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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 16, Issue 12 (June-2 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Health and Environmental Risks of Residents Living Close to a Landfill: A Case Study of Thohoyandou Landfill, Limpopo Province, South Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2125; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122125 (registering DOI)
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
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Abstract
The by-products of solid waste deposited in a landfill has adverse effects on the surrounding environment and humans living closer to landfill sites. This study sought to test the hypothesis that the deposition of waste on landfill has an impact on the surrounding [...] Read more.
The by-products of solid waste deposited in a landfill has adverse effects on the surrounding environment and humans living closer to landfill sites. This study sought to test the hypothesis that the deposition of waste on landfill has an impact on the surrounding environment and residents living closer to it. This was achieved by evaluating the perception of the respondents drawn from people living close (100–500 m) and far (1–2 km) from the landfill site, concerning environmental issues, health problems, and life satisfaction. Results from the study showed that 78% of participants living closer to the landfill site indicated serious contamination of air quality evident from bad odours linked to the landfill site. Illnesses such as flu, eye irritation and weakness of the body were frequently reported by participants living closer to the landfill than those living far from the landfill. More than half of the participants (56%) living closer to the landfill indicated fear of their health in the future. Thus, the participants living closer to the landfill site were less satisfied with the location of their community with respect to the landfill, than those living far from the landfill site. Therefore, the need for a landfill gas (LFG) utilisation system, proper daily covering of waste and odour diluting agents are necessary to reduce the problems of the residents living closer to the landfill site. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Socioeconomic Status, Physical Health and Need for Long-term Care among the Chinese Elderly
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2124; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122124 (registering DOI)
Received: 2 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES), physical health and the need for long-term care (NLTC) of the Chinese elderly, and further, to provide evidence-based advice for establishing an LTC system in China. A cross-sectional survey [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES), physical health and the need for long-term care (NLTC) of the Chinese elderly, and further, to provide evidence-based advice for establishing an LTC system in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shandong Province, China in 2017 by using multi-stage random sampling method. Data were collected from elderly individuals aged 60 years and older by self-designed questionnaires through face-to face interviews. A total of 7070 participants were finally included in the database (40.3% male, 59.7% female). Chi-square test analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) were conducted to clarify the association between SES, physical health and NLTC among the Chinese elderly men and women in Shandong Province. The results of the SEM analysis showed that physical health exerted a strong and negative effect on the NLTC for both genders, with a slightly stronger effect found among the elderly men. SES was found to be significantly and negatively related to the NLTC among the elderly women, while no statistical significance was found for the association between SES and NLTC for elderly men. A significant and positive association between SES and physical health was observed among the elderly men and women, with a slightly stronger effect among the elderly women. Implications for lowering the NLTC and developing an LTC system were addressed based on the findings above. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Value Based Health and Social Care for Older People)
Open AccessReview
A Systematic Review of the Epidemiologic Literature Assessing Health Outcomes in Populations Living near Oil and Natural Gas Operations: Study Quality and Future Recommendations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2123; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122123 (registering DOI)
Received: 21 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
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Abstract
A systematic method was used to review the existing epidemiologic literature and determine the state of the scientific evidence for potential adverse health outcomes in populations living near oil and natural gas (ONG) operations in the United States. The review utilized adapted systematic [...] Read more.
A systematic method was used to review the existing epidemiologic literature and determine the state of the scientific evidence for potential adverse health outcomes in populations living near oil and natural gas (ONG) operations in the United States. The review utilized adapted systematic review frameworks from the medical and environmental health fields, such as Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE), the Navigation Guide, and guidance from the National Toxicology Program’s Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT). The review included 20 epidemiologic studies, with 32 different health outcomes. Studies of populations living near ONG operations provide limited evidence (modest scientific findings that support the outcome, but with significant limitations) of harmful health effects including asthma exacerbations and various self-reported symptoms. Study quality has improved over time and the highest rated studies within this assessment have primarily focused on birth outcomes. Additional high-quality studies are needed to confirm or dispute these correlations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shale Gas and Fracking: Impacts on Health and the Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
Current Status of the Adoption, Utilization and Helpfulness of Health Information Systems in Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2122; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122122 (registering DOI)
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
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Abstract
As interest in medical informatization has been increasing steadily worldwide, the adoption of health information systems (HISs) in medical institutions is essential. In this study, we intended to identify users’ adoption, utilization and helpfulness derived from HISs to determine the status of medical [...] Read more.
As interest in medical informatization has been increasing steadily worldwide, the adoption of health information systems (HISs) in medical institutions is essential. In this study, we intended to identify users’ adoption, utilization and helpfulness derived from HISs to determine the status of medical informatization by using 2016 Korean Physician Survey data. A total of 8564 members responded to the 2016 survey, we extracted the data of 6949 HISs related part for this study. As a result, about 68% of the self-employed physicians adopted the Order Communication System and Electronic Medical Records, while only one-third adopted the Picture Archiving and Communication System. Overall, the proportions of utilization and helpfulness of HISs were higher for females; for employed physicians or professors; for physicians working in hospitals; and for those specializing in surgical medicine. As applying information technology to the medical environment becomes more important, HIS will become a necessary requirement and the demand for information systems considering user and patient oriented information environments will be increasing. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss the HISs use environment considering not only technical aspects but also users’ or patients’ viewpoints. In that respect, this study will give a meaningful evidence of HIS related policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Status of Medical Doctors in Korea)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluating Family Planning Organizations Under China’s Two-Child Policy in Shandong Province
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2121; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122121 (registering DOI)
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Background: The 2015 two-child policy was the most important institutional change in China’s family planning since the 1978 one-child policy. To implement the two-child policy, China merged the former health departments and family planning departments into the new Health and Family Planning Commission [...] Read more.
