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Special Issue "Underwater Sensor Networks"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Jaime Lloret Mauri
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Communications, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Interests: network protocols; network algorithms; wireless sensor networks; ad hoc networks; multimedia streaming
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

About 70% of the globe is covered by water, with many underwater places still to monitor and supervise. In addition, there are many kinds of underwater environments. Advances in underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks are making them more accesible because they are cheaper, with higher computing capacity, and consume less battery. The range of applications where they can be used is increasing every day. This Special Issue is focused on collecting the latest applications, advances, and challenges in underwater sensor nodes and underwater sensor networks.

Authors are invited to submit complete original unpublished papers, which are not under review in any other conference or journal. The topics can be discussed in term of the state of the art, standards, implementations, running experiments, applications, new research proposals, and industrial case studies.

Prof. Jaime Lloret Mauri
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Underwater sensor nodes
  • Devices for underwater sensing
  • Underwater wireless sensor networks
  • Topologies for underwater sensor networks
  • Underwater sensor networks communication
  • Sensor networks for aquaculture, fish farming and fish monitoring
  • Underwater surveillance and monitoring
  • Databases and big data for underwater systems control
  • Underwater modems

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Deep Learning-Based Spread-Spectrum FGSM for Underwater Communication
Sensors 2020, 20(21), 6134; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216134 - 28 Oct 2020
Abstract
The limitation of the available channel bandwidth and availability of a sustainable energy source for battery feed sensor nodes are the main challenges in the underwater acoustic communication. Unlike terrestrial’s communication, using multi-input multi-output (MIMO) technologies to overcome the bandwidth limitation problem is [...] Read more.
The limitation of the available channel bandwidth and availability of a sustainable energy source for battery feed sensor nodes are the main challenges in the underwater acoustic communication. Unlike terrestrial’s communication, using multi-input multi-output (MIMO) technologies to overcome the bandwidth limitation problem is highly restricted in underwater acoustic communication by high inter-channel interference (ICI) and the channel multipath effect. Recently, the spatial modulation techniques (SMTs) have been presented as an alternative solution to overcome these issues by transmitting more data bits using the spatial index of antennas transmission. This paper proposes a new scheme of SMT called spread-spectrum fully generalized spatial modulation (SS-FGSM) carrying the information bits not only using the constellated data symbols and index of active antennas as in conventional SMTs, but also transmitting the information bits by using the index of predefined spreading codes. Consequently, most of the information bits are transmitted in the index of the transmitter antenna, and the index of spreading codes. In the proposed scheme, only a few information bits are transmitted physically. By this way, consumed power transmission can be reduced, and we can save the energy of underwater nodes, as well as enhancing the channel utilization. To relax the receiver computational complexity, a low complexity deep learning (DL) detector is proposed for the SS-FGSM scheme as the first attempt in the underwater SMTs-based communication. The simulation results show that the proposed deep learning detector-based SS-FGSM (DLSS-FGSM), compared to the conventional SMTs, can significantly improve the system data rate, average bit error rate, energy efficiency, and receiver’s computational complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Two-Tier PSO Based Data Routing Employing Bayesian Compressive Sensing in Underwater Sensor Networks
Sensors 2020, 20(20), 5961; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20205961 - 21 Oct 2020
Abstract
Underwater acoustic sensor networks play an important role in assisting humans to explore information under the sea. In this work, we consider the combination of sensor selection and data routing in three dimensional underwater wireless sensor networks based on Bayesian compressive sensing and [...] Read more.
