Next Issue
Volume 19, January-1
Previous Issue
Volume 19, December-1
sensors-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Sensors, Volume 19, Issue 24 (December-2 2019) – 245 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are mostly used for environmental monitoring, military surveillance, [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Low-Voltage Low-Pass and Band-Pass Elliptic Filters Based on Log-Domain Approach Suitable for Biosensors
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5581; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245581 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 386
Abstract
This research proposes bipolar junction transistor (BJT)-based log-domain high-order elliptic ladder low-pass (LPF) and band-pass filters (BPF) using a lossless differentiator and lossless and lossy integrators. The log-domain lossless differentiator was realized by using seven BJTs and one grounded capacitor, the lossy integrator [...] Read more.
This research proposes bipolar junction transistor (BJT)-based log-domain high-order elliptic ladder low-pass (LPF) and band-pass filters (BPF) using a lossless differentiator and lossless and lossy integrators. The log-domain lossless differentiator was realized by using seven BJTs and one grounded capacitor, the lossy integrator using five BJTs and one grounded capacitor, and the lossless integrator using seven BJTs and one grounded capacitor. The simplified signal flow graph (SFG) of the elliptic ladder LPF consisted of two lossy integrators, one lossless integrator, and one lossless differentiator, while that of the elliptic ladder BPF contained two lossy integrators, five lossless integrators, and one lossless differentiator. Log-domain cells were directly incorporated into the simplified SFGs. Simulations were carried out using PSpice with transistor array HFA3127. The proposed filters are operable in a low-voltage environment and are suitable for mobile equipment and further integration. The log-domain principle enables the frequency responses of the filters to be electronically tunable between 10k Hz–10 MHz. The proposed filters are applicable for low-frequency biosensors by reconfiguring certain capacitors. The filters can efficiently remove low-frequency noise and random noise in the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Analog Circuits, Systems, Sensors and Their Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Measurement of Switching Performance of Pixelated Silicon Sensor Integrated with Field Effect Transistor
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5580; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245580 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Silicon shows very high detection efficiency for low-energy photons, and the silicon pixel sensor provides high spatial resolution. Pixelated silicon sensors facilitate the direct detection of low-energy X-ray radiation. In this study, we developed junction field effect transistors (JFETs) that can be integrated [...] Read more.
Silicon shows very high detection efficiency for low-energy photons, and the silicon pixel sensor provides high spatial resolution. Pixelated silicon sensors facilitate the direct detection of low-energy X-ray radiation. In this study, we developed junction field effect transistors (JFETs) that can be integrated into a pixelated silicon sensor to effectively handle many signal readout channels due to the pixelated structure without any change in the sensor resolution; this capability of the integrated system arises from the pixelated structure of the sensor. We focused on optimizing the JFET’s switching function, and simulated JFETs with different fabrication parameters. Furthermore, prototype JFET switches were designed and fabricated on the basis of the simulated results. It is important not only to keep the low leakage currents in the JFET but also reduce the current flow as much as possible by providing a high resistance when the JFET switch is off. We determined the optimal fabrication conditions for the effective switching of the JFETs. In this paper, we present the results of the measurement of the switching capability of the fabricated JFETs for various design variables and fabrication conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Hybrid Lab-on-a-Chip Injector System for Autonomous Carbofuran Screening
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5579; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245579 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 457
Abstract
Securing food safety standards is crucial to protect the population from health-threatening food contaminants. In the case of pesticide residues, reference procedures typically find less than 1% of tested samples being contaminated, thus indicating the necessity for new tools able to support smart [...] Read more.
Securing food safety standards is crucial to protect the population from health-threatening food contaminants. In the case of pesticide residues, reference procedures typically find less than 1% of tested samples being contaminated, thus indicating the necessity for new tools able to support smart and affordable prescreening. Here, we introduce a hybrid paper–lab-on-a-chip platform, which integrates on-demand injectors to perform multiple step protocols in a single disposable device. Simultaneous detection of enzymatic color response in sample and reference cells, using a regular smartphone, enabled semiquantitative detection of carbofuran, a neurotoxic and EU-banned carbamate pesticide, in a wide concentration range. The resulting evaluation procedure is generic and allows the rejection of spurious measurements based on their dynamic responses, and was effectively applied for the binary detection of carbofuran in apple extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lab-on-a-Chip and Microfluidic Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Analysis and Comparison of GPS Precipitable Water Estimates between Two Nearby Stations on Tahiti Island
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5578; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245578 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Since Bevis first proposed Global Positioning System (GPS) meteorology in 1992, the precipitable water (PW) estimates retrieved from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) networks with high accuracy have been widely used in many meteorological applications. The proper estimation of GNSS PW can be [...] Read more.