Background: The 2015 two-child policy was the most important institutional change in China’s family planning since the 1978 one-child policy. To implement the two-child policy, China merged the former health departments and family planning departments into the new Health and Family Planning Commission organization. We collected and analyzed funding and expenditure data, providing a novel approach to assessing the family planning outcomes under China’s two-child policy. The paper shows how the management structure and funding levels and streams shifted with the new two-child policy and assesses the new management structure in terms of the ability to carry out tasks under the new family planning policy. Methods: We collected data on the funding, structure of expenditure and social compensation fee in Shandong province from 2011 to 2016, to evaluate how resources were allocated to family planning before and after the organizational change. We also collected interview data from family planning administrators. Results: While total family planning government financing was reduced after the organizational change, expenditures were shifted away from management to family planning work. Funding (80%) was allocated to the grass-root county and township levels, where family planning services were provided. The overlapping work practices, bureaucracy, and inefficiencies were curbed and information flows were improved. Conclusions: The new Health and Family Planning Commissions shifted resources to carry out the new family planning policy. The aims of the two-child policy to reduce inefficiencies, overlapping authorities and excessive management were achieved and expenditures on family planning work was enhanced and made more efficient. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Temporal Trends in Fecal Occult Blood Test: Associated Factors (2009–2017)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122120 (registering DOI)
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 9 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
A cross-sectional study with 27,821 records of non-institutionalized people in Spain aged between 50–69 years old (59.94 ± 5.8 years), who participated in the European Health Survey in Spain (2009, 2014) and National Health Survey (2011/12, 2017). Fecal occult testing, the reason for [...] Read more.
A cross-sectional study with 27,821 records of non-institutionalized people in Spain aged between 50–69 years old (59.94 ± 5.8 years), who participated in the European Health Survey in Spain (2009, 2014) and National Health Survey (2011/12, 2017). Fecal occult testing, the reason for performing the test, age, sex, nationality, social status, marital status, education level, body mass index (BMI), and place of residence. Overall, 54% were women, 93.9% were Spanish, 47.8% had a secondary study, and 66.4% were married. Across the years, the rate of the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) increased significantly (p < 0.001). This increase can be accounted for a letter campaign advising testing (45%, p < 0.001). FOBT was associated with more age (odds ratio—OR 1.04, 95% confidence interval—CI 1.04–1.05, p < 0.001), Spanish nationality (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.25–2.93, p = 0.003), being married (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02–1.25, p = 0.025), having a higher level of education (OR 2.46, 95% CI 2.17–2.81, p < 0.001), belonging to high social classes (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.12–1.64, p = 0.001), and BMI <25 (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.25–2.37). Frequency of FOBT has increased in recent years. Performing FOBT is associated with age, nationality, marital status, higher education level, and social class. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Extremely Hot Days on Emergency Department Visits for Cardiovascular Disease among Older Adults in New York State
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2119; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122119 (registering DOI)
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Prior studies have reported the impact of ambient heat exposure on heat-related illnesses and mortality in summer, but few have assessed its effect on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) morbidity, and the association difference by demographics and season. This study examined how extremely hot days [...] Read more.
Prior studies have reported the impact of ambient heat exposure on heat-related illnesses and mortality in summer, but few have assessed its effect on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) morbidity, and the association difference by demographics and season. This study examined how extremely hot days affected CVD-related emergency department (ED) visits among older adults from 2005–2013 in New York State. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to assess the heat–CVD association in summer and transitional months (April–May and September–October). Daily mean temperature >95th percentile of regional monthly mean temperature was defined as an extremely hot day. Extremely hot days were found to be significantly associated with increased risk of CVD-related ED visits at lag day 5 (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01–1.04) and lag day 6 (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00–1.03) among older adults in summer after controlling for PM2.5 concentration, relative humidity, and barometric pressure. Specifically, there was a 7% increased risk of ischemic heart disease on the day of extreme heat, and increased risks of hypertension (4%) and cardiac dysrhythmias (6%) occurred on lag days 5 and 6, respectively. We also observed large geographic variations in the heat–CVD associations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices about Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Italy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2118; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122118 (registering DOI)
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of women about breastfeeding in Italy. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out between January and June 2016 in the Campania Region among mothers who were going [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of women about breastfeeding in Italy. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out between January and June 2016 in the Campania Region among mothers who were going to six public vaccination centers. Data were collected by two researchers through face to face interviews. Results: Two thirds of the women had heard on exclusive breastfeeding (64.6%) and the 71% of them knew that exclusive breastfeeding should be practiced for at least six months. Nearly all mothers had breastfed their child (93.2%), but only 33.3% of them had practiced exclusive breastfeeding for at least six months. Women who agree that breastfeeding creates a positive relationship between the mother and the child, who practiced exclusive breastfeeding during the hospital stay, and who had received breastfeeding advice at hospital discharge were more likely to practice exclusive breastfeeding for at least six months. Conclusions: The results of this survey may be helpful to policy makers and managers when planning educational interventions on breastfeeding both during pregnancy and during hospital admissions for delivery. Indeed, there is a need to increase efforts to make mothers aware of health benefits of breastfeeding for themselves and their offspring during their hospital stay after delivery. This research has the potential to increase exclusive breastfeeding rates and subsequent maternal and child health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant and Young Child Feeding)
Open AccessEssay
The Search for Environmental Justice: The Story of North Birmingham
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2117; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122117 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 March 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Environmental justice is a rising social movement throughout the world. Research is beginning to define the movement and address the disparities that exist among communities exposed to pollution. North Birmingham, a community made up of six neighborhoods in Jefferson County, Alabama, in the [...] Read more.
