ethnic, education, occupation, as well as drug use history influenced the possibility of engaging in drug use and/or sexual risk behavior following treatment. Further emphasis on managing these among MMT patients is required, potentially by providing integrated services including smoking and drinking counseling and condom use promotion in accordance with MMT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
Open AccessComment
Comment on MaaniHessari, N.; van Schalkwyk, M.C.; Thomas, S.; Petticrew, M. Alcohol Industry CSR Organisations: What Can Their Twitter Activity Tell Us about Their Independence and Their Priorities? A Comparative Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 892
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2421; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132421
Received: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 June 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
We noted with concern that you published recently (12 March 2019) an article about so-called “Alcohol industry CSR Organisations”, which selectively targets criticism of Drinkaware [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Longer, More Active Commute, but Still not Very Active: Five-Year Physical Activity and Travel Behavior Change in a University Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2420; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132420
Received: 28 May 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
Active travel can support the achievement of recommended levels of physical activity. Monitoring travel behavior of university students and staff provides a useful insight into patterns of regional travel and population level changes in physical activity. This study sought to evaluate current travel [...] Read more.
Active travel can support the achievement of recommended levels of physical activity. Monitoring travel behavior of university students and staff provides a useful insight into patterns of regional travel and population level changes in physical activity. This study sought to evaluate current travel and physical activity behaviors in a university population and to determine whether these changed over time. An online survey of travel behavior and physical activity was conducted at the University of Sydney, Australia. The survey was actively promoted for three weeks prior to the release of the survey among staff and students, which asked about travel behavior on a specific day in September 2017. The survey questions were the same as those used in a similar online survey conducted across the University in 2012. In total, 4359 People completed the survey, representing 10.8% of staff and 4.1% of students. Approximately two thirds of survey respondents were students, in both the 2012 and 2017 surveys. Compared with 2012, there was an increase in active travel to the University in 2017 from increased walking and train travel. Compared to 2012, in 2017 there was an increase in average minutes walked by about nine minutes, and less time spent sitting. Trip lengths increased, with 68% of trips taking longer than 30 min in 2017. The amount of time spent in low–moderate levels physical activity increased between 2012 and 2017, potentially related to active travel behavior. Citywide changes towards a system-wide transport fare structure was the biggest change in the transport environment between the two surveys and may have contributed to increased train travel. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Physical Activity and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Hydrologic and Water Allocation Model to Assess Water Availability in the Sabor River Basin (Portugal)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2419; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132419
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 6 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
The Sabor River basin is a large basin (3170 km2) located in the northeast of Portugal and used mostly for agroforestry. One problem this basin faces is a lack of water during the dry season, when there is a higher demand [...] Read more.
The Sabor River basin is a large basin (3170 km2) located in the northeast of Portugal and used mostly for agroforestry. One problem this basin faces is a lack of water during the dry season, when there is a higher demand for water to irrigate crops. To solve this problem, the Portuguese government created a National Irrigation Program to finance new irrigation areas and improve existing ones. Consequently, it is necessary to evaluate the past and future water availability for agricultural and domestic consumption in the basin. This was done through the development of a hydrological and water allocation model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to model the hydrological processes that took place in the catchment between 1960 and 2008. The MIKE HYDRO Basin was used to simulate water allocation (irrigation and domestic consumption) in a historical view and under two scenarios. The historical view used the time period 1960–2008, and the two scenarios used the same time period but with an increase in the irrigated area. The first scenario simulated the irrigation of the total irrigable area that exists in the basin. The second scenario simulated a 29% increase in the olive grove area and a 24% decrease in the resident population, according to the projection for 2060. The results show that, in the historical view, the average annual water demand deficit was 31% for domestic consumption and 70% for irrigation, which represent 1372 × 103 m3 and 94 × 106 m3 of water, respectively. In the two scenarios, the water demand deficit increased to 37% for domestic consumption and 77% for irrigation. In the first scenario, the average annual water demand deficit was 183 × 106 m3 of water for irrigation. In the second scenario, the average annual water demand deficit was 385 × 103 m3 of water for domestic consumption, and 106 × 106 m3 of water for irrigating the expanded olive grove area. These results demonstrate that Portuguese farmers can use our model as a decision support tool to determine how much water needs to be stored to meet the present and future water demand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allocation of Rainwater Harvesting Sites in Catchments)
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Open AccessArticle
Technology-Based Motivation Support for Seniors’ Physical Activity—A Qualitative Study on Seniors’ and Health Care Professionals’ Views
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2418; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132418
Received: 10 June 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
This paper investigates seniors’ and health care professionals’ (HCPs) perceptions on needed contributions and qualities of digital technology-based motivation support for seniors’ physical activity (PA). Seniors and HCPs expressed their views in focus groups, which were analyzed separately by inductive content analysis. Similarities [...] Read more.
This paper investigates seniors’ and health care professionals’ (HCPs) perceptions on needed contributions and qualities of digital technology-based motivation support for seniors’ physical activity (PA). Seniors and HCPs expressed their views in focus groups, which were analyzed separately by inductive content analysis. Similarities and differences in seniors’ and HCPs’ views were identified through thematic analysis of qualitative results from both focus groups. This article’s main findings are that both seniors and HCPs believed digital technology should support and make PA more enjoyable in ways to strengthen seniors’ control and well-being. However, seniors emphasized support for social interaction, while HCPs also requested support for increasing seniors’ insight into PA and for facilitating their dialogue with seniors. Conclusions to be drawn are that seniors and HPCs shared overall views on digital technology’s main contributions but had different perspectives on how those contributions could be obtained. This highlights the importance of the early identification of user groups and exploration of their different needs when developing new solutions. Moreover, seniors’ and HCPs’ perceptions included aspects relevant for personal motivation, technology acceptance, and PA behavioral change according to self-determination theory, unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, and behavioral change techniques for increasing PA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Family Communication Problems, Psychosocial Adjustment and Cyberbullying
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2417; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132417
Received: 14 June 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between family communication problems and cyberbullying, through psychosocial adjustment—psychological distress, attitude towards institutional authority, and problematic use of social networking sites—in adolescents. Random sampling by conglomerates was performed. A total of 8115 [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between family communication problems and cyberbullying, through psychosocial adjustment—psychological distress, attitude towards institutional authority, and problematic use of social networking sites—in adolescents. Random sampling by conglomerates was performed. A total of 8115 adolescents participated in the study (51.5% boys, 49.5% girls), and were aged between 11 and 16 years old (M = 13.34, SD = 1.04) and enrolled in the State of Nuevo León (Mexico). A structural equations model was developed using the Structural Equation Modeling Software (EQS). The results showed that problematic family communication is directly associated with cyberbullying, and also indirectly through the relationships of psychological distress and attitude towards transgression of social norms with the problematic use of social networking sites. The multi-group analyses also revealed gender differences in these relationships. Finally, the obtained results were discussed and their practical implications were shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emotional and Behavioural Adjustment in Adolescence)
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