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Special Issue "Integrated Analog Circuits, Systems, and Sensors, and Their Applications"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Roman Sotner
Website
Guest Editor
Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Departmentof Radio Electronics, 61600 Brno, Czech Republic
Interests: modern analog active devices and elements; electronic adjustment; tunability and adjustability extension; analog filters; oscillators and generators; fractional-order circuits; immittance emulators; design and simulation in CMOS processes (Cadence Virtuoso); circuits and systems for sensing readouts
Dr. Ladislav Polak
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Radio Electronics, SIX Research Center, Brno University of Technology (BUT), Technicka 3082/12, 616 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Interests: wireless communication systems; RF measurement; signal processing and computer-aided analysis
Mr. Abhirup Lahiri
Website
Guest Editor
Analog Design Engineer, Melexis Technologies Switzerland, Chemin de Buchaux 38, 2022 Bevaix, Switzerland
Interests: oscillators; band-gap references; regulators; phase-locked loop; low noise analog filters and variable gain amplifiers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The standard supply voltages of analog integrated circuits, for instance ±5 V, offer sufficient voltage space for a wide range of electronic adjustments of their parameters, and the development of systems with a high linearity, a high speed, and low real effects (e.g., parasitic impedances) and noises. The design of various on-chip electronic systems targets a small occupied silicon area and low-power consumption. Thereby, the supply voltage must also be very low. However, there are several restrictions, namely:

  1. A limited voltage range for the electronic adjustment of parameters (e.g., external adjustment of gain or cut-off frequency) in final applications;
  2. A limited speed and bandwidth;
  3. Limited linearity;
  4. Limited voltage space for cascode structures.

The low supply voltage has a direct effect on the range of the re-configurability and electronic tunability of the parameters of various analog systems, including sensor readouts. In addition, the limited output levels produced by circuits, developed in low-voltage IC processes, cannot be sufficient for direct interconnection with many standard circuits (used in common practice). In general, the low supply voltage creates limitations for many common systems, especially in their design approaches and for their compatibility with standard voltage level schemes. Typical examples are mixed systems, including bipolar transistor logic, dependent on a 5 V voltage range. Unfortunately, the higher the supply voltage, the higher the power consumption. Therefore, methods that facilitate the enhancement of the adjustment of parameters in low-voltage designs, enhance the performances of CMOS circuits regarding their problems with a low-output resistance, and improve on the linearity of a circuit´s features (e.g., transfer response, tunability) are required.

This Special Issue focuses on the development of advanced integrated active elements, circuits, systems, and sensors with flexible multi-parameter adjustments, and their application in real-use cases. Both original research and survey (review) papers are welcomed.

Topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • The development of novel integrated active elements, circuits, and systems enabling multi-parametric adjustments; their integer-order and fractional-order applications; and their sensor and readout utilizations.
  • The development of advanced integer- and fractional-order signal generators using enhanced or multi-parameter controllability.
  • The design of circuits utilizing adjustability enhancement for limited ranges of driving force (voltage and current) or the simultaneous driving of several parameters for a wide range of applications.
  • Converters between low-voltage IC systems and the adaptation of low-voltage circuits with different supply voltages.
  • The linearization of the features (input–output characteristics, dependence of tunable parameters on the driving force, etc.) of low-voltage circuits and systems.
  • New sensor and readout flexible IC applications for the processing of physical quantities.

Dr. Roman Sotner
Dr. Ladislav Polak
Dr. Abhirup Lahiri
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Active elements
  • Electronic control
  • Filtering
  • Fractional-order
  • Linearization
  • Multi-parameter control and tunability enhancement
  • Sensors and readout circuits for processing of physical quantities
  • Signal generation