Environmental justice is a rising social movement throughout the world. Research is beginning to define the movement and address the disparities that exist among communities exposed to pollution. North Birmingham, a community made up of six neighborhoods in Jefferson County, Alabama, in the United States, is a story of environmental injustice. Heavy industry, including the 35th Avenue Superfund Site, has caused significant environmental pollution over time, leaving residents concerned that their health and well-being are at risk from continued exposure. For years, pollution has impacted the community, and residents have fought and challenged industry and government. The United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the Jefferson County Department of Health (JCDH) in Alabama have historically played a role in working with the community regarding their health concerns. In this manuscript, we describe a city entrenched in environmental injustice. We provide the history of the community, the responsible parties named for the contamination, the government’s involvement, and the community’s response to this injustice. Through this manuscript, we offer insight into a global concern that challenges local communities on a daily basis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neighborhood Environmental Influences on Health and Well-Being)
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Open AccessReview
Chess Practice as a Protective Factor in Dementia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2116; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122116 (registering DOI)
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Background: dementia is one of the main causes of disability and dependency among the older population worldwide, producing physical, psychological, social and economic impact in those affected, caregivers, families and societies. However, little is known about dementia protective factors and their potential benefits [...] Read more.
Background: dementia is one of the main causes of disability and dependency among the older population worldwide, producing physical, psychological, social and economic impact in those affected, caregivers, families and societies. However, little is known about dementia protective factors and their potential benefits against disease decline in the diagnosed population. Cognitive stimulating activities seem to be protective factors against dementia, though there is paucity in the scientific evidence confirming this, with most publications focusing on prevention in non-diagnosed people. A scoping review was conducted to explore whether chess practice could mitigate signs, deliver benefits, or improve cognitive capacities of individuals diagnosed with dementia through the available literature, and therefore act as a protective factor. Methods: twenty-one articles were selected after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: the overall findings stress that chess could lead to prevention in non-diagnosed populations, while little has been shown with respect to individuals already diagnosed. However, some authors suggest its capacity as a protective factor due to its benefits, and the evidence related to the cognitive functions associated with the game. Conclusion: although chess is indirectly assumed to be a protective factor due to its cognitive benefits, more studies are required to demonstrate, with strong evidence, whether chess could be a protective factor against dementia within the diagnosed population. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Association between Household Food Insecurity and Asthma in Korean Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2115; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122115 (registering DOI)
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Household food insecurity has been associated with noncommunicable diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between household food insecurity and asthma in Korean adults. Household food security statuses were classified into three groups: Food-secure household, food-insecure household without hunger, [...] Read more.
Household food insecurity has been associated with noncommunicable diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between household food insecurity and asthma in Korean adults. Household food security statuses were classified into three groups: Food-secure household, food-insecure household without hunger, and food-insecure household with hunger. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the presence of asthma according to household food security status were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses after adjusting for confounding factors. A total of 14,770 participants were included in the analysis. The prevalence of asthma was 2.6% in those with a secure food status, 3.2% in those with an insecure food status without hunger, and 7.6% in those with an insecure food status with hunger (p < 0.001). Compared with that in participants with a household food secure status, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for asthma were 1.12 (0.73–1.73) in those with a food-insecure household without hunger status and 2.44 (1.33–4.46) in those with a food-insecure household with hunger status after additionally adjusting for confounding factors. We found that household food insecurity with hunger was significantly associated with asthma prevalence in Korean adults. Implementation of household food security screening and public health intervention could be helpful to prevent and reduce asthma in adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
When and How Do Emotional Intelligence and Flourishing Protect against Suicide Risk in Adolescent Bullying Victims?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2114; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122114 (registering DOI)
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
This study contributes to current knowledge on the protective role of emotional intelligence and flourishing in cases of suicide risk (namely depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation) in a sample of adolescent victims of traditional bullying. The proposed model tested the mediator role of [...] Read more.