Underwater acoustic sensor networks play an important role in assisting humans to explore information under the sea. In this work, we consider the combination of sensor selection and data routing in three dimensional underwater wireless sensor networks based on Bayesian compressive sensing and particle swarm optimization. The algorithm we proposed is a two-tier PSO approach. In the first tier, a PSO-based clustering protocol is proposed to synthetically consider the energy consumption and uniformity of cluster head distribution. Then in the second tier, a PSO-based routing protocol is proposed to implement inner-cluster one-hop routing and outer-cluster multi-hop routing. The nodes selected to constitute i-th effective routing path decide which positions in the i-th row of the measurement matrix are nonzero. As a result, in this tier the protocol comprehensively considers energy efficiency, network balance and data recovery quality. The Bayesian Cramér-Rao Bound (BCRB) in such a case is analyzed and added in the fitness function to monitor the mean square error of the reconstructed signal. The experimental results validate that our algorithm maintains a longer life time and postpones the appearance of the first dead node while keeps the reconstruction error lower compared with the cutting-edge algorithms which are also based on distributed multi-hop compressive sensing approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
An AUV-Aided Cross-Layer Mobile Data Gathering Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks
Sensors 2020, 20(17), 4813; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20174813 - 26 Aug 2020
Abstract
Underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) have recently attracted much attention due to their ability to discover and monitor the aquatic environment. However, acoustic communication has posed some significant challenges, such as high propagation delay, low available bandwidth, and high bit error rate. Therefore, proposing [...] Read more.
Underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) have recently attracted much attention due to their ability to discover and monitor the aquatic environment. However, acoustic communication has posed some significant challenges, such as high propagation delay, low available bandwidth, and high bit error rate. Therefore, proposing a cross-layer protocol is of high importance to the field to integrate different communication functionalities (i.e, an interaction between data link layer and network layer) to interact in a more reliable and flexible manner to overcome the consequences of applying acoustic signals. In this paper, a novel Cross-Layer Mobile Data gathering (CLMD) scheme for Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSNs) is presented to improve the performance by providing the interaction between the MAC and routing layers. In CLMD, an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is used to periodically visit a group of clusters which are responsible for data collection from members. The communications are managed by using a distributed cross-layer solution to enhance network performance in terms of packet delivery and energy saving. The cluster heads are replaced with other candidate members at the end of each operational phase to prolong the network lifetime. The effectiveness of CLMD is verified through an extensive simulation study which reveals the performance improvement in the energy-saving, network lifetime, and packet delivery ratio with varying number of nodes. The effects of MAC protocols are also studied by studying the network performance under various MAC protocols in terms of packet delivery ratio, goodput, and energy consumption with varying density of nodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Paradigm for Underwater Monitoring Using Mobile Sensor Networks
Sensors 2020, 20(16), 4615; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20164615 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper presents a novel autonomous environmental monitoring methodology based on collaboration and collective decision-making among robotic agents in a heterogeneous swarm developed within the project subCULTron, tested in a realistic marine environment. The swarm serves as an underwater mobile sensor network for [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel autonomous environmental monitoring methodology based on collaboration and collective decision-making among robotic agents in a heterogeneous swarm developed within the project subCULTron, tested in a realistic marine environment. The swarm serves as an underwater mobile sensor network for exploration and monitoring of large areas. Different robotic units enable outlier and fault detection, verification of measurements and recognition of environmental anomalies, and relocation of the swarm throughout the environment. The motion capabilities of the robots and the reconfigurability of the swarm are exploited to collect data and verify suspected anomalies, or detect potential sensor faults among the swarm agents. The proposed methodology was tested in an experimental setup in the field in two marine testbeds: the Lagoon of Venice, Italy, and Biograd an Moru, Croatia. Achieved experimental results described in this paper validate and show the potential of the proposed approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Design of a Practical Underwater Sensor Network for Offshore Fish Farm Cages
Sensors 2020, 20(16), 4459; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20164459 - 10 Aug 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this paper, we present the design of a practical underwater sensor network for offshore fish farm cages. An overview of the current structure of an offshore fish farm, applied sensor network solutions, and their weaknesses are given. A mixed wireless–wired approach is [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present the design of a practical underwater sensor network for offshore fish farm cages. An overview of the current structure of an offshore fish farm, applied sensor network solutions, and their weaknesses are given. A mixed wireless–wired approach is proposed to mitigate the problem of wire breakage in underwater wired sensor networks. The approach is based on the serial arrangement of identical sections with wired and wireless interconnections areas. Wireless section alleviates underwater maintenance operations when cages are damaged. The analytical model of the proposed solution is studied in terms of maximum power transfer efficiency and the general formulas of the current in their transmitting antennas and sensor nodes are provided. Subsequently, based on simulations, the effects of parasitic resistance across the network are evaluated. A practical underwater sensor network to reach the 30 m depth with sensor nodes distanced 6 m is used to determine the proposal compliance with the ISO 11784/11785 HDX standard in its normal operation. Taking into account the cable breakage scenario, the results from experiments demonstrate the robustness of the proposed approach to keep running the sensor nodes that are located before the short circuit. Sensor node run time is reduced only 4.07% at most using standard values when a cable breakage occurs at the second deepest section. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation of Optimal Relay Position for Magneto-Inductive Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2020, 20(9), 2720; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092720 - 10 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Magneto-inductive (MI) waveguide technology is often proposed to increase the MI communication distance without adding significant cost and power consumption to the wireless sensor network. The idea is to add intermediate relaying nodes between transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) to relay the information [...] Read more.
