Special Issue "Allocation of Rainwater Harvesting Sites in Catchments"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Fernando António Leal Pacheco
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
DG-CQVR-UTAD – Department of Geology, Chemistry Research Centre, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Quinta de Prados, 5001–801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: groundwater management; groundwater contamination risk; water–rock interactions; groundwater flow modeling; groundwater–surface water interactions; rainwater harvesting; land degradation and surface water quality; spatial decision support systems in water public supply planning
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Rainwater harvesting is frequently used as low-cost storage of surface water for agro-forestry and urban applications. In the context of a changing climate and water shortage, the storage of rainwater in small reservoirs is expected to gain predominant role even away from the dryer regions. There is already abundant literature on rainwater harvesting both in the urban and rural environments. The studies on allocation of rainwater harvesting sites in catchments for agro-forestry applications are among the recent publications. These studies frequently focus on the development of models to identify optimized rainwater harvesting sites based on multi criteria analyses involving physical, socio-economic and ecological factors. In some cases, the balance between storage capacity and sustainability of such reservoirs is also addressed. This issue is particularly pertinent when the storage of rainwater requires the construction of engineered structures (large dams). In these cases, storage of rainwater in catchments may be seen as environmental problem, considering the potential harmful effects of damming for habitat fragmentation deterioration of water quality in the artificial reservoir, to mention just a few impacts. In the majority of studies, an irrigation project is at the center of the modeling. In fewer cases the optimal sites are meant to serve as irrigation and wildfire combat water resources, among other potential applications.

The topic of rainwater harvesting is expanding fast due to the generalized growth of water demand triggered by population growth and social development, and to climate change. It is, therefore, important to develop improved rainwater harvesting models that can better integrate the multiplicity of factors influencing the selection of optimal sites. It is also important to put in practice those models. The purpose of this Special Issue is therefore to bring modelers, practitioners, water planners and stakeholders into a discussion on the rainwater harvesting subject at the catchment scale and in a changing climate. All types of studies on this topic are welcome, namely new models, applications, implementation projects.

Prof. Fernando António Leal Pacheco
Dr. Luís Filipe Sanches Fernandes
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Rainwater harvesting
  • Sustainable water use
  • Extreme weather event mitigation
  • Irrigation
  • Wildfire combat
  • Watershed modeling and GIS