Since Bevis first proposed Global Positioning System (GPS) meteorology in 1992, the precipitable water (PW) estimates retrieved from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) networks with high accuracy have been widely used in many meteorological applications. The proper estimation of GNSS PW can be affected by the GNSS processing strategy as well as the local geographical properties of GNSS sites. To better understand the impact of these factors, we compare PW estimates from two nearby permanent GPS stations (THTI and FAA1) in the tropical Tahiti Island, a basalt shield volcano located in the South Pacific, with a mean slope of 8% and a diameter of 30 km. The altitude difference between the two stations is 86.14 m, and their horizontal distance difference is 2.56 km. In this paper, Bernese GNSS Software Version 5.2 with precise point positioning (PPP) and Vienna mapping function 1 (VMF1) was applied to estimate the zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD), which was compared with the International GNSS Service (IGS) Final products. The meteorological parameters sourced from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and the local weighted mean temperature ( T m ) model were used to estimate the GPS PW for three years (May 2016 to April 2019). The results show that the differences of PW between two nearby GPS stations is nearly a constant with value 1.73 mm. In our case, this difference is mainly driven by insolation differences, the difference in altitude and the wind being only second factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Pedestrian Dead Reckoning-Assisted Visual Inertial Odometry Integrity Monitoring
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5577; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245577 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 326
Abstract
Visual inertial odometers (VIOs) have received increasing attention in the area of indoor positioning due to the universality and convenience of the camera. However, the visual observation of VIO is more susceptible to the environment, and the error of observation affects the final [...] Read more.
Visual inertial odometers (VIOs) have received increasing attention in the area of indoor positioning due to the universality and convenience of the camera. However, the visual observation of VIO is more susceptible to the environment, and the error of observation affects the final positioning accuracy. To address this issue, we analyzed the causes of visual observation error that occur under different scenarios and their impact on positioning accuracy. We propose a new method of using the short-time reliability of pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) to aid in visual integrity monitoring and to reduce positioning error. The proposed method selects optimized positioning by automatically switching between outputs from VIO and PDR. Experiments were carried out to test and evaluate the proposed PDR-assisted visual integrity monitoring. The sensor suite of experiments consisted of a stereo camera and an inertial measurement unit (IMU). Results were analyzed in detailed and indicated that the proposed system performs better for indoor positioning within an environment that contains low illumination, little background texture information, or few moving objects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Performance of Reagent-Less Carbon Nanodots Based Enzyme Electrochemical Biosensors
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5576; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245576 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 276
Abstract
This work reports on the advantages of using carbon nanodots (CNDs) in the development of reagent-less oxidoreductase-based biosensors. Biosensor responses are based on the detection of H2O2, generated in the enzymatic reaction, at 0.4 V. A simple and fast [...] Read more.
This work reports on the advantages of using carbon nanodots (CNDs) in the development of reagent-less oxidoreductase-based biosensors. Biosensor responses are based on the detection of H2O2, generated in the enzymatic reaction, at 0.4 V. A simple and fast method, consisting of direct adsorption of the bioconjugate, formed by mixing lactate oxidase, glucose oxidase, or uricase with CNDs, is employed to develop the nanostructured biosensors. Peripherical amide groups enriched CNDs are prepared from ethyleneglycol bis-(2-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, and used as precursors. The bioconjugate formed between lactate oxidase and CNDs was chosen as a case study to determine the analytical parameters of the resulting L-lactate biosensor. A linear concentration range of 3.0 to 500 µM, a sensitivity of 4.98 × 10−3 µA·µM−1, and a detection limit of 0.9 µM were obtained for the L-lactate biosensing platform. The reproducibility of the biosensor was found to be 8.6%. The biosensor was applied to the L-lactate quantification in a commercial human serum sample. The standard addition method was employed. L-lactate concentration in the serum extract of 0.9 ± 0.3 mM (n = 3) was calculated. The result agrees well with the one obtained in 0.9 ± 0.2 mM, using a commercial spectrophotometric enzymatic kit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Nanobiosensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Joint Optimization of Transmit Waveform and Receive Filter with Pulse-to-Pulse Waveform Variations for MIMO GMTI
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5575; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245575 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 266
Abstract
Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) is usually defined as a radar system in which the transmit time and receive time, space and transform domain can be separated into multiple independent signals. Given the bandwidth and power constraints of the radar system, MIMO radar can improve [...] Read more.
Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) is usually defined as a radar system in which the transmit time and receive time, space and transform domain can be separated into multiple independent signals. Given the bandwidth and power constraints of the radar system, MIMO radar can improve its performance by optimize design transmit waveforms and receive filters, so as to achieve better performance in suppressing clutter and noise. In this paper, we cyclicly optimize the transmit waveform and receive filters, so as to maximize the output signal interference and noise ratio (SINR). From fixed pulse-to-pulse waveform to pulse-to-pulse waveform variations, we discuss the joint optimization under energy constraint, then extend it to optimizations under constant-envelope constraint and similarity constraint. Compared to optimization with fixed pulse-to-pulse waveform, the generalized optimization achieves higher output SINR and lower minimum detectable velocity (MDV), further improve the suppressing performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar and Radiometric Sensors and Sensing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Polarimetric SAR Time-Series for Identification of Winter Land Use
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5574; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245574 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 242
Abstract
In the past decade, high spatial resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors have provided information that contributed significantly to cropland monitoring. However, the specific configurations of SAR sensors (e.g., band frequency, polarization mode) used to identify land-use types remains underexplored. This study investigates [...] Read more.