Magneto-inductive (MI) waveguide technology is often proposed to increase the MI communication distance without adding significant cost and power consumption to the wireless sensor network. The idea is to add intermediate relaying nodes between transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) to relay the information from Tx to Rx. Our study of MI wave-guides has realized that adding a relay node improves the communication distance, however, the performance is greatly dependent on the position of the relaying node in the network. We therefore, in this work have investigated the effect of placement of a relay node and have determined the optimal relay position. We have performed various sets of experiments to thoroughly understand the behavior and identified three main regions: (a) for region 1, when the distance between Tx and Rx is equal or less than the diameter of the coils ( d 2 r ), the optimal relay position is close to Tx, (b) for region 2, when the distance between Tx and Rx is greater than diameter of the coils but less than twice the diameter ( 2 r < d < 4 r ), the optimal relay position lies in the center of Tx and Rx, and (c) for region 3, when the distance between the Tx and Rx is equal or greater than twice the diameter of the coils ( d 4 r ), the optimal relay position is close to Rx. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Multiuser Chirp Spread Spectrum Transmission in an Underwater Acoustic Channel Applied to an AUV Fleet
Sensors 2020, 20(5), 1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20051527 - 10 Mar 2020
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to provide a multiuser transmission technique for underwater acoustic communication in the framework of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) fleet. By using a variant of a Hyperbolically Frequency-Modulated (HFM) signal, we describe a new family of transmission [...] Read more.
The objective of this paper is to provide a multiuser transmission technique for underwater acoustic communication in the framework of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) fleet. By using a variant of a Hyperbolically Frequency-Modulated (HFM) signal, we describe a new family of transmission techniques called MultiUser Chirp Spread Spectrum (MU-CSS), which allows a very simple matched-filter-based decoding. These techniques are expected to provide good resilience against multiuser interference while keeping good robustness to Underwater Acoustic (UWA) channel impairments like Doppler shift. Their implementation for the UWA scenario is described, and the performance results over a simulated shallow-water UWA channel are analyzed and compared against conventional Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA) transmission. Finally, the feasibility and robustness of the proposed methods are verified over the underWater AcousTic channEl Replay benchMARK (Watermark), fed by several channel responses from sounding experiments performed in a lake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Event-Driven Data Gathering in Pure Asynchronous Multi-Hop Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks
Sensors 2020, 20(5), 1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20051407 - 04 Mar 2020
Abstract
In underwater acoustic modem design, pure asynchrony can contribute to improved wake-up coordination, thus avoiding energy-inefficient synchronization mechanisms. Nodes are designed with a pre-receptor and an acoustically adapted Radio Frequency Identification system, which wakes up the node when it receives an external tone. [...] Read more.
