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Open AccessArticle

Changes in Substance Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviors over 12-Month Methadone Maintenance Treatment among Vietnamese Patients in Mountainous Provinces

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Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
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Vietnam Young Physician Association, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
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Vietnam Authority of HIV/AIDS Control, Ministry of Health, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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Center of Excellence in Evidence-based Medicine, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City 70000, Vietnam
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Centre of Interdisciplinary Social Research, Phenikaa University, Yen Nghia, Ha Dong, Hanoi 100803, Vietnam
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Faculty of Economics and Finance, Phenikaa University, Yen Nghia, Ha Dong, Hanoi 100803, Vietnam
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Faculty of Graduate Studies, National Economics University, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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Sciences Po Paris, Campus de Dijon, Dijon 21000, France
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Youth Research Institute, Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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Center of Excellence in Behavioral Medicine, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City 70000, Vietnam
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Department of Psychological Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore 119074, Singapore
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Department of Psychological Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119078, Singapore
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Department of Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Department at the Institute for Health Innovation and Technology (iHealthtech), National University of Singapore, Singapore 119078, Singapore
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2422; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132422
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programs have been used worldwide to reduce the number of drug users and for HIV prevention; however, evidence of their effectiveness in mountainous areas is limited. This study aimed to identify changes in substance abuse and sexual practices among MMT patients after treatment in three Vietnamese mountainous provinces. A survey on risk behaviors was conducted among 300 drug users in six MMT clinics prior to and following one year of MMT. Cramér’s effect size of changes was extrapolated to justify the magnitude of the intervention’s effectiveness. A generalized estimation equation was used to find the factors associated with respondents’ substance use and sexual risk behavior. While drug-related risk behaviors were significantly reduced, alcohol and sex-related behaviors remained risk factors for HIV in this group. Additionally, condom use was common among participants at both time points, but not among those having sex with sex workers. Socio-economic characteristics of ethnic, education, occupation, as well as drug use history influenced the possibility of engaging in drug use and/or sexual risk behavior following treatment. Further emphasis on managing these among MMT patients is required, potentially by providing integrated services including smoking and drinking counseling and condom use promotion in accordance with MMT. View Full-Text
Keywords: methadone maintenance; HIV; risk behavior; mountainous Vietnam; substance abuse methadone maintenance; HIV; risk behavior; mountainous Vietnam; substance abuse
MDPI and ACS Style

Tran, B.X.; Fleming, M.; Nguyen, T.M.T.; Vu, G.T.; Vuong, Q.H.; Ho, M.-T.; Dam, N.V.; Vuong, T.-T.; Do, H.N.; Doan, L.P.; Latkin, C.; Ho, C.S.; Ho, R.C. Changes in Substance Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviors over 12-Month Methadone Maintenance Treatment among Vietnamese Patients in Mountainous Provinces. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2422.

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