In the past decade, high spatial resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors have provided information that contributed significantly to cropland monitoring. However, the specific configurations of SAR sensors (e.g., band frequency, polarization mode) used to identify land-use types remains underexplored. This study investigates the contribution of C/L-Band frequency, dual/quad polarization and the density of image time-series to winter land-use identification in an agricultural area of approximately 130 km² located in northwestern France. First, SAR parameters were derived from RADARSAT-2, Sentinel-1 and Advanced Land Observing Satellite 2 (ALOS-2) time-series, and one quad-pol and six dual-pol datasets with different spatial resolutions and densities were calculated. Then, land use was classified using the Random Forest algorithm with each of these seven SAR datasets to determine the most suitable SAR configuration for identifying winter land-use. Results highlighted that (i) the C-Band (F1-score 0.70) outperformed the L-Band (F1-score 0.57), (ii) quad polarization (F1-score 0.69) outperformed dual polarization (F1-score 0.59) and (iii) a dense Sentinel-1 time-series (F1-score 0.70) outperformed RADARSAT-2 and ALOS-2 time-series (F1-score 0.69 and 0.29, respectively). In addition, Shannon Entropy and SPAN were the SAR parameters most important for discriminating winter land-use. Thus, the results of this study emphasize the interest of using Sentinel-1 time-series data for identifying winter land-use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Application of Fuzzy Logic for Selection of Actor Nodes in WSANs —Implementation of Two Fuzzy-Based Systems and a Testbed
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5573; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245573 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 259
Abstract
The development of sensor networks and the importance of smart devices in the physical world has brought attention to Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs). They consist of a large number of static sensors and also a few other smart devices, such as [...] Read more.
The development of sensor networks and the importance of smart devices in the physical world has brought attention to Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs). They consist of a large number of static sensors and also a few other smart devices, such as different types of robots. Sensor nodes have responsibility for sensing and sending information towards an actor node any time there is an event that needs immediate intervention such as natural disasters or malicious attacks in the network. The actor node is responsible for processing and taking prompt action accordingly. But in order to select an appropriate actor to do one task, we need to consider different parameters, which make the problem NP-hard. For this reason, we consider Fuzzy Logic and propose two Fuzzy Based Simulation Systems (FBSS). FBSS1 has three input parameters such as Number of Sensors per Actor (NSA), Remaining Energy (RE) and Distance to Event (DE). On the other hand, FBSS2 has one new parameter—Transmission Range (TR)—and for this reason it is more complex. We will explain in detail the differences between these two systems. We also implement a testbed and compare simulation results with experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobile Sensing: Platforms, Technologies and Challenges)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A 120-ke Full-Well Capacity 160-µV/e Conversion Gain 2.8-µm Backside-Illuminated Pixel with a Lateral Overflow Integration Capacitor
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5572; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245572 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 537
Abstract
In this paper, a prototype complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor with a 2.8-μm backside-illuminated (BSI) pixel with a lateral overflow integration capacitor (LOFIC) architecture is presented. The pixel was capable of a high conversion gain readout with 160 μV/e for low light [...] Read more.
In this paper, a prototype complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor with a 2.8-μm backside-illuminated (BSI) pixel with a lateral overflow integration capacitor (LOFIC) architecture is presented. The pixel was capable of a high conversion gain readout with 160 μV/e for low light signals while a large full-well capacity of 120 ke was obtained for high light signals. The combination of LOFIC and the BSI technology allowed for high optical performance without degradation caused by extra devices for the LOFIC structure. The sensor realized a 70% peak quantum efficiency with a normal (no anti-reflection coating) cover glass and a 91% angular response at ±20° incident light. This 2.8-μm pixel is potentially capable of higher than 100 dB dynamic range imaging in a pure single exposure operation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Exploring Risk of Falls and Dynamic Unbalance in Cerebellar Ataxia by Inertial Sensor Assessment
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5571; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245571 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 276
Abstract
Background. Patients suffering from cerebellar ataxia have extremely variable gait kinematic features. We investigated whether and how wearable inertial sensors can describe the gait kinematic features among ataxic patients. Methods. We enrolled 17 patients and 16 matched control subjects. We acquired data by [...] Read more.
Background. Patients suffering from cerebellar ataxia have extremely variable gait kinematic features. We investigated whether and how wearable inertial sensors can describe the gait kinematic features among ataxic patients. Methods. We enrolled 17 patients and 16 matched control subjects. We acquired data by means of an inertial sensor attached to an ergonomic belt around pelvis, which was connected to a portable computer via Bluetooth. Recordings of all the patients were obtained during overground walking. From the accelerometric data, we obtained the harmonic ratio (HR), i.e., a measure of the acceleration patterns, smoothness and rhythm, and the step length coefficient of variation (CV), which evaluates the variability of the gait cycle. Results. Compared to controls, patients had a lower HR, meaning a less harmonic and rhythmic acceleration pattern of the trunk, and a higher step length CV, indicating a more variable step length. Both HR and step length CV showed a high effect size in distinguishing patients and controls (p < 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). A positive correlation was found between the step length CV and both the number of falls (R = 0.672; p = 0.003) and the clinical severity (ICARS: R = 0.494; p = 0.044; SARA: R = 0.680; p = 0.003). Conclusion. These findings demonstrate that the use of inertial sensors is effective in evaluating gait and balance impairment among ataxic patients. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Multi-Site Photoplethysmographic and Electrocardiographic System for Arterial Stiffness and Cardiovascular Status Assessment
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5570; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245570 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 269
Abstract
The development and validation of a system for multi-site photoplethysmography (PPG) and electrocardiography (ECG) is presented. The system could acquire signals from 8 PPG probes and 10 ECG leads. Each PPG probe was constituted of a light-emitting diode (LED) source at a wavelength [...] Read more.