In underwater acoustic modem design, pure asynchrony can contribute to improved wake-up coordination, thus avoiding energy-inefficient synchronization mechanisms. Nodes are designed with a pre-receptor and an acoustically adapted Radio Frequency Identification system, which wakes up the node when it receives an external tone. The facts that no synchronism protocol is necessary and that the time between waking up and packet reception is narrow make pure asynchronism highly efficient for energy saving. However, handshaking in the Medium Control Access layer must be adapted to maintain the premise of pure asynchronism. This paper explores different models to carry out this type of adaptation, comparing them via simulation in ns-3. Moreover, because energy saving is highly important to data gathering driven by underwater vehicles, where nodes can spend long periods without connection, this paper is focused on multi-hop topologies. When a vehicle appears in a 3D scenario, it is expected to gather as much information as possible in the minimum amount of time. Vehicle appearance is the event that triggers the gathering process, not only from the nearest nodes but from every node in the 3D volume. Therefore, this paper assumes, as a requirement, a topology of at least three hops. The results show that classic handshaking will perform better than tone reservation because hidden nodes annulate the positive effect of channel reservation. However, in highly dense networks, a combination model with polling will shorten the gathering time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
W-GUN: Whale Optimization for Energy and Delay-Centric Green Underwater Networks
Sensors 2020, 20(5), 1377; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20051377 - 03 Mar 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) have witnessed significant R&D attention in both academia and industry due to their growing application domains, such as border security, freight via sea or river, natural petroleum production and the fishing industry. Considering the deep underwater-oriented access constraints, energy-centric [...] Read more.
Underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) have witnessed significant R&D attention in both academia and industry due to their growing application domains, such as border security, freight via sea or river, natural petroleum production and the fishing industry. Considering the deep underwater-oriented access constraints, energy-centric communication for the lifetime maximization of tiny sensor nodes in UWSNs is one of the key research themes in this domain. Existing literature on green UWSNs are majorly adapted from the existing techniques in traditional wireless sensor network relying on geolocation and the quality of service-centric underwater relay node selection, without paying much attention to the dynamic underwater network environments. To this end, this paper presents an adapted whale and wolf optimization-based energy and delay-centric green underwater networking framework (W-GUN). It focuses on exploiting dynamic underwater network characteristics by effectively utilizing underwater whale-centric optimization in relay node selection. Firstly, an underwater relay node optimization model is mathematically derived, focusing on underwater whale dynamics for incorporating realistic underwater characteristics in networking. Secondly, the optimization model is used to develop an adapted whale and grey wolf optimization algorithm for selecting optimal and stable relay nodes for centric underwater communication paths. Thirdly, a complete workflow of the W-GUN framework is presented with an optimization flowchart. The comparative performance evaluation attests to the benefits of the proposed framework and is compared to state-of-the-art techniques considering various metrics related to underwater network environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Method to Determine the Far-Field Beam Pattern of A Long Array From Subarray Beam Pattern Measurements
Sensors 2020, 20(4), 1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20041236 - 24 Feb 2020
Abstract
Beam pattern measurement is essential to verifying the performance of an array sonar. However, common problems in beam pattern measurement of arrays include constraints on achieving the far-field condition and reaching plane waves mainly due to limited measurement space as in acoustic water [...] Read more.
Beam pattern measurement is essential to verifying the performance of an array sonar. However, common problems in beam pattern measurement of arrays include constraints on achieving the far-field condition and reaching plane waves mainly due to limited measurement space as in acoustic water tank. For this purpose, the conventional method of measuring beam patterns in limited spaces, which transform near-field measurement data into far-field results, is used. However, the conventional method is time-consuming because of the dense spatial sampling. Hence, we devised a method to measure the beam pattern of a discrete line array in limited space based on the subarray method. In this method, a discrete line array with a measurement space that does not satisfy the far-field condition is divided into several subarrays, and the beam pattern of the line array can then be determined from the subarray measurements by the spatial convolution that is equivalent to the multiplication of beam pattern. The proposed method was verified through simulation and experimental measurement on a line array with 256 elements of 16 subarrays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydroacoustic System in a Biomimetic Underwater Vehicle to Avoid Collision with Vessels with Low-Speed Propellers in a Controlled Environment
Sensors 2020, 20(4), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20040968 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
In this paper, a hydroacoustic system designed for a biomimetic underwater vehicle (BUV) is presented. The Biomimetic Underwater Vehicle No. 2 (BUV2) is a next-generation BUV built within the ambit of SABUVIS, a European Defense Agency project (category B). Our main efforts were [...] Read more.