This study contributes to current knowledge on the protective role of emotional intelligence and flourishing in cases of suicide risk (namely depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation) in a sample of adolescent victims of traditional bullying. The proposed model tested the mediator role of flourishing in the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and suicide risk together with the moderating effect of EI in the relationship between low flourishing and increased suicide risk. Considering an initial sample of 1847 adolescents (52.5% female), a subsample of 494 pure bullying victims (61.3% female) took part in this research. The main results showed EI to be linked to decreased suicide risk through levels of flourishing. Moreover, EI buffered the relationship between low flourishing and the associated suicide risk. Victimized adolescents with both low levels of EI and of flourishing reported higher levels of suicide risk than their counterparts with high EI levels. This suggests the protective role of EI of both predicting higher flourishing and reducing the likelihood of suicide risk among victimized adolescents with low levels of flourishing. Finally, the practical implications of these novel findings regarding the role of EI and flourishing in the prevention of suicide risk among victimized adolescents are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue School Health and Wellbeing)
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of Leptospira Infection in Rodents from Bangladesh
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2113; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122113 (registering DOI)
Received: 21 May 2019 / Revised: 8 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Worldwide, Leptospira infection poses an increasing public health problem. In 2008, leptospirosis was recognised as a re-emerging zoonosis of global importance with South-East Asia being one of the most significant centres of the disease. Rodents are thought to be the most important host [...] Read more.
Worldwide, Leptospira infection poses an increasing public health problem. In 2008, leptospirosis was recognised as a re-emerging zoonosis of global importance with South-East Asia being one of the most significant centres of the disease. Rodents are thought to be the most important host for a variety of Leptospira serovars. Because Bangladesh offers a suitable humid climate for the survival of these pathogenic bacteria, the presence of rodents could be a serious risk for human infection, especially in peri-urban areas or locations where food is stored. In order to gain more understanding of the multi-host epidemiology, a prevalence study was conducted in Comilla, Bangladesh to determine the presence of pathogenic Leptospira species in rodents. Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) and sequencing showed that 13.1% (61/465) of the trapped rodents were infected with pathogenic Leptospira. Sequencing of the qPCR products identified the presence of three species: Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira borgpetersenii, and Leptospira kirschneri. Rodents of the genus, Bandicota, were significantly more likely to be positive than those of the genus, Rattus and Mus. Our results confirm the importance of rodents as hosts of pathogenic Leptospira and indicate that human exposure to pathogenic Leptospira may be considerable, also in places where food (rice) is stored for longer times. This study emphasizes the need to improve rodent management at such locations and to further quantify the public health impacts of this neglected emerging zoonosis in Bangladesh. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of the Grain for Green Program on Ecosystem Health in the Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River Basin: A Case Study of Eastern Sichuan, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2112; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122112 (registering DOI)
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
The Eastern Sichuan Region (ESR) is one of the key pilot regions for Grain for Green Program (GGP) implementation in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River basin in China. Therefore, monitoring the effect of the GGP on the ecosystem in the ESR [...] Read more.
The Eastern Sichuan Region (ESR) is one of the key pilot regions for Grain for Green Program (GGP) implementation in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River basin in China. Therefore, monitoring the effect of the GGP on the ecosystem in the ESR is important. In this study, the Mann–Kendall Trend Test Model was used to ascertain the changes in vegetation coverage. The transfer matrix was used to explore the changes in Land Use/Land Cover (LULC). LULC change direction model (LCDM) was used to preliminarily assess the impact of LULC changes on the ecosystem. The Pressure–State–Response model (PSR), reflecting the human pressure and the ecosystem state, was applied to analyze the spatial–temporal characteristics of the ecosystem health index (EHI). The time span of this study was from 1990 to 2015. The results show that the vegetation coverage changed significantly (p < 0.05), and ecosystem function developed towards positive because of the increase in the coverage of forestland and water land and decrease in the coverage of farmland. The spatial distribution of the EHI was influenced by the pattern of land use. The eastern region, associated with a large area of forestland and grassland, has a low population density and a low degree of land use exploitation, resulting in a high EHI value. The situation was completely opposite in the western region. Regarding the temporal scale, in spite of the decreasing pressure indicator, most counties had experienced an increase in the EHI. There was a clear correlation between the increased EHI values and the restored areas at the third stage (2000–2005) (p < 0.05, r2 = 0.164), but this correlation disappeared at the latter stage (2005–2015) (p > 0.05). The changes showed significant variations in time and area because of differences in the process and the intensity of the implication of the GGP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Space–Time Relationship between Short-Term Exposure to Fine and Coarse Particles and Mortality in a Nationwide Analysis of Korea: A Bayesian Hierarchical Spatio-Temporal Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2111; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122111 (registering DOI)
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Previous studies have shown an association between mortality and ambient air pollution in South Korea. However, these studies may have been subject to bias, as they lacked adjustment for spatio-temporal structures. This paper addresses this research gap by examining the association between air [...] Read more.
