Next Article in Journal
Urban Open Space Is Associated with Better Renal Function of Adult Residents in New Taipei City
Next Article in Special Issue
Association of Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Cardio-Metabolic Diseases in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review
Previous Article in Journal
Doctors Rule: An Analysis of Health Ministers’ Diaries in Australia
Previous Article in Special Issue
Acute and Cumulative Effects of Haze Fine Particles on Mortality and the Seasonal Characteristics in Beijing, China, 2005–2013: A Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Study
Article Menu
Issue 13 (July-1) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Indoor Air Pollution in Cars: An Update on Novel Insights

Institute of Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Goethe-University, 60590 Frankfurt, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2441; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132441
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 29 June 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Cardiopulmonary Health)
  |  
PDF [670 KB, uploaded 11 July 2019]
  |  

Abstract

From a global viewpoint, a lot of time is spent within the indoor air compartment of vehicles. A German study on mobility has revealed that, on average, people spend 45 minutes per day inside vehicles. In recent years the number of cars has increased to around 43 million vehicles in private households. This means that more than one car can be used in every household. The ratio has been growing, especially in eastern Germany and rural areas. “Overall and especially outside the cities, the car remains by far number one mode of transport, especially in terms of mileage”. Therefore, numerous international studies have addressed different aspects of indoor air hygiene, in the past years. In this paper, meaningful original studies on car indoor air pollution, related to VOCs, COx, PMs, microbials, BFRs, OPFRs, cigarettes, electronic smoking devices, high molecular weight plasticizer, and NOx are summarized in the form of a review. This present review aimed to summarize recently published studies in this important field of environmental medicine and points to the need for further studies with special recommendations for optimizing the interior air hygiene. View Full-Text
Keywords: car indoor; air pollution; volatile organic compounds (VOC); carbon oxides (COx); particulate matter (PM); airborne bacteria; fungi; (novel) brominated flame retardants ((N)BFR); organophosphate flame retardants (OFR); high molecular weight plasticizer; nitrogen oxides (NOx) car indoor; air pollution; volatile organic compounds (VOC); carbon oxides (COx); particulate matter (PM); airborne bacteria; fungi; (novel) brominated flame retardants ((N)BFR); organophosphate flame retardants (OFR); high molecular weight plasticizer; nitrogen oxides (NOx)
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zulauf, N.; Dröge, J.; Klingelhöfer, D.; Braun, M.; Oremek, G.M.; Groneberg, D.A. Indoor Air Pollution in Cars: An Update on Novel Insights. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2441.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top