In this paper, a hydroacoustic system designed for a biomimetic underwater vehicle (BUV) is presented. The Biomimetic Underwater Vehicle No. 2 (BUV2) is a next-generation BUV built within the ambit of SABUVIS, a European Defense Agency project (category B). Our main efforts were devoted to designing the system so that it will avoid collisions with vessels with low-speed propellers, e.g., submarines. Verification measurements were taken in a lake using a propeller-driven pontoon with a spectrum similar to that produced by a submarine propulsion system. Here, we describe the hydroacoustic signal used, with careful consideration of the filter and method of estimation for the bearings of the moving obstacle. Two algorithms for passive obstacle detection were used, and the results are discussed herein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Joint Time-Reversal Space-Time Block Coding and Adaptive Equalization for Filtered Multitone Underwater Acoustic Communications
Sensors 2020, 20(2), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20020379 - 09 Jan 2020
Abstract
Underwater acoustic (UWA) sensor networks demand high-rate communications with high reliability between sensor nodes for massive data transmission. Filtered multitone (FMT) is an attractive multicarrier technique used in high-rate UWA communications, and can obviously shorten the span of intersymbol interference (ISI) with high [...] Read more.
Underwater acoustic (UWA) sensor networks demand high-rate communications with high reliability between sensor nodes for massive data transmission. Filtered multitone (FMT) is an attractive multicarrier technique used in high-rate UWA communications, and can obviously shorten the span of intersymbol interference (ISI) with high spectral efficiency and low frequency offset sensitivity by dividing the communication band into several separated wide sub-bands without guard bands. The joint receive diversity and adaptive equalization scheme is often used as a general ISI suppression technique in FMT-UWA communications, but large receive array for high diversity gain has an adverse effect on the miniaturization of UWA sensor nodes. A time-reversal space-time block coding (TR-STBC) technique specially designed for frequency-selective fading channels can replace receive diversity with transmit diversity for high diversity gain, and therefore is helpful for ISI suppression with simple receive configuration. Moreover, the spatio-temporal matched filtering (MF) in TR-STBC decoding can mitigate ISI obviously, and therefore is of benefit to lessen the complexion of adaptive equalization for post-processing. In this paper, joint TR-STBC and adaptive equalization FMT-UWA communication method is proposed based on the merit of TR-STBC. The proposed method is analyzed in theory, and its performance is assessed using simulation analysis and real experimental data collected from an indoor pool communication trial. The validity of the proposed method is proved through comparing the proposed method with the joint single-input–single-output (SISO) and adaptive equalization method and the joint single-input–multiple-output (SIMO) and adaptive equalization method. The results show that the proposed method can achieve better communication performance than the joint SISO and adaptive equalization method, and can achieve similar performance with more simpler receive configuration as the joint SIMO and adaptive equalization method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
An Efficient Routing Protocol Based on Stretched Holding Time Difference for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5557; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245557 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Underwater Wireless Sensors Networks (UWSNs) use acoustic waves as a communication medium because of the high attenuation to radio and optical waves underwater. However, acoustic signals lack propagation speed as compared to radio or optical waves. In addition, the UWSNs also pose various [...] Read more.