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
The CMOS Highly Linear Current Amplifier with Current Controlled Gain for Sensor Measurement Applications
Sensors 2020, 20(16), 4653; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20164653 - 18 Aug 2020
Abstract
This paper introduces a new current-controlled current-amplifier suitable for precise measurement applications. This amplifier was developed with strong emphasis on linearity leading to low total harmonic distortion (THD) of the output signal, and on linearity of the gain control. The presented circuit is [...] Read more.
This paper introduces a new current-controlled current-amplifier suitable for precise measurement applications. This amplifier was developed with strong emphasis on linearity leading to low total harmonic distortion (THD) of the output signal, and on linearity of the gain control. The presented circuit is characterized by low input and high output impedances. Current consumption is significantly smaller than with conventional quadratic current multipliers and is comparable in order to the maximum processed input current, which is ±200 µA. This circuit is supposed to be used in many sensor applications, as well as a precise current multiplier for general analog current signal processing. The presented amplifier (current multiplier) was designed by an uncommon topology based on linear sub-blocks using MOS transistors working in their linear region. The described circuit was designed and fabricated in a C035 I3T25 0.35-µm ON Semiconductor process because of the demand of the intended application for higher supply voltage. Nevertheless, the topology is suitable also for modern smaller CMOS technologies and lower supply voltages. The performance of the circuit was verified by laboratory measurement with parameters comparable to the Cadence simulation results and presented here. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Current/Voltage Controlled Quadrature Sinusoidal Oscillators for Phase Sensitive Detection Using Commercially Available IC
Sensors 2020, 20(5), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20051319 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper presents the quadrature sinusoidal oscillators for a phase sensitive detection (PSD) system. The proposed oscillators are design by using the commercially available ICs (LT1228). The core oscillator consists of three LT1228s: two grounded capacitors and one resistor. By adding four resistors [...] Read more.
This paper presents the quadrature sinusoidal oscillators for a phase sensitive detection (PSD) system. The proposed oscillators are design by using the commercially available ICs (LT1228). The core oscillator consists of three LT1228s: two grounded capacitors and one resistor. By adding four resistors without the requirement of additional active devices, the amplitudes of two quadrature waveforms become adjustable. The quadrature output nodes are of low impedance, which can be connected to the impedance sensor or other circuits in a phase sensitive detection system without the need of buffer devices. The amplitudes of the quadrature waveform are equal during the frequency of oscillation (FO) tuning. The frequency of oscillation is electronically and linearly controlled by bias current or voltage without affecting the condition of oscillation (CO). Furthermore, the condition of oscillation is electronically controlled without affecting the frequency of oscillation. The performances of the proposed oscillators are experimentally tested with ±5 voltage power supplies. The frequency of the proposed sinusoidal oscillator can be tuned from 8.21 kHz to 1117.51 kHz. The relative frequency error is lower than 3.12% and the relative phase error is lower than 2.96%. The total harmonic distortion is lower than −38 dB (1.259%). The voltage gain of the quadrature waveforms can be tuned from 1.97 to 15.92. The measurement results demonstrate that the proposed oscillators work in a wide frequency range and it is a suitable choice for an instrument-off-the-shelf device Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design of Signal Generators Using Active Elements Developed in I3T25 CMOS Technology Single IC Package for Illuminance to Frequency Conversion
Sensors 2020, 20(4), 1198; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20041198 - 21 Feb 2020
Abstract
This paper presents a compact and simple design of adjustable triangular and square wave functional generators employing fundamental cells fabricated on a single integrated circuit (IC) package. Two solutions have electronically tunable repeating frequency. The linear adjustability of repeating frequency was verified in [...] Read more.
This paper presents a compact and simple design of adjustable triangular and square wave functional generators employing fundamental cells fabricated on a single integrated circuit (IC) package. Two solutions have electronically tunable repeating frequency. The linear adjustability of repeating frequency was verified in the range between 17 and 264 kHz. The main benefits of the proposed generator are the follows: A simple adjustment of the repeating frequency by DC bias current, Schmitt trigger (threshold voltages) setting by DC driving voltage, and output levels in hundreds of mV when the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process with limited supply voltage levels is used. These generators are suitable to provide a simple conversion of illuminance to frequency of oscillation that can be employed for illuminance measurement and sensing in the agriculture applications. Experimental measurements proved that the proposed concept is usable for sensing of illuminance in the range from 1 up to 500 lx. The change of illuminance within this range causes driving of bias current between 21 and 52 μA that adjusts repeating frequency between 70 and 154 kHz with an error up to 10% between the expected and real cases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Low-Voltage Low-Pass and Band-Pass Elliptic Filters Based on Log-Domain Approach Suitable for Biosensors
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5581; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245581 - 17 Dec 2019
Abstract
This research proposes bipolar junction transistor (BJT)-based log-domain high-order elliptic ladder low-pass (LPF) and band-pass filters (BPF) using a lossless differentiator and lossless and lossy integrators. The log-domain lossless differentiator was realized by using seven BJTs and one grounded capacitor, the lossy integrator [...] Read more.
This research proposes bipolar junction transistor (BJT)-based log-domain high-order elliptic ladder low-pass (LPF) and band-pass filters (BPF) using a lossless differentiator and lossless and lossy integrators. The log-domain lossless differentiator was realized by using seven BJTs and one grounded capacitor, the lossy integrator using five BJTs and one grounded capacitor, and the lossless integrator using seven BJTs and one grounded capacitor. The simplified signal flow graph (SFG) of the elliptic ladder LPF consisted of two lossy integrators, one lossless integrator, and one lossless differentiator, while that of the elliptic ladder BPF contained two lossy integrators, five lossless integrators, and one lossless differentiator. Log-domain cells were directly incorporated into the simplified SFGs. Simulations were carried out using PSpice with transistor array HFA3127. The proposed filters are operable in a low-voltage environment and are suitable for mobile equipment and further integration. The log-domain principle enables the frequency responses of the filters to be electronically tunable between 10k Hz–10 MHz. The proposed filters are applicable for low-frequency biosensors by reconfiguring certain capacitors. The filters can efficiently remove low-frequency noise and random noise in the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. Full article
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Open AccessLetter
A 1 V 92 dB SNDR 10 kHz Bandwidth Second-Order Asynchronous Delta-Sigma Modulator for Biomedical Signal Processing
Sensors 2020, 20(15), 4137; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154137 - 25 Jul 2020
Abstract
In this paper, a second-order asynchronous delta-sigma modulator (ADSM) is proposed based on the active-RCintegrators. The ADSM is implemented in the 0.18 μm CMOS Logic or Mixed-Signal/RF, General Purpose process from the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company with a center frequency of 848 [...] Read more.
In this paper, a second-order asynchronous delta-sigma modulator (ADSM) is proposed based on the active-RCintegrators. The ADSM is implemented in the 0.18 μ m CMOS Logic or Mixed-Signal/RF, General Purpose process from the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company with a center frequency of 848 kHz at a supply voltage of 1 V with a 92 dB peak signal-to-noise and distortion ratio ( S N D R ), which corresponds to 15 bit resolution. These parameters were achieved in all the endogenous bioelectric signals bandwidth of 10 kHz. The ADSM dissipated 295 μ W and had an area of 0.54 mm 2 . The proposed ADSM with a high resolution, wide bandwidth, and rail-to-rail input voltage range provides the universal solution for endogenous bioelectric signal processing. Full article
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