The development and validation of a system for multi-site photoplethysmography (PPG) and electrocardiography (ECG) is presented. The system could acquire signals from 8 PPG probes and 10 ECG leads. Each PPG probe was constituted of a light-emitting diode (LED) source at a wavelength of 940 nm and a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) detector, located in a back-reflection recording configuration. In order to ensure proper optode-to-skin coupling, the probe was equipped with insufflating cuffs. The high number of PPG probes allowed us to simultaneously acquire signals from multiple body locations. The ECG provided a reference for single-pulse PPG evaluation and averaging, allowing the extraction of indices of cardiovascular status with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Firstly, the system was characterized on optical phantoms. Furthermore, in vivo validation was performed by estimating the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a metric associated with cardiovascular status. The validation was performed on healthy volunteers to assess the baPWV intra- and extra-operator repeatability and its association with age. Finally, the baPWV, evaluated via the developed instrumentation, was compared to that estimated with a commercial system used in clinical practice (Enverdis Vascular Explorer). The validation demonstrated the system’s reliability and its effectiveness in assessing the cardiovascular status in arterial ageing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible and Stretchable Electronic Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Fall Detection Using Multiple Bioradars and Convolutional Neural Networks
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5569; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245569 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 342
Abstract
A lack of effective non-contact methods for automatic fall detection, which may result in the development of health and life-threatening conditions, is a great problem of modern medicine, and in particular, geriatrics. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the advantages [...] Read more.
A lack of effective non-contact methods for automatic fall detection, which may result in the development of health and life-threatening conditions, is a great problem of modern medicine, and in particular, geriatrics. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the advantages of utilizing a multi-bioradar system in the accuracy of remote fall detection. The proposed concept combined usage of wavelet transform and deep learning to detect fall episodes. The continuous wavelet transform was used to get a time-frequency representation of the bio-radar signal and use it as input data for a pre-trained convolutional neural network AlexNet adapted to solve the problem of detecting falls. Processing of the experimental results showed that the designed multi-bioradar system can be used as a simple and view-independent approach implementing a non-contact fall detection method with an accuracy and F1-score of 99%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Sensors for Biomedical Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Finite-Time Attitude Stabilization Adaptive Control for Spacecraft with Actuator Dynamics
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5568; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245568 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 330
Abstract
For the attitude stabilization of spacecraft with actuator dynamics, this paper proposed a finite-time control law. Firstly, the dynamic property of the actuator is analyzed by an example. Then, a basic control law is derived to achieve the finite-time stability using the double [...] Read more.
For the attitude stabilization of spacecraft with actuator dynamics, this paper proposed a finite-time control law. Firstly, the dynamic property of the actuator is analyzed by an example. Then, a basic control law is derived to achieve the finite-time stability using the double fast terminal sliding mode manifold. When there is no prior knowledge of time matrix of the actuator, an adaptive law is proposed to estimate the unknown information. An adaptive control law is derived to guarantee the finite-time convergence of the attitude, and a Lyapunov-based analysis is provided. Finally, simulations are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control law to the attitude stabilization with the actuator dynamics. The results show that the high-precision attitude control performance can be achieved by the proposed scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section State-of-the-Art Sensors Technologies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Underwater Image Enhancement Method for Different Illumination Conditions Based on Color Tone Correction and Fusion-Based Descattering
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5567; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245567 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 351
Abstract
In the shallow-water environment, underwater images often present problems like color deviation and low contrast due to light absorption and scattering in the water body, but for deep-sea images, additional problems like uneven brightness and regional color shift can also exist, due to [...] Read more.
In the shallow-water environment, underwater images often present problems like color deviation and low contrast due to light absorption and scattering in the water body, but for deep-sea images, additional problems like uneven brightness and regional color shift can also exist, due to the use of chromatic and inhomogeneous artificial lighting devices. Since the latter situation is rarely studied in the field of underwater image enhancement, we propose a new model to include it in the analysis of underwater image degradation. Based on the theoretical study of the new model, a comprehensive method for enhancing underwater images under different illumination conditions is proposed in this paper. The proposed method is composed of two modules: color-tone correction and fusion-based descattering. In the first module, the regional or full-extent color deviation caused by different types of incident light is corrected via frequency-based color-tone estimation. And in the second module, the residual low contrast and pixel-wise color shift problems are handled by combining the descattering results under the assumption of different states of the image. The proposed method is experimented on laboratory and open-water images of different depths and illumination states. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms many other methods in enhancing the quality of different types of underwater images, and is especially effective in improving the color accuracy and information content in badly-illuminated regions of underwater images with non-uniform illumination, such as deep-sea images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging Sensor Systems for Analyzing Subsea Environment and Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Improved Drought Monitoring Index Using GNSS-Derived Precipitable Water Vapor over the Loess Plateau Area
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5566; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245566 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 664
Abstract
Standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) is an acknowledged drought monitoring index, and the evapotranspiration (ET) used to calculated SPEI is obtained based on the Thornthwaite (TH) model. However, the SPEI calculated based on the TH model is overestimated globally, whereas the more accurate [...] Read more.
Standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) is an acknowledged drought monitoring index, and the evapotranspiration (ET) used to calculated SPEI is obtained based on the Thornthwaite (TH) model. However, the SPEI calculated based on the TH model is overestimated globally, whereas the more accurate ET derived from the Penman–Monteith (PM) model recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations is unavailable due to the lack of a large amount of meteorological data at most places. Therefore, how to improve the accuracy of ET calculated by the TH model becomes the focus of this study. Here, a revised TH (RTH) model is proposed using the temperature (T) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) data. The T and PWV data are derived from the reanalysis data and the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) observation, respectively. The initial value of ET for the RTH model is calculated based on the TH model, and the time series of ET residual between the TH and PM models is then obtained. Analyzed results reveal that ET residual is highly correlated with PWV and T, and the correlate coefficient between PWV and ET is −0.66, while that between T and ET for cases of T larger or less than 0 °C are −0.54 and 0.59, respectively. Therefore, a linear model between ET residual and PWV/T is established, and the ET value of the RTH model can be obtained by combining the TH-derived ET and estimated ET residual. Finally, the SPEI calculated based on the RTH model can be obtained and compared with that derived using PM and TH models. Result in the Loess Plateau (LP) region reveals the good performance of the RTH-based SPEI when compared with the TH-based SPEI over the period of 1979–2016. A case analysis in April 2013 over the LP region also indicates the superiority of the RTH-based SPEI at 88 meteorological and 31 GNSS stations when the PM-based SPEI is considered as the reference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Quartz Tuning Fork Resonance Tracking and application in Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustics Spectroscopy
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5565; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245565 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 330
Abstract
The quartz tuning fork (QTF) is a piezoelectric transducer with a high quality factor that was successfully employed in sensitive applications such as atomic force microscopy or Quartz-Enhanced Photo-Acoustic Spectroscopy (QEPAS). The variability of the environment (temperature, humidity) can lead to a drift [...] Read more.
The quartz tuning fork (QTF) is a piezoelectric transducer with a high quality factor that was successfully employed in sensitive applications such as atomic force microscopy or Quartz-Enhanced Photo-Acoustic Spectroscopy (QEPAS). The variability of the environment (temperature, humidity) can lead to a drift of the QTF resonance. In most applications, regular QTF calibration is absolutely essential. Because the requirements vary greatly depending on the field of application, different characterization methods can be found in the literature. We present a review of these methods and compare them in terms of accuracy. Then, we further detail one technique, called Beat Frequency analysis, based on the transient response followed by heterodyning. This method proved to be fast and accurate. Further, we demonstrate the resonance tracking of the QTF while changing the temperature and the humidity. Finally, we integrate this characterization method in our Resonance Tracking (RT) QEPAS sensor and show the significant reduction of the signal drift compared to a conventional QEPAS sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Various Frequency Matching Schemes for Geometric Correction of Geostationary Ocean Color Imager
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5564; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245564 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 298
Abstract
Current precise geometric correction of Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) image slots is performed by shoreline matching. However, it is troublesome to handle slots with few or no shorelines, or slots covered by clouds. Geometric correction by frequency matching has been proposed to [...] Read more.
Current precise geometric correction of Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) image slots is performed by shoreline matching. However, it is troublesome to handle slots with few or no shorelines, or slots covered by clouds. Geometric correction by frequency matching has been proposed to handle these slots. In this paper, we further extend previous research on frequency matching by comparing the performance of three frequency domain matching methods: phase correlation, gradient correlation, and orientation correlation. We compared the performance of each matching technique in terms of match success rate and geometric accuracy. We concluded that the three frequency domain matching method with peak search range limits was comparable to geometric correction performance with shoreline matching. The proposed method handles translation only, and assumes that rotation has been corrected. We need to do further work on how to handle rotation by frequency matching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Quad-Constellation GNSS Navigation Algorithm with Colored Noise Mitigation
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5563; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245563 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 287
Abstract
The existence of colored noise in kinematic positioning will greatly degrade the accuracy of position solutions. This paper proposes a Kalman filter-based quad-constellation global navigation satellite system (GNSS) navigation algorithm with colored noise mitigation. In this algorithm, the observation colored noise and state [...] Read more.
The existence of colored noise in kinematic positioning will greatly degrade the accuracy of position solutions. This paper proposes a Kalman filter-based quad-constellation global navigation satellite system (GNSS) navigation algorithm with colored noise mitigation. In this algorithm, the observation colored noise and state colored noise models are established by utilizing their residuals in the past epochs, and then the colored noise is predicted using the models for mitigation in the current epoch in the integrated Global Positioning System (GPS)/GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS)/BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)/Galileo navigation. Kinematic single point positioning (SPP) experiments under different satellite visibility conditions and road patterns are conducted to evaluate the effect of colored noise on the positioning accuracy for the quad-constellation combined navigation. Experiment results show that the colored noise model can fit the colored noise more effectively in the case of good satellite visibility. As a result, the positioning accuracy improvement is more significant after handling the colored noise. The three-dimensional positioning accuracy can be improved by 25.1%. Different satellite elevation cut-off angles of 10º, 20º and 30º are set to simulate different satellite visibility situations. Results indicate that the colored noise is decreased with the increment of the elevation cut-off angle. Consequently, the improvement of the SPP accuracy after handling the colored noise is gradually reduced from 27.3% to 16.6%. In the cases of straight and curved roads, the quad-constellation GNSS-SPP accuracy can be improved by 22.1% and 25.7% after taking the colored noise into account. The colored noise can be well-modeled and mitigated in both the straight and curved road conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section State-of-the-Art Sensors Technologies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Compact Multifunctional Wireless Capacitive Sensor System and Its Application in Icing Detection
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5562; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245562 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 324
Abstract
When sensors are used for the monitoring of surfaces, for example, with respect to ice aggregation, it is of interest to have a full coverage of the surface without sensor-inherent detection gaps, so-called “blind spots”. Since the components of such a sensor, like [...] Read more.