Previous studies have shown an association between mortality and ambient air pollution in South Korea. However, these studies may have been subject to bias, as they lacked adjustment for spatio-temporal structures. This paper addresses this research gap by examining the association between air pollution and cause-specific mortality in South Korea between 2012 and 2015 using a two-stage Bayesian spatio-temporal model. We used 2012–2014 mortality and air pollution data for parameter estimation (i.e., model fitting) and 2015 data for model validation. Our results suggest that the relative risks of total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality were 1.028, 1.047, and 1.045, respectively, with every 10-µg/m3 increase in monthly PM2.5 (fine particulate matter) exposure. These findings warrant protection of populations who experience elevated ambient air pollution exposure to mitigate mortality burden in South Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Time-Space Modeling of the Health Effects of Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
The Gambling Factors Related with the Level of Adolescent Problem Gambler
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2110; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122110 (registering DOI)
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the gambling factors related with the gambling problem level of adolescents to provide basic information for the prevention of adolescent gambling problems. The data was drawn from the 2015 Survey on Youth Gambling Problems of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the gambling factors related with the gambling problem level of adolescents to provide basic information for the prevention of adolescent gambling problems. The data was drawn from the 2015 Survey on Youth Gambling Problems of the Korea Center on Gambling Problems for Korean students in grades 7–11 (ages 13–17 years) and included 14,011 study subjects (average age 14.9 years, 52.5% male). The lifetime gambling behavior experience was 42.1%, and 24.2% had a gambling behavior experience within the past three months. The past three-month prevalence of problem gambling was 1.1%. The gambling factors related with the level of adolescent problem gambling include the presence of nearby gambling facilities, having personal relationships with people that gamble, a higher number of experienced gambling behaviors, male adolescents, and a greater amount of time spent gambling. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to identify gambling factors related with the level of adolescent problem gambling in Korean adolescents using national data. These findings suggest that gambling prevention efforts must consider not only access to individual adolescents as early intervention, but also environmental strategies such as accessibility regulations and alternative activities. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Hospitalization Rates for Respiratory Diseases After L’Aquila Earthquake
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2109; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122109 (registering DOI)
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 9 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
The study aims to investigate the impact of the earthquake on public health, in terms of hospitalizations for respiratory diseases in the Abruzzo region, focusing on the area damaged by the earthquake “Crater”. We collected data of hospitalizations of residents in Abruzzo between [...] Read more.
The study aims to investigate the impact of the earthquake on public health, in terms of hospitalizations for respiratory diseases in the Abruzzo region, focusing on the area damaged by the earthquake “Crater”. We collected data of hospitalizations of residents in Abruzzo between 2009 and 2015. Hospital Discharge Records (HDRs) with a primary diagnosis of respiratory disease were included and divided into pneumonia, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and respiratory insufficiency. Absolute frequencies and standardized hospitalization rates were calculated to perform both a short-term and a medium-long term analysis. A linear regression was performed using standardized hospitalization rates and the time. A total of 108.669 respiratory-related records were collected and the most frequent subgroup was respiratory insufficiency. Standardized Hospitalization Rates (SHRs) for respiratory diseases resulted higher in the non-Crater than Crater area, but the short-term analysis showed a significant increase in hospitalizations for pneumonia and respiratory insufficiency in the Crater area. The medium-long term analysis reported a significant difference on the slope decrease of hospitalizations for acute and chronic respiratory diseases in the Crater versus the non-Crater area. The earthquake may have played a triggering role in the increased detection of respiratory diseases. A temporal relationship between the quake and an increase in admissions was found although it is not yet possible to detect a direct cause-effect relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disasters and Their Consequences for Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Gamification, a Successful Method to Foster Leptospirosis Knowledge among University Students: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2108; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122108 (registering DOI)
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that has been reported in Malaysia and has been associated with a recent trend of recreational activities among the youth. Thus, efforts such as educational interventions among high-risk populations, especially the youth, are key to increasing public awareness [...] Read more.
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that has been reported in Malaysia and has been associated with a recent trend of recreational activities among the youth. Thus, efforts such as educational interventions among high-risk populations, especially the youth, are key to increasing public awareness regarding leptospirosis. This paper presents the findings of a pilot study wherein an educational intervention using a gamification intervention method was used to determine changes in leptospirosis knowledge among youth. On this note, students from a public university in Seremban district, Malaysia, were recruited and were asked to complete questionnaires before and after gamification activities. Baseline and immediate post-intervention data on leptospirosis knowledge were obtained. The total knowledge score was calculated, and differences in the mean pre- and post-intervention knowledge score were determined. Of the total 185 questionnaires that were completed at baseline and immediately post-intervention, only 168 that belonged to respondents who had heard of leptospirosis were analysed in this paper. A significant increase in leptospirosis knowledge was observed for the students following health education by gamification (p < 0.01). The results demonstrate the effectiveness of an educational intervention using gamification in improving leptospirosis knowledge among youth and suggest that gamification could become an efficient tool to prevent the disease within university-age demographics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evidence-Based Integrated Analysis of Environmental Hazards in Southern Bolivia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2107; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122107 (registering DOI)
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
The “Valles Cruceños” rural region plays a fundamental role for securing food and other resources for the neighboring, and fast sprawling, city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra (Bolivia). Due to the increasing pressure on its natural resources, the region is affected by [...] Read more.