Underwater Wireless Sensors Networks (UWSNs) use acoustic waves as a communication medium because of the high attenuation to radio and optical waves underwater. However, acoustic signals lack propagation speed as compared to radio or optical waves. In addition, the UWSNs also pose various intrinsic challenges, i.e., frequent node mobility with water currents, high error rate, low bandwidth, long delays, and energy scarcity. Various UWSN routing protocols have been proposed to overcome the above-mentioned challenges. Vector-based routing protocols confine the communication within a virtual pipeline for the sake of directionality and define a fixed pipeline radius between the source node and the centerline station. Energy-Scaled and Expanded Vector-Based Forwarding (ESEVBF) protocol limits the number of duplicate packets by expanding the holding time according to the propagation delay, and thus reduces the energy consumption via the remaining energy of Potential Forwarding Nodes (PFNs) at the first hop. The holding time mechanism of ESEVBF is restricted only to the first-hop PFNs of the source node. The protocol fails when there is a void or energy hole at the second hop, affecting the reliability of the system. Our proposed protocol, Extended Energy-Scaled and Expanded Vector-Based Forwarding Protocol (EESEVBF), exploits the holding time mechanism to suppress duplicate packets. Moreover, the proposed protocol tackles the hidden terminal problem due to which a reasonable reduction in duplicate packets initiated by the reproducing nodes occurs. The holding time is calculated based on the following four parameters: (i) the distance from the boundary of the transmission area relative to the PFNs’ inverse energy at the 1st and 2nd hop, (ii) distance from the virtual pipeline, (iii) distance from the source to the PFN at the second hop, and (iv) distance from the first-hop PFN to its destination. Therefore, the proposed protocol stretches the holding time difference based on two hops, resulting in lower energy consumption, decreased end-to-end delay, and increased packet delivery ratio. The simulation results demonstrate that compared to ESEVBF, our proposed protocol EESEVBF experiences 20.2 % lesser delay, approximately 6.66 % more energy efficiency, and a further 11.26 % reduction in generating redundant packets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Self-Organized Proactive Routing Protocol for Non-Uniformly Deployed Underwater Networks
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5487; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245487 - 12 Dec 2019
Abstract
Electromagnetic (EM) waves cannot propagate more than few meters in sea water due to the high absorption rate. Acoustic waves are more suitable for underwater communication, but they travel very slowly compared to EM waves. The typical speed of acoustic waves in water [...] Read more.
Electromagnetic (EM) waves cannot propagate more than few meters in sea water due to the high absorption rate. Acoustic waves are more suitable for underwater communication, but they travel very slowly compared to EM waves. The typical speed of acoustic waves in water is 1500 m/s, whereas speed of EM waves in air is approximately 3 × 108 m/s. Therefore, the terrestrial wireless sensor network (WSN) protocols assume that the propagation delay is negligible. Hence, reactive protocols are deemed acceptable for WSNs. Other important issues related to underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) are determining the position of the underwater nodes and keeping a time synchronization among the nodes. Underwater nodes can neither determine their position nor synchronize using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) because of the short penetration of EM waves in sea water. The limited mobility of UWSN nodes and variation in the propagation speed of acoustic waves make time synchronization a challenging task for underwater acoustic networks (UASNs). For all these reasons, WSN protocols cannot be readily used in UASNs. In this work, a protocol named SPRINT is designed to achieve high data throughput and low energy operation in the nodes. There is a tradeoff between the throughput and the energy consumption in the wireless networks. Longer links mean higher energy consumption. On the other hand, the number of relay nodes or hops between the source node and the final destination node is a key factor which affects the throughput. Each hop increases the delay in the packet forwarding and, as a result, decreases the throughput. Hence, energy consumption requires the nearest nodes to be chosen as forwarding nodes, whereas the throughput requires the farthest node to be selected to minimize the number of hops. SPRINT is a cross-layer, self-organized, proactive protocol which does not require positioning equipment to determine the location of the node. The routing path from the node to the gateway is formed based on the distance. The data sending node prefers to choose the neighbor node which is closest to it. The distance is measured by the signal strength between the two nodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Reference Selection-Based Self-Localization Algorithm for Drifted Underwater Acoustic Networks
Sensors 2019, 19(18), 3920; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19183920 - 11 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Self-localization has become one of the major areas of research in drifted underwater acoustic networks (DUANs) since many applications are based on the knowledge of nodes’ positions. However, self-localization for DUANs faces two main challenges: the insufficient anchors and the varying network topology. [...] Read more.