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
An Inexact Optimization Model for Crop Area Under Multiple Uncertainties
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2610; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142610 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
This paper developed a type-2 fuzzy interval chance constrained programming model for optimizing a crop area, which integrated chance constrained programming and type-2 fuzzy interval programming. The developed model was then applied to a case study in Wuwei City, Gansu Province, China, and [...] Read more.
This paper developed a type-2 fuzzy interval chance constrained programming model for optimizing a crop area, which integrated chance constrained programming and type-2 fuzzy interval programming. The developed model was then applied to a case study in Wuwei City, Gansu Province, China, and the maximization of economic benefit was selected as the planning objective. Furthermore, different water-saving irrigation modes were considered as the development mode. A series of optimal irrigation water and planting structure schemes were obtained under different violation probabilities in each water-saving scenario. The obtained results could be helpful to make decisions on the planting structure and the optimal use of irrigation water and land resources under multiple uncertainties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allocation of Rainwater Harvesting Sites in Catchments)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrologic Modeling for Sustainable Water Resources Management in Urbanized Karst Areas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2542; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142542 - 16 Jul 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1164
Abstract
The potential of karst aquifers as a drinking water resource is substantial because of their large storage capacity gained in the course of carbonate dissolution. Carbonate dissolution and consequent development of preferential paths are also the reasons for the complex behavior of these [...] Read more.
The potential of karst aquifers as a drinking water resource is substantial because of their large storage capacity gained in the course of carbonate dissolution. Carbonate dissolution and consequent development of preferential paths are also the reasons for the complex behavior of these aquifers as regards surface and underground flow. Hydrological modeling is therefore of paramount importance for an adequate assessment of flow components in catchments shaped on karsts. The cross tabulation of such components with geology, soils, and land use data in Geographic Information Systems helps decision makers to set up sustainable groundwater abstractions and allocate areas for storage of quality surface water, in the context of conjunctive water resources management. In the present study, a hydrologic modeling using the JAMS J2000 software was conducted in a karst area of Jequitiba River basin located near the Sete Lagoas town in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The results revealed a very high surface water component explained by urbanization of Sete Lagoas, which hampers the recharge of 7.9 hm3 yr−1 of storm water. They also exposed a very large negative difference (−8.3 hm3 yr−1) between groundwater availability (6.3 hm3 yr−1) and current groundwater abstraction from the karst aquifer (14.6 hm3 yr−1), which is in keeping with previously reported water table declines around drilled wells that can reach 48 m in old wells used for public water supply. Artificial recharge of excess surface flow is not recommended within the urban areas, given the high risk of groundwater contamination with metals and hydrocarbons potentially transported in storm water, as well as development of suffosional sinkholes as a consequence of concentrated storm flow. The surface component could however be stored in small dams in forested areas from the catchment headwaters and diverted to the urban area to complement the drinking water supply. The percolation in soil was estimated to be high in areas used for agriculture and pastures. The implementation of correct fertilizing, management, and irrigation practices are considered crucial to attenuate potential contamination of groundwater and suffosional sinkhole development in these areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allocation of Rainwater Harvesting Sites in Catchments)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Hydrologic and Water Allocation Model to Assess Water Availability in the Sabor River Basin (Portugal)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2419; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132419 - 08 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1000
Abstract
The Sabor River basin is a large basin (3170 km2) located in the northeast of Portugal and used mostly for agroforestry. One problem this basin faces is a lack of water during the dry season, when there is a higher demand [...] Read more.
The Sabor River basin is a large basin (3170 km2) located in the northeast of Portugal and used mostly for agroforestry. One problem this basin faces is a lack of water during the dry season, when there is a higher demand for water to irrigate crops. To solve this problem, the Portuguese government created a National Irrigation Program to finance new irrigation areas and improve existing ones. Consequently, it is necessary to evaluate the past and future water availability for agricultural and domestic consumption in the basin. This was done through the development of a hydrological and water allocation model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to model the hydrological processes that took place in the catchment between 1960 and 2008. The MIKE HYDRO Basin was used to simulate water allocation (irrigation and domestic consumption) in a historical view and under two scenarios. The historical view used the time period 1960–2008, and the two scenarios used the same time period but with an increase in the irrigated area. The first scenario simulated the irrigation of the total irrigable area that exists in the basin. The second scenario simulated a 29% increase in the olive grove area and a 24% decrease in the resident population, according to the projection for 2060. The results show that, in the historical view, the average annual water demand deficit was 31% for domestic consumption and 70% for irrigation, which represent 1372 × 103 m3 and 94 × 106 m3 of water, respectively. In the two scenarios, the water demand deficit increased to 37% for domestic consumption and 77% for irrigation. In the first scenario, the average annual water demand deficit was 183 × 106 m3 of water for irrigation. In the second scenario, the average annual water demand deficit was 385 × 103 m3 of water for domestic consumption, and 106 × 106 m3 of water for irrigating the expanded olive grove area. These results demonstrate that Portuguese farmers can use our model as a decision support tool to determine how much water needs to be stored to meet the present and future water demand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allocation of Rainwater Harvesting Sites in Catchments)
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Open AccessArticle
The Potential of Small Dams for Conjunctive Water Management in Rural Municipalities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1239; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071239 - 08 Apr 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1213
Abstract
The drinking water supply to Vila Pouca de Aguiar municipality in North Portugal is based on high quality groundwater, namely on nearly one hundred artesian springs and fifty boreholes. The groundwater resources are plentiful on a municipal level, but evidence some deficits at [...] Read more.
The drinking water supply to Vila Pouca de Aguiar municipality in North Portugal is based on high quality groundwater, namely on nearly one hundred artesian springs and fifty boreholes. The groundwater resources are plentiful on a municipal level, but evidence some deficits at the sub-municipal (village) level, especially during the dry period (July- August) that coincides with the return of many emigrants for holiday time. The deficits affect mostly the municipal capital (Vila Pouca de Aguiar) and a neighboring village (Pedras Salgadas), which populations nearly double or even triple during that period. The estimated annual deficits approach 55,000 m3/yr in those villages. If the anticipated increase in consumption/habitant and decrease in annual rainfall become reality in the next two decades, then the deficits may raise to approximately 90,000 m3/yr. To balance the water supply system, this study proposes its transition towards a conjunctive water management based on surface water stored in small dams and groundwater. A hydrologic modeling involving small forested catchments (< 15 km2) elected the Cabouço watershed as most suited basin to store stream water, because surface water availability is large (2.4 Mm3/yr) and forest cover is dominant (84.8%). Estimated nutrient loads are also compatible with drinking water supply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allocation of Rainwater Harvesting Sites in Catchments)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimum Matching Model Using Long-Term Computing on Safer Rural Domestic Water Supply Based on Rainwater Harvesting
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2864; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122864 - 14 Dec 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 987
Abstract
A safe rural domestic water supply project has been initiated based on different consumption uses. Long-term computation method and the water balance principle are used to analyze the yearly water demand. Water supply and demand balance is achieved through regulated planning of the [...] Read more.
A safe rural domestic water supply project has been initiated based on different consumption uses. Long-term computation method and the water balance principle are used to analyze the yearly water demand. Water supply and demand balance is achieved through regulated planning of the rainwater collection surface area and water storage capacity. The best combination of collection area and storage capacity is then determined for various rainfall zones in order to satisfy safe domestic water needs. Ultimately, an optimum matching model is developed to utilize rainwater harvesting for providing safe domestic water in rural areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allocation of Rainwater Harvesting Sites in Catchments)
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