When sensors are used for the monitoring of surfaces, for example, with respect to ice aggregation, it is of interest to have a full coverage of the surface without sensor-inherent detection gaps, so-called “blind spots”. Since the components of such a sensor, like antennas and energy harvesting, also require space on the surface, the actual, effective sensing area is usually much smaller than the total surface of the device. Consequently, with an array of such sensors, it is not possible to monitor the entire surface of an object without gaps, even if the sensors are mounted directly adjacent to each other. Furthermore, the excessive size may also prevent the application of a single sensor in space constraint situations as they occur, e.g., on aircrafts. This article investigates a sensor concept in which the electrodes of the sensors are used for both radio data transmission and energy harvesting at the same time. Thus, the wireless data transmission in the 2.45 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band is combined with the sensor electrodes and also with a photovoltaic cell for energy harvesting. The combination of sensor technology, communication, and harvesting enables a compact system and thus reduces blind spots to a minimum. In the following article, the structure and functionality of a system is described and verified by laboratory experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Novel and Automatic Rice Thickness Extraction Based on Photogrammetry Using Rice Edge Features
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5561; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245561 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 331
Abstract
The dimensions of phenotyping parameters such as the thickness of rice play an important role in rice quality assessment and phenotyping research. The objective of this study was to propose an automatic method for extracting rice thickness. This method was based on the [...] Read more.
The dimensions of phenotyping parameters such as the thickness of rice play an important role in rice quality assessment and phenotyping research. The objective of this study was to propose an automatic method for extracting rice thickness. This method was based on the principle of binocular stereovision but avoiding the problem that it was difficult to directly match the corresponding points for 3D reconstruction due to the lack of texture of rice. Firstly, the shape features of edge, instead of texture, was used to match the corresponding points of the rice edge. Secondly, the height of the rice edge was obtained by way of space intersection. Finally, the thickness of rice was extracted based on the assumption that the average height of the edges of multiple rice is half of the thickness of rice. According to the results of the experiments on six kinds of rice or grain, errors of thickness extraction were no more than the upper limit of 0.1 mm specified in the national industry standard. The results proved that edge features could be used to extract rice thickness and validated the effectiveness of the thickness extraction algorithm we proposed, which provided technical support for the extraction of phenotyping parameters for crop researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensor Technologies for Crop Phenotyping Application)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Detection of C-Reactive Protein in Human Serum Based on Self-Assembled Monolayer-Modified Interdigitated Wave-Shaped Electrode
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5560; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245560 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 342
Abstract
An electrochemical capacitance immunosensor based on an interdigitated wave-shaped micro electrode array (IDWµE) for direct and label-free detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) was reported. A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of dithiobis (succinimidyl propionate) (DTSP) was used to modify the electrode array for antibody immobilization. [...] Read more.
An electrochemical capacitance immunosensor based on an interdigitated wave-shaped micro electrode array (IDWµE) for direct and label-free detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) was reported. A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of dithiobis (succinimidyl propionate) (DTSP) was used to modify the electrode array for antibody immobilization. The SAM functionalized electrode array was characterized morphologically by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The nature of gold-sulfur interactions on SAM-treated electrode array was probed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The covalent linking of anti-CRP-antibodies onto the SAM modified electrode array was characterized morphologically through AFM, and electrochemically through cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The application of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human serum (HS) samples containing different concentrations of CRP in the electrode array caused changes in the electrode interfacial capacitance upon CRP binding. CRP concentrations in PBS and HS were determined quantitatively by measuring the change in capacitance (ΔC) through EIS. The electrode immobilized with anti-CRP-antibodies showed an increase in ΔC with the addition of CRP concentrations over a range of 0.01–10,000 ng mL−1. The electrode showed detection limits of 0.025 ng mL−1 and 0.23 ng mL−1 (S/N = 3) in PBS and HS, respectively. The biosensor showed a good reproducibility (relative standard deviation (RSD), 1.70%), repeatability (RSD, 1.95%), and adequate selectivity in presence of interferents towards CRP detection. The sensor also exhibited a significant storage stability of 2 weeks at 4 °C in 1× PBS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Improved Classification Method Based on the Diverse Density and Sparse Representation Model for a Hyperspectral Image
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5559; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245559 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 313
Abstract
To solve the small sample size (SSS) problem in the classification of hyperspectral image, a novel classification method based on diverse density and sparse representation (NCM_DDSR) is proposed. In the proposed method, the dictionary atoms, which learned from the diverse density model, are [...] Read more.
To solve the small sample size (SSS) problem in the classification of hyperspectral image, a novel classification method based on diverse density and sparse representation (NCM_DDSR) is proposed. In the proposed method, the dictionary atoms, which learned from the diverse density model, are used to solve the noise interference problems of spectral features, and an improved matching pursuit model is presented to obtain the sparse coefficients. Airborne hyperspectral data collected by the push-broom hyperspectral imager (PHI) and the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) are applied to evaluate the performance of the proposed classification method. Results illuminate that the overall accuracies of the proposed model for classification of PHI and AVIRIS images are up to 91.59% and 92.83% respectively. In addition, the kappa coefficients are up to 0.897 and 0.91. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning Methods for Image Processing in Remote Sensing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Citrus Tree Segmentation from UAV Images Based on Monocular Machine Vision in a Natural Orchard Environment
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5558; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245558 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 289
Abstract
The segmentation of citrus trees in a natural orchard environment is a key technology for achieving the fully autonomous operation of agricultural unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Therefore, a tree segmentation method based on monocular machine vision technology and a support vector machine (SVM) [...] Read more.