Self-localization has become one of the major areas of research in drifted underwater acoustic networks (DUANs) since many applications are based on the knowledge of nodes’ positions. However, self-localization for DUANs faces two main challenges: the insufficient anchors and the varying network topology. Both affect the localization performance seriously. In this paper, we focus on these two challenges and propose a dynamic reference selection-based self-localization algorithm for DUANs (DRSL) to improve the localization performance. First, an optimal reference selection scheme is presented to solve the insufficient anchors’ problem. The selected optimal reference node can not only assist the insufficient anchors in accomplishing the localization procedure, but also obviously increase the localization accuracy. Based on the proposed optimal reference selection scheme, a dynamic reference selection-based self-localization algorithm is proposed to solve the topology changing problem. The proposed algorithm can improve the localization performance for DUANs significantly by selecting the reference node dynamically according to the predicted network topology, which is more suitable for DUANs with mobile sensor nodes. Simulation results show that the proposed DRSL algorithm can increase the localization accuracy greatly with insufficient anchor nodes and varying network topology. In addition, DRSL algorithm also has a lower communication cost than other anchor-free approaches, which distinctly demonstrates the advantages of the proposed DRSL algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Survey on Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: Requirements, Taxonomy, Recent Advances, and Open Research Challenges
Sensors 2020, 20(18), 5393; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185393 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The domain of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) had received a lot of attention recently due to its significant advanced capabilities in the ocean surveillance, marine monitoring and application deployment for detecting underwater targets. However, the literature have not compiled the state-of-the-art along [...] Read more.
The domain of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) had received a lot of attention recently due to its significant advanced capabilities in the ocean surveillance, marine monitoring and application deployment for detecting underwater targets. However, the literature have not compiled the state-of-the-art along its direction to discover the recent advancements which were fuelled by the underwater sensor technologies. Hence, this paper offers the newest analysis on the available evidences by reviewing studies in the past five years on various aspects that support network activities and applications in UWSN environments. This work was motivated by the need for robust and flexible solutions that can satisfy the requirements for the rapid development of the underwater wireless sensor networks. This paper identifies the key requirements for achieving essential services as well as common platforms for UWSN. It also contributes a taxonomy of the critical elements in UWSNs by devising a classification on architectural elements, communications, routing protocol and standards, security, and applications of UWSNs. Finally, the major challenges that remain open are presented as a guide for future research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessReview
The Hierarchic Treatment of Marine Ecological Information from Spatial Networks of Benthic Platforms
Sensors 2020, 20(6), 1751; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20061751 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 10
Abstract
Measuring biodiversity simultaneously in different locations, at different temporal scales, and over wide spatial scales is of strategic importance for the improvement of our understanding of the functioning of marine ecosystems and for the conservation of their biodiversity. Monitoring networks of cabled observatories, [...] Read more.
Measuring biodiversity simultaneously in different locations, at different temporal scales, and over wide spatial scales is of strategic importance for the improvement of our understanding of the functioning of marine ecosystems and for the conservation of their biodiversity. Monitoring networks of cabled observatories, along with other docked autonomous systems (e.g., Remotely Operated Vehicles [ROVs], Autonomous Underwater Vehicles [AUVs], and crawlers), are being conceived and established at a spatial scale capable of tracking energy fluxes across benthic and pelagic compartments, as well as across geographic ecotones. At the same time, optoacoustic imaging is sustaining an unprecedented expansion in marine ecological monitoring, enabling the acquisition of new biological and environmental data at an appropriate spatiotemporal scale. At this stage, one of the main problems for an effective application of these technologies is the processing, storage, and treatment of the acquired complex ecological information. Here, we provide a conceptual overview on the technological developments in the multiparametric generation, storage, and automated hierarchic treatment of biological and environmental information required to capture the spatiotemporal complexity of a marine ecosystem. In doing so, we present a pipeline of ecological data acquisition and processing in different steps and prone to automation. We also give an example of population biomass, community richness and biodiversity data computation (as indicators for ecosystem functionality) with an Internet Operated Vehicle (a mobile crawler). Finally, we discuss the software requirements for that automated data processing at the level of cyber-infrastructures with sensor calibration and control, data banking, and ingestion into large data portals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks)
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