The “Valles Cruceños” rural region plays a fundamental role for securing food and other resources for the neighboring, and fast sprawling, city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra (Bolivia). Due to the increasing pressure on its natural resources, the region is affected by progressive and severe environmental degradation, as many other rural regions in South and Central America. In this situation, sound policies and governance for sustainable land management are weak and not supported by data and scientific research outputs. With the present study, we aim at developing a novel and practical integrated hazard analysis methodology, supporting the evidence-based understanding of hazard patterns and informing risk assessment processes in the urban-rural continuum. Firstly, the main environmental hazards affecting the area were identified via questionnaire campaigns, held by the staff of local municipalities. Focusing on the hazards mostly perceived by the inhabitants of the region, including deforestation, water pollution and precipitation changes, hazard maps were created by using multiple environmental hazards indicators. An integrated hazard map was then built in a GIS environment, after a pair-wise comparison process. The maps represent a first baseline for the analysis of the present status of natural resources in “Valles Cruceños” area, and the proposed approach can be scaled up for integrated environmental hazards analysis in similar areas of Latin America. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Family Affluence Based Inequality in Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in a Population of Lithuanian Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2106; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122106
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Background: The social inequalities in oral health have had increasing attention in recent years. The present study aimed to explore the impact of family affluence on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) among Lithuanian adolescents aged 11–18 years. Methods: The cross-sectional, population-based study [...] Read more.
Background: The social inequalities in oral health have had increasing attention in recent years. The present study aimed to explore the impact of family affluence on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) among Lithuanian adolescents aged 11–18 years. Methods: The cross-sectional, population-based study included a representative sample of 881 adolescents aged 11–18 years (mean = 15.55; SD = 1.51) randomly selected from 20 schools in Lithuania. The schoolchildren completed questionnaires to evaluate their OHRQoL using a Lithuanian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ). The adolescents’ family affluence was indirectly assessed by inquiring whether they possessed various modern life items. In dental examination, the severity of malocclusion was predetermined by the Index of Complexity, Outcome, and Need (ICON). The relationship among variables was examined employing the negative binomial regression and the path analysis. Results: The sum score of CPQ as a whole and the sum scores of all four domains were significantly associated with family affluence, indicating higher OHRQoL among adolescents from more affluent families. The severity of malocclusion had a significant association with emotional and social well-being domains of OHRQoL only. Conclusion: This study evidences the family affluence based inequality in OHRQoL among Lithuanian adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Inequalities in Child and Adolescent Health and Well-being)
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Open AccessArticle
Putting the Boom, Boom, Boom into Physical Activity and Health: Music Festivals as a Positive Health Alternative to Couch Fandom
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2105; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122105
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Background: Despite the popularity of outdoor music festivals in the UK, no evidence exists of the volume or intensity of movement that occurs through attendance at these festivals and the potential health benefits this may provide. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Background: Despite the popularity of outdoor music festivals in the UK, no evidence exists of the volume or intensity of movement that occurs through attendance at these festivals and the potential health benefits this may provide. The aim of this study was to accurately record the amount of physical activity and movement at the Glastonbury Festival and to compare it against recommended levels. Methods: 22 attendees wore an Actigraph activity monitor and GPS data-logger to the Glastonbury Festival. Distances travelled, speeds and durations were recorded. Activity levels were identified based on step count thresholds and the total duration spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was calculated. Results: Mean total distance of 66.1 km was recorded with daily distance (11.01 km), movement duration (11 h 28 min) and steps/day (15,661). Total MVPA of 927 min occurred over the festival period. Conclusions: This study objectively recorded the volume of physical activity that occurred at an outdoor UK festival. Large movement distances and MVPA six times greater than the recommended guidelines for health benefits were found. It can be suggested that attendance at large-scale festivals can be used as a modality for attaining physical activity guidelines alongside commonly suggested fitness activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Motor Symptoms after One Week of High Cadence Cycling in Parkinson’s Disease
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2104; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122104
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
The objective was to investigate if high cadence cycling altered non-motor cognition and depression symptoms in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and whether exercise responses were influenced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism. Individuals with idiopathic PD who were ≥50 years old [...] Read more.
The objective was to investigate if high cadence cycling altered non-motor cognition and depression symptoms in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and whether exercise responses were influenced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism. Individuals with idiopathic PD who were ≥50 years old and free of surgical procedures for PD were recruited. Participants were assigned to either a cycling (n = 20) or control (n = 15) group. The cycling group completed three sessions of high cadence cycling on a custom motorized stationary ergometer. The primary outcome was cognition (attention, executive function, and emotion recognition were assessed via WebNeuro® and global cognition via Montreal Cognitive Assessment). Depression symptoms were assessed via Beck Depression Inventory-II. There was a main effect of time for emotional recognition (p = 0.048), but there were no other changes in cognition or depression symptoms. Regardless of intervention or Val66Met polymorphism, high cadence cycling does not alter cognition or depression symptoms after three sessions in one week. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Exercise and Cognitive Function)
Open AccessArticle
Determination of Waste Industrial Dust Safety Characteristics
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122103
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 9 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
This article deals with the assessment of the hazards of dust waste generated by modern CNC (computer numerical control) technologies from the processing of resin-containing plastic composites. The change of the original material into dusty waste predicts the emergence of new hazardous characteristics [...] Read more.