The segmentation of citrus trees in a natural orchard environment is a key technology for achieving the fully autonomous operation of agricultural unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Therefore, a tree segmentation method based on monocular machine vision technology and a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm are proposed in this paper to segment citrus trees precisely under different brightness and weed coverage conditions. To reduce the sensitivity to environmental brightness, a selective illumination histogram equalization method was developed to compensate for the illumination, thereby improving the brightness contrast for the foreground without changing its hue and saturation. To accurately differentiate fruit trees from different weed coverage backgrounds, a chromatic aberration segmentation algorithm and the Otsu threshold method were combined to extract potential fruit tree regions. Then, 14 color features, five statistical texture features, and local binary pattern features of those regions were calculated to establish an SVM segmentation model. The proposed method was verified on a dataset with different brightness and weed coverage conditions, and the results show that the citrus tree segmentation accuracy reached 85.27% ± 9.43%; thus, the proposed method achieved better performance than two similar methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optical Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Efficient Routing Protocol Based on Stretched Holding Time Difference for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5557; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245557 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Underwater Wireless Sensors Networks (UWSNs) use acoustic waves as a communication medium because of the high attenuation to radio and optical waves underwater. However, acoustic signals lack propagation speed as compared to radio or optical waves. In addition, the UWSNs also pose various [...] Read more.
Underwater Wireless Sensors Networks (UWSNs) use acoustic waves as a communication medium because of the high attenuation to radio and optical waves underwater. However, acoustic signals lack propagation speed as compared to radio or optical waves. In addition, the UWSNs also pose various intrinsic challenges, i.e., frequent node mobility with water currents, high error rate, low bandwidth, long delays, and energy scarcity. Various UWSN routing protocols have been proposed to overcome the above-mentioned challenges. Vector-based routing protocols confine the communication within a virtual pipeline for the sake of directionality and define a fixed pipeline radius between the source node and the centerline station. Energy-Scaled and Expanded Vector-Based Forwarding (ESEVBF) protocol limits the number of duplicate packets by expanding the holding time according to the propagation delay, and thus reduces the energy consumption via the remaining energy of Potential Forwarding Nodes (PFNs) at the first hop. The holding time mechanism of ESEVBF is restricted only to the first-hop PFNs of the source node. The protocol fails when there is a void or energy hole at the second hop, affecting the reliability of the system. Our proposed protocol, Extended Energy-Scaled and Expanded Vector-Based Forwarding Protocol (EESEVBF), exploits the holding time mechanism to suppress duplicate packets. Moreover, the proposed protocol tackles the hidden terminal problem due to which a reasonable reduction in duplicate packets initiated by the reproducing nodes occurs. The holding time is calculated based on the following four parameters: (i) the distance from the boundary of the transmission area relative to the PFNs’ inverse energy at the 1st and 2nd hop, (ii) distance from the virtual pipeline, (iii) distance from the source to the PFN at the second hop, and (iv) distance from the first-hop PFN to its destination. Therefore, the proposed protocol stretches the holding time difference based on two hops, resulting in lower energy consumption, decreased end-to-end delay, and increased packet delivery ratio. The simulation results demonstrate that compared to ESEVBF, our proposed protocol EESEVBF experiences 20.2 % lesser delay, approximately 6.66 % more energy efficiency, and a further 11.26 % reduction in generating redundant packets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Hydrogel Microparticles Functionalized with Engineered Escherichia coli as Living Lactam Biosensors
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5556; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245556 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 357
Abstract
Recently there has been an increasing need for synthesizing valued chemicals through biorefineries. Lactams are an essential family of commodity chemicals widely used in the nylon industry with annual production of millions of tons. The bio-production of lactams can substantially benefit from high-throughput [...] Read more.
Recently there has been an increasing need for synthesizing valued chemicals through biorefineries. Lactams are an essential family of commodity chemicals widely used in the nylon industry with annual production of millions of tons. The bio-production of lactams can substantially benefit from high-throughput lactam sensing strategies for lactam producer screening. We present here a robust and living lactam biosensor that is directly compatible with high-throughput analytical means. The biosensor is a hydrogel microparticle encapsulating living microcolonies of engineered lactam-responsive Escherichia coli. The microparticles feature facile and ultra-high throughput manufacturing of up to 10,000,000 per hour through droplet microfluidics. We show that the biosensors can specifically detect major lactam species in a dose-dependent manner, which can be quantified using flow cytometry. The biosensor could potentially be used for high-throughput metabolic engineering of lactam biosynthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lab-on-a-Chip Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A LS-SVM based Measurement Points Classification Algorithm for Adjacent Targets in WSNs
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5555; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245555 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 280
Abstract
In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), the problem of measurement origin uncertainty for observed data has a significant impact on the precision of multi-target tracking. In this paper, a novel algorithm based on least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) is proposed to classify measurement [...] Read more.