This article deals with the assessment of the hazards of dust waste generated by modern CNC (computer numerical control) technologies from the processing of resin-containing plastic composites. The change of the original material into dusty waste predicts the emergence of new hazardous characteristics such as flammability, explosiveness and adverse effects on employee health. The aim of this article is to determine the experimental measurement of dust particle size, its thermal degradation and safety characteristics. Sieve analysis showed that the representative sample contained a 93.8% weight of particles with a size of less than 0.4 mm. Three degrees of thermal degradation of industrial dust samples and heat production (exo reaction ∑ΔH = 9172.9 J/g) were determined by TG (thermogravimetry), DTA (differential thermal analysis) and DSC (differential scanning calorimetr) methods. The measurement safety characteristics such as the lower explosion limit, the maximum explosion pressure, the maximum pressure rise rate, and the calculated cubic constant confirmed that the dust is an explosive, and is determined as explosion class St1 (determined by Cubic constant). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Long Working Hours and Overtime on Occupational Health: A Meta-Analysis of Evidence from 1998 to 2018
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2102; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122102
Received: 19 May 2019 / Revised: 8 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
There has been no subsequent meta-analysis examining the effects of long working hours on health or occupational health since 1997. Therefore, this paper aims to conduct a meta-analysis covering studies after 1997 for a comparison. A total of 243 published records were extracted [...] Read more.
There has been no subsequent meta-analysis examining the effects of long working hours on health or occupational health since 1997. Therefore, this paper aims to conduct a meta-analysis covering studies after 1997 for a comparison. A total of 243 published records were extracted from electronic databases. The effects were measured by five conditions, namely, physiological health (PH), mental health (MH), health behaviours (HB), related health (RH), and nonspecified health (NH). The overall odds ratio between long working hours and occupational health was 1.245 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.195–1.298). The condition of related health constituted the highest odds ratio value (1.465, 95% CI: 1.332–1.611). The potential moderators were study method, cut-point for long weekly working hours, and country of origin. Long working hours were shown to adversely affect the occupational health of workers. The management on safeguarding the occupational health of workers working long hours should be reinforced. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
From Neighboring Behavior to Mental Health in the Community: The Role of Gender and Work-Family Conflict
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2101; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122101
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
This research emphasizes the potential influences of social community environments on low-income employees’ mental health. Using a two-wave panel design, we collect 218 matched data from low-income employees in Harbin City, China. We developed a moderated mediation model to test our hypotheses with [...] Read more.
This research emphasizes the potential influences of social community environments on low-income employees’ mental health. Using a two-wave panel design, we collect 218 matched data from low-income employees in Harbin City, China. We developed a moderated mediation model to test our hypotheses with the following significant results: (1) neighboring behavior, defined as both giving and receiving various kinds of assistance to and from one’s neighbors, positively influenced mental health; (2) work-family conflict mediated the relationship between neighboring behavior and mental health; (3) gender moderated the influences of neighboring behavior on mental health, such that neighboring behavior had a stronger positive influence on mental health for females than for males; (4) gender moderated the mediating effect of work-family conflict; that is, the positive influences of neighboring behavior were stronger for female employees than for male employees. This research explores the mechanism and boundary conditions of the relationship between neighboring behavior and mental health. In practice, community managers support community social workers by organizing community-building social activities and supportive programs to enhance residents’ neighboring behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community-Centred Approaches to Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Adolescent Smoking in Secondary Schools that Have Implemented Smoke-Free Policies: In-Depth Exploration of Shared Smoking Patterns
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122100
Received: 19 April 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
Large numbers of adolescents smoke during school hours, despite the implementation of smoke-free school policies (SFSPs). Studies about SFSPs predominantly analyse smoking as individual behaviour, yet there is increasing recognition that smoking should be understood as social behaviour. We explored shared smoking patterns [...] Read more.
Large numbers of adolescents smoke during school hours, despite the implementation of smoke-free school policies (SFSPs). Studies about SFSPs predominantly analyse smoking as individual behaviour, yet there is increasing recognition that smoking should be understood as social behaviour. We explored shared smoking patterns specifying where, when, and with whom, and social meanings about why groups of adolescents smoke in two Dutch schools that have implemented SFSPs. Surveys among adolescents were held to obtain contextual information about the schools. Four focus group discussions and fourteen individual interviews were held with adolescents to identify shared smoking patterns in each school. Two shared patterns were identified at a school where 17% of students smoked daily: Dependent smoking and Rebellious smoking. Both built on pro-smoking norms and underscored the benefits of smoking. Three shared patterns were identified at a school where 3% of students smoked daily: Social bonding smoking, Low-profile smoking and Smoking-friendly event smoking. These built on anti-smoking norms and helped smokers cope with negative social judgements related to smoking. We conclude that adolescent smoking during school hours is embedded in diverse shared smoking patterns. Future studies should develop more understanding about how to deal with adolescents’ shared smoking patterns that decrease the effectiveness of tobacco policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue School Health and Wellbeing)
Open AccessArticle
Work-Related Exposures and Sickness Absence Trajectories: A Nationally Representative Follow-up Study among Finnish Working-Aged People
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2099; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122099
Received: 18 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
The contribution of physically demanding work to the developmental trajectories of sickness absence (SA) has seldom been examined. We analyzed the associations of 12 physical work exposures, individually and in combination, with SA trajectories among the occupationally active in the Finnish nationally representative [...] Read more.
The contribution of physically demanding work to the developmental trajectories of sickness absence (SA) has seldom been examined. We analyzed the associations of 12 physical work exposures, individually and in combination, with SA trajectories among the occupationally active in the Finnish nationally representative Health 2000 survey. We included 3814 participants aged 30–59 years at baseline, when exposure history to work-related factors was reported. The survey and interview responses were linked with the annual number of medically confirmed SA spells through 2002–2008 from national registries. Trajectory analyses identified three SA subgroups: 1 = low (54.6%), 2 = slowly increasing (33.7%), and 3 = high (11.7%). After adjustments, sitting or use of keyboard >1 year was inversely associated with the high SA trajectory (odds ratio, OR, 0.57; 95% 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.43–0.77). The odds of belonging to the trajectory of high SA increased with an increasing number of risk factors, and was highest for those with ≥4 physical workload factors (OR 2.71; 95% CI 1.99–3.69). In conclusion, these findings highlight the need to find ways to better maintain the work ability of those in physically loading work, particularly when there occurs exposure to several workload factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Work Ability and Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
Supervision for Certification in the Field of Applied Behaviour Analysis: Characteristics and Relationship with Job Satisfaction, Burnout, Work Demands, and Support
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2098; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122098
Received: 6 May 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
Background: Supervision of behavior analysts seeking certification and supervision of service delivery are key processes in the provision of quality behaviour analytic services to individuals with developmental disabilities. Our study is the first to examine international supervisory practices within the field of [...] Read more.
Background: Supervision of behavior analysts seeking certification and supervision of service delivery are key processes in the provision of quality behaviour analytic services to individuals with developmental disabilities. Our study is the first to examine international supervisory practices within the field of applied behaviour analysis. Method: An online survey was distributed to 92 professionals internationally, assessing supervisory practice, supervisor support, work demands, job satisfaction, and burnout. Results: Findings indicate high satisfaction with the supervisor and supervisory experience. Excessive work demands positively correlate with high burnout and low job satisfaction. Half of all professionals only worked with one or two clients before certification. Supervisor and collegial support seem to decrease the likelihood of suffering burnout and increase job satisfaction, although relationships were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Supervisor and collegial support warrant further research as protective factors. Implications for an evidence-based supervisory practice that produces ethical and competent supervisees are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chronic Viral Hepatitis Signifies the Association of Premixed Insulin Analogues with Liver Cancer Risks: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2097; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122097
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 9 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
This study sought to determine whether chronic hepatitis B or C would modify the association between insulin analogues and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risks. We conducted a nationwide nested case-control study for HCC cases and matched controls from 2003 to 2013 among newly diagnosed [...] Read more.
This study sought to determine whether chronic hepatitis B or C would modify the association between insulin analogues and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risks. We conducted a nationwide nested case-control study for HCC cases and matched controls from 2003 to 2013 among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients on any antidiabetic agents in Taiwan before and after exclusion of chronic viral hepatitis, respectively. A total of 5832 and 1237 HCC cases were identified before and after exclusion of chronic viral hepatitis, respectively. Incident HCC risks were positively associated with any use of premixed insulin analogues (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.27; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.55) among total participants, especially among current users (adjusted OR, 1.45; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.89). However, the association between HCC occurrence and premixed insulin analogues diminished among participants without chronic viral hepatitis (adjusted OR, 1.35; 95% CI 0.92 to 1.98). We also observed a significant multiplicative interaction between chronic viral hepatitis and premixed insulin analogues on HCC risks (P = 0.010). Conclusions: Chronic viral hepatitis signifies the role of premixed insulin analogues in HCC oncogenesis. We recommend a closer liver surveillance among patients prescribed premixed insulin analogues with concomitant chronic viral hepatitis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Changes of Atmospheric and Blood Concentrations of Lead and Cadmium in the General Population of South Korea from 2008 to 2017
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2096; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122096
Received: 19 May 2019 / Revised: 8 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
We measured changes in atmospheric and blood levels of lead and cadmium in the South Korean general population during the past decade. Blood data of 16,873 adults were taken from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2017). Atmospheric data were [...] Read more.
We measured changes in atmospheric and blood levels of lead and cadmium in the South Korean general population during the past decade. Blood data of 16,873 adults were taken from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2017). Atmospheric data were taken from 66 air quality monitoring sites in 16 different regions in South Korea. From 2008 to 2017, the geometric mean (GM) blood lead level decreased from 2.37 to 1.46 μg/dL (38.4% decrease), and the atmospheric lead concentration decreased by 61.0% in the overall population. During this time, the GM blood cadmium level decreased from 0.88 to 0.72 μg/L (18.2% decrease), and the atmospheric cadmium concentration decreased by 63.6%. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that a half reduction in air lead was associated with a 0.09 μg/dL decrease in blood lead (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.15) in a subgroup of the metropolitan city population. However, a half reduction in air cadmium had no significant effect on blood cadmium. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that the decrease in blood lead level over 10 years in Korea was related to the decrease in atmospheric lead concentration. However, the decrease in blood cadmium level during this time was not significantly associated with the decrease in atmospheric cadmium concentration. Our findings suggest that inhalation is a major source of lead exposure, but not of cadmium exposure. Ingestion of dietary cadmium presumably has a stronger impact on blood cadmium levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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