In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), the problem of measurement origin uncertainty for observed data has a significant impact on the precision of multi-target tracking. In this paper, a novel algorithm based on least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) is proposed to classify measurement points for adjacent targets. Extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm is firstly adopted to compute the predicted classification line for each sampling period, which will be used to classify sampling points and calculate observed centers of closely moving targets. Then LS-SVM algorithm is utilized to train the classified points and get the best classification line, which will then be the reference classification line for the next sampling period. Finally, the locations of the targets will be precisely estimated by using observed centers based on EKF. A series of simulations validate the feasibility and accuracy of the new algorithm, while the experimental results verify the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Pilot Study on Falling-Risk Detection Method Based on Postural Perturbation Evoked Potential Features
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5554; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245554 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 324
Abstract
In the human-robot hybrid system, due to the error recognition of the pattern recognition system, the robot may perform erroneous motor execution, which may lead to falling-risk. While, the human can clearly detect the existence of errors, which is manifested in the central [...] Read more.
In the human-robot hybrid system, due to the error recognition of the pattern recognition system, the robot may perform erroneous motor execution, which may lead to falling-risk. While, the human can clearly detect the existence of errors, which is manifested in the central nervous activity characteristics. To date, the majority of studies on falling-risk detection have focused primarily on computer vision and physical signals. There are no reports of falling-risk detection methods based on neural activity. In this study, we propose a novel method to monitor multi erroneous motion events using electroencephalogram (EEG) features. There were 15 subjects who participated in this study, who kept standing with an upper limb supported posture and received an unpredictable postural perturbation. EEG signal analysis revealed a high negative peak with a maximum averaged amplitude of −14.75 ± 5.99 μV, occurring at 62 ms after postural perturbation. The xDAWN algorithm was used to reduce the high-dimension of EEG signal features. And, Bayesian linear discriminant analysis (BLDA) was used to train a classifier. The detection rate of the falling-risk onset is 98.67%. And the detection latency is 334ms, when we set detection rate beyond 90% as the standard of dangerous event onset. Further analysis showed that the falling-risk detection method based on postural perturbation evoked potential features has a good generalization ability. The model based on typical event data achieved 94.2% detection rate for unlearned atypical perturbation events. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using neural response to detect dangerous fall events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning for Biomedical Imaging and Sensing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Convolutional Neural Network for Compound Micro-Expression Recognition
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5553; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245553 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 295
Abstract
Human beings are particularly inclined to express real emotions through micro-expressions with subtle amplitude and short duration. Though people regularly recognize many distinct emotions, for the most part, research studies have been limited to six basic categories: happiness, surprise, sadness, anger, fear, and [...] Read more.
Human beings are particularly inclined to express real emotions through micro-expressions with subtle amplitude and short duration. Though people regularly recognize many distinct emotions, for the most part, research studies have been limited to six basic categories: happiness, surprise, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust. Like normal expressions (i.e., macro-expressions), most current research into micro-expression recognition focuses on these six basic emotions. This paper describes an important group of micro-expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound micro-expressions are constructed by combining two basic micro-expressions but reflect more complex mental states and more abundant human facial emotions. In this study, we firstly synthesized a Compound Micro-expression Database (CMED) based on existing spontaneous micro-expression datasets. These subtle feature of micro-expression makes it difficult to observe its motion track and characteristics. Consequently, there are many challenges and limitations to synthetic compound micro-expression images. The proposed method firstly implemented Eulerian Video Magnification (EVM) method to enhance facial motion features of basic micro-expressions for generating compound images. The consistent and differential facial muscle articulations (typically referred to as action units) associated with each emotion category have been labeled to become the foundation of generating compound micro-expression. Secondly, we extracted the apex frames of CMED by 3D Fast Fourier Transform (3D-FFT). Moreover, the proposed method calculated the optical flow information between the onset frame and apex frame to produce an optical flow feature map. Finally, we designed a shallow network to extract high-level features of these optical flow maps. In this study, we synthesized four existing databases of spontaneous micro-expressions (CASME I, CASME II, CAS(ME)2, SAMM) to generate the CMED and test the validity of our network. Therefore, the deep network framework designed in this study can well recognize the emotional information of basic micro-expressions and compound micro-expressions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS Technology Based Sensors for Human Centered Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Improved Linear Spectral Emissivity Constraint Method for Temperature and Emissivity Separation Using Hyperspectral Thermal Infrared Data
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5552; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245552 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 245
Abstract
The linear spectral emissivity constraint (LSEC) method has been proposed to separate temperature and emissivity in hyperspectral thermal infrared data with an assumption that land surface emissivity (LSE) can be described by an equal interval piecewise linear function. This paper combines a pre-estimate [...] Read more.
The linear spectral emissivity constraint (LSEC) method has been proposed to separate temperature and emissivity in hyperspectral thermal infrared data with an assumption that land surface emissivity (LSE) can be described by an equal interval piecewise linear function. This paper combines a pre-estimate shape method with the LSEC method to provide an initial-shape estimation of LSE which will create a new piecewise scheme for land surface temperature (LST) and LSE separation. This new scheme is designated as the pre-estimate shape (PES)-LSEC method. Comparisons with the LSEC method using simulated data sets show that the PES-LSEC method has better performance in terms of accuracy for both LSE and LST. With an at-ground error of 0.5 K, the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) of LST and LSE are 0.07 K and 0.0045, respectively, and with the scale factor of moisture profile 0.8 and 1.2, the RMSEs of LST are 1.11 K and 1.14 K, respectively. The RMSEs of LSE in each channel are mostly below 0.02 and 0.04, respectively, which are better than for the LSEC method. In situ experimental data are adopted to validate our method: The results show that RMSE of LST is 0.9 K and the mean value of LSE accuracy is 0.01. The PES-LSEC method with fewer segments achieves better accuracy than that of LSEC and preserves most of the crest and trough information of emissivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop