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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 12 (December 2012) , Pages 15496-17295

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Open AccessCorrection
Zhou, T.B., et al., Correction: All-Trans Retinoic Acid Treatment Is Associated with Prohibitin Expression in Renal Interstitial Fibrosis Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 2769-2782.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17295; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217295
Received: 24 September 2012 / Revised: 8 October 2012 / Accepted: 24 October 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2642 | PDF Full-text (107 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The authors wish to change Figure 2 of the paper published in IJMS [1]. The positions of H1 and H2 in the previous article were reversed. These errors have been amended in an amended version of the manuscript, which is available [...] Read more.
The authors wish to change Figure 2 of the paper published in IJMS [1]. The positions of H1 and H2 in the previous article were reversed. These errors have been amended in an amended version of the manuscript, which is available from the International Journal of Molecular Sciences website. The authors and publisher apologize for the inconvenience. [...] Full article
Open AccessCorrection
Lech, M., et al., Quantitative Expression of C-Type Lectin Receptors in Humans and Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 10113-10131.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17294; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217294
Received: 15 October 2012 / Revised: 18 October 2012 / Accepted: 18 October 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
Viewed by 2499 | PDF Full-text (115 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The authors wish to add this correction on their paper published in IJMS [1]. Galectin-1 was misclassified as a C-type lectin. Galectin-1 belongs to the family of the S-type lectins, i.e., the galectins. These errors have been amended in an amended version [...] Read more.
The authors wish to add this correction on their paper published in IJMS [1]. Galectin-1 was misclassified as a C-type lectin. Galectin-1 belongs to the family of the S-type lectins, i.e., the galectins. These errors have been amended in an amended version of the manuscript, which is available from the International Journal of Molecular Sciences website. The authors and publisher apologize for the inconvenience. [...] Full article
Open AccessCorrection
Kasprzak, M.M., et al., Correction: Effect of Enzymatic Treatment of Different Starch Sources on the in Vitro Rate and Extent of Starch Digestion. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 929-942.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17292-17293; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217292
Received: 28 November 2012 / Revised: 6 December 2012 / Accepted: 17 December 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2417 | PDF Full-text (123 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The authors wish to change the description of preparation of samples at Experimental Section on their paper published in IJMS [1]. [...] Full article
Open AccessCorrection
Zarogouldis, P., et al., Vectors for Inhaled Gene Therapy in Lung Cancer. Application for Nano Oncology and Safety of Bio Nanotechnology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 10828-10862
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17290-17291; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217290
Received: 28 October 2012 / Revised: 30 October 2012 / Accepted: 30 October 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2746 | PDF Full-text (129 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The authors wish to add this correction on their paper published in IJMS [1]. The first author’s name is misspelled and the correct name is Paul Zarogoulidis. In addition, the 6th author’s name is incorrect and should be corrected to Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt. These [...] Read more.
The authors wish to add this correction on their paper published in IJMS [1]. The first author’s name is misspelled and the correct name is Paul Zarogoulidis. In addition, the 6th author’s name is incorrect and should be corrected to Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt. These errors have been amended in an amended version of the manuscript, which is available from the International Journal of Molecular Sciences website. The authors and publisher apologize for the inconvenience. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Synthesis, Characterization and Cytotoxic Activity of Seleno-Capparis spionosa L. Polysaccharide
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17275-17289; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217275
Received: 21 August 2012 / Revised: 17 November 2012 / Accepted: 4 December 2012 / Published: 17 December 2012
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2540 | PDF Full-text (1245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, an experiment was designed to optimize the synthesis of seleno-Capparis spionosa L. polysaccharide (Se-CSPS) by response surface methodology. Three independent variables (reaction time, reaction temperature and ratio of Na2SeO3 to CSPS) were tested. Furthermore, the thermal [...] Read more.
In this study, an experiment was designed to optimize the synthesis of seleno-Capparis spionosa L. polysaccharide (Se-CSPS) by response surface methodology. Three independent variables (reaction time, reaction temperature and ratio of Na2SeO3 to CSPS) were tested. Furthermore, the thermal stability, particle size, shape and cytotoxic activity of Se-CSPS in vitro were investigated. The optimum reaction conditions were obtained shown as follows: reaction time 7.5 h, reaction temperature 71 °C, and ratio of Na2SeO3 to CSPS 0.9 g/g. Under these conditions, the Se content in Se-CSPS reached 5.547 mg/g, which was close to the predicted value (5.518 mg/g) by the model. The thermal stability, particle size and shape of Se-CSPS were significantly different from those of CSPS. Additionally, a MTT assay indicated that the Se-CSPS could inhibit the proliferation of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Green Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview
Prodrugs of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), More Than Meets the Eye: A Critical Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17244-17274; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217244
Received: 13 July 2012 / Revised: 29 November 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 17 December 2012
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 4617 | PDF Full-text (525 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The design and the synthesis of prodrugs for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been given much attention by medicinal chemists, especially in the last decade. As a therapeutic group, NSAIDs are among the most widely used prescribed and over the counter (OTC) medications. [...] Read more.
The design and the synthesis of prodrugs for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been given much attention by medicinal chemists, especially in the last decade. As a therapeutic group, NSAIDs are among the most widely used prescribed and over the counter (OTC) medications. The rich literature about potential NSAID prodrugs clearly shows a shift from alkyl, aryalkyl or aryl esters with the sole role of masking the carboxylic acid group, to more elaborate conjugates that contain carefully chosen groups to serve specific purposes, such as enhancement of water solubility and dissolution, nitric oxide release, hydrogen sulfide release, antioxidant activity, anticholinergic and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory (AChEI) activity and site-specific targeting and delivery. This review will focus on NSAID prodrugs that have been designed or were, later, found to possess intrinsic pharmacological activity as an intact chemical entity. Such intrinsic activity might augment the anti-inflammatory activity of the NSAID, reduce its side effects or transform the potential therapeutic use from classical anti-inflammatory action to something else. Reports discussed in this review will be those of NO-NSAIDs, anticholinergic and AChEI-NSAIDs, Phospho-NSAIDs and some miscellaneous agents. In most cases, this review will cover literature dealing with these NSAID prodrugs from the year 2006 and later. Older literature will be used when necessary, e.g., to explain the chemical and biological mechanisms of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Subproteome in the Livers of Type 2 Diabetic Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17230-17243; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217230
Received: 27 September 2012 / Revised: 30 November 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 17 December 2012
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2953 | PDF Full-text (794 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease that results from insulin resistance in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue and relative insulin deficiency. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a crucial role in the regulation of the cellular response to insulin. Recently, ER [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease that results from insulin resistance in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue and relative insulin deficiency. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a crucial role in the regulation of the cellular response to insulin. Recently, ER stress has been known to reduce the insulin sensitivity of the liver and lead to type 2 diabetes. However, detailed mechanisms of ER stress response that leads to type 2 diabetes remains unknown. To obtain a global view of ER function in type 2 diabetic liver and identify proteins that may be responsible for hepatic ER stress and insulin resistance, we performed proteomics analysis of mouse liver ER using nano UPLC-MSE. A total of 1584 proteins were identified in control C57 and type 2 diabetic db/db mice livers. Comparison of the rER and sER proteomes from normal mice showed that proteins involved in protein synthesis and metabolic process were enriched in the rER, while those associated with transport and cellular homeostasis were localized to the sER. In addition, proteins involved in protein folding and ER stress were found only in the rER. In the livers of db/db mice, however, the functions of the rER and sER were severely disrupted, including the capacity to resolve ER stress. These results provide new insight into the research on hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and are suggestive of the potential use of the differentially expressed hepatic ER proteins as biomarkers for hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessReview
X-Ray Repair Cross Complementing Protein 1 in Base Excision Repair
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17210-17229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217210
Received: 9 November 2012 / Revised: 6 December 2012 / Accepted: 7 December 2012 / Published: 17 December 2012
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3406 | PDF Full-text (520 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
X-ray Repair Cross Complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) acts as a scaffolding protein in the converging base excision repair (BER) and single strand break repair (SSBR) pathways. XRCC1 also interacts with itself and rapidly accumulates at sites of DNA damage. XRCC1 can thus mediate [...] Read more.
X-ray Repair Cross Complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) acts as a scaffolding protein in the converging base excision repair (BER) and single strand break repair (SSBR) pathways. XRCC1 also interacts with itself and rapidly accumulates at sites of DNA damage. XRCC1 can thus mediate the assembly of large multiprotein DNA repair complexes as well as facilitate the recruitment of DNA repair proteins to sites of DNA damage. Moreover, XRCC1 is present in constitutive DNA repair complexes, some of which associate with the replication machinery. Because of the critical role of XRCC1 in DNA repair, its common variants Arg194Trp, Arg280His and Arg399Gln have been extensively studied. However, the prevalence of these variants varies strongly in different populations, and their functional influence on DNA repair and disease remains elusive. Here we present the current knowledge about the role of XRCC1 and its variants in BER and human disease/cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Damage and Repair in Degenerative Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Virtual Screening of Specific Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) Inhibitors from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Molecular Database
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17185-17209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217185
Received: 10 October 2012 / Revised: 21 November 2012 / Accepted: 11 December 2012 / Published: 14 December 2012
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3209 | PDF Full-text (675 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is an attractive drug target for cancer therapy and research on IGF1R inhibitors has had success in clinical trials. A particular challenge in the development of specific IGF1R inhibitors is interference from insulin receptor (IR), which has [...] Read more.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is an attractive drug target for cancer therapy and research on IGF1R inhibitors has had success in clinical trials. A particular challenge in the development of specific IGF1R inhibitors is interference from insulin receptor (IR), which has a nearly identical sequence. A few potent inhibitors that are selective for IGF1R have been discovered experimentally with the aid of computational methods. However, studies on the rapid identification of IGF1R-selective inhibitors using virtual screening and confidence-level inspections of ligands that show different interactions with IGF1R and IR in docking analysis are rare. In this study, we established virtual screening and binding-mode prediction workflows based on benchmark results of IGF1R and several kinase receptors with IGF1R-like structures. We used comprehensive analysis of the known complexes of IGF1R and IR with their binding ligands to screen specific IGF1R inhibitors. Using these workflows, 17 of 139,735 compounds in the NCI (National Cancer Institute) database were identified as potential specific inhibitors of IGF1R. Calculations of the potential of mean force (PMF) with GROMACS were further conducted for three of the identified compounds to assess their binding affinity differences towards IGF1R and IR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessReview
Nitric Oxide in Skeletal Muscle: Role on Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Function
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17160-17184; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217160
Received: 1 November 2012 / Revised: 4 December 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 14 December 2012
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 6989 | PDF Full-text (782 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in several cellular processes as a signaling molecule and also as a source of reactive nitrogen species (RNS). NO is produced by three isoenzymes called nitric oxide synthases (NOS), all present in skeletal muscle. While neuronal NOS [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in several cellular processes as a signaling molecule and also as a source of reactive nitrogen species (RNS). NO is produced by three isoenzymes called nitric oxide synthases (NOS), all present in skeletal muscle. While neuronal NOS (nNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) are isoforms constitutively expressed, inducible NOS (iNOS) is mainly expressed during inflammatory responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that NO is also involved in the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway, having PGC-1α as the main signaling molecule. Increased NO synthesis has been demonstrated in the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle fiber and NO can also reversibly inhibit cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV of the respiratory chain). Investigation on cultured skeletal myotubes treated with NO donors, NO precursors or NOS inhibitors have also showed a bimodal effect of NO that depends on the concentration used. The present review will discuss the new insights on NO roles on mitochondrial biogenesis and function in skeletal muscle. We will also focus on potential therapeutic strategies based on NO precursors or analogs to treat patients with myopathies and mitochondrial deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Aptamer-Based Molecular Recognition of Lysergamine, Metergoline and Small Ergot Alkaloids
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17138-17159; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217138
Received: 18 September 2012 / Revised: 26 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 14 December 2012
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4769 | PDF Full-text (1122 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins produced by fungi of the genus Claviceps, which infect cereal crops and grasses. The uptake of ergot alkaloid contaminated cereal products can be lethal to humans and animals. For food safety assessment, analytical techniques are currently used to [...] Read more.
Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins produced by fungi of the genus Claviceps, which infect cereal crops and grasses. The uptake of ergot alkaloid contaminated cereal products can be lethal to humans and animals. For food safety assessment, analytical techniques are currently used to determine the presence of ergot alkaloids in food and feed samples. However, the number of samples which can be analyzed is limited, due to the cost of the equipment and the need for skilled personnel. In order to compensate for the lack of rapid tests for the detection of ergot alkaloids, the aim of this study was to develop a specific recognition element for ergot alkaloids, which could be further applied to produce a colorimetric reaction in the presence of these toxins. As recognition elements, single-stranded DNA ligands were selected by using an iterative selection procedure named SELEX, i.e., Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment. After several selection cycles, the resulting aptamers were cloned and sequenced. A surface plasmon resonance analysis enabled determination of the dissociation constants of the complexes of aptamers and lysergamine. Dissociation constants in the nanomolar range were obtained with three selected aptamers. One of the selected aptamers, having a dissociation constant of 44 nM, was linked to gold nanoparticles and it was possible to produce a colorimetric reaction in the presence of lysergamine. This system could also be applied to small ergot alkaloids in an ergot contaminated flour sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Recognition)
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Open AccessReview
Natural Biomolecules and Protein Aggregation: Emerging Strategies against Amyloidogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17121-17137; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217121
Received: 29 November 2012 / Revised: 12 December 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 14 December 2012
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3237 | PDF Full-text (281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biomolecular self-assembly is a fundamental process in all organisms. As primary components of the life molecular machinery, proteins have a vast array of resources available to them for self-assembly in a functional structure. Protein self-assembly, however, can also occur in an aberrant way, [...] Read more.
Biomolecular self-assembly is a fundamental process in all organisms. As primary components of the life molecular machinery, proteins have a vast array of resources available to them for self-assembly in a functional structure. Protein self-assembly, however, can also occur in an aberrant way, giving rise to non-native aggregated structures responsible for severe, progressive human diseases that have a serious social impact. Different neurodegenerative disorders, like Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s, and spongiform encephalopathy diseases, have in common the presence of insoluble protein aggregates, generally termed “amyloid,” that share several physicochemical features: a fibrillar morphology, a predominantly beta-sheet secondary structure, birefringence upon staining with the dye Congo red, insolubility in common solvents and detergents, and protease resistance. Conformational constrains, hydrophobic and stacking interactions can play a key role in the fibrillogenesis process and protein–protein and peptide–peptide interactions—resulting in self-assembly phenomena of peptides yielding fibrils—that can be modulated and influenced by natural biomolecules. Small organic molecules, which possess both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties able to bind to peptide/protein molecules through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic and aromatic interactions, are potential candidates against amyloidogenesis. In this review some significant case examples will be critically discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Self-Assembly 2012)
Open AccessArticle
High Density Lipoprotein Protects Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis via Activation of the PI3K/Akt Pathway and Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17104-17120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217104
Received: 26 September 2012 / Revised: 11 November 2012 / Accepted: 4 December 2012 / Published: 13 December 2012
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 3718 | PDF Full-text (1917 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The therapeutic effect of transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in myocardial infarction (MI) appears to be limited by poor cell viability in the injured tissue, which is a consequence of oxidative stress and pro-apoptotic factors. High density lipoprotein (HDL) reverses cholesterol transport [...] Read more.
The therapeutic effect of transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in myocardial infarction (MI) appears to be limited by poor cell viability in the injured tissue, which is a consequence of oxidative stress and pro-apoptotic factors. High density lipoprotein (HDL) reverses cholesterol transport and has anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties. We, therefore, investigated whether HDL could protect MSCs from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. MSCs derived from the bone marrow of rats were pre-incubated with or without HDL, and then were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in vitro, or were transplanted into experimentally infarcted hearts of rats in vivo. Pre-incubation of MSCs with HDL increased cell viability, reduced apoptotic indices and resulted in parallel decreases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in comparison with control MSCs. Each of the beneficial effects of HDL on MSCs was attenuated by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway. Preconditioning with HDL resulted in higher MSC survival rates, improved cardiac remodeling and better myocardial function than in the MSC control group. Collectively, these results suggest that HDL may protect against H2O2-induced apoptosis in MSCs through activation of a PI3K/Akt pathway, and by suppressing the production of ROS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessReview
Plant Glandular Trichomes as Targets for Breeding or Engineering of Resistance to Herbivores
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17077-17103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217077
Received: 6 November 2012 / Revised: 28 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 12 December 2012
Cited by 128 | Viewed by 7327 | PDF Full-text (1172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant’s secondary chemistry. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i.e., natural fragrances or products [...] Read more.
Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant’s secondary chemistry. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i.e., natural fragrances or products that can be used by the pharmaceutical industry, although many of these substances have evolved to provide the plant with protection against herbivores and pathogens. The storage compartment of glandular trichomes usually is located on the tip of the hair and is part of the glandular cell, or cells, which are metabolically active. Trichomes and their exudates can be harvested relatively easily, and this has permitted a detailed study of their metabolites, as well as the genes and proteins responsible for them. This knowledge now assists classical breeding programs, as well as targeted genetic engineering, aimed to optimize trichome density and physiology to facilitate customization of essential oil production or to tune biocide activity to enhance crop protection. We will provide an overview of the metabolic diversity found within plant glandular trichomes, with the emphasis on those of the Solanaceae, and of the tools available to manipulate their activities for enhancing the plant’s resistance to pests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biocides)
Open AccessArticle
Plant Regeneration and Somatic Embryogenesis from Immature Embryos Derived through Interspecific Hybridization among Different Carica Species
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17065-17076; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217065
Received: 5 September 2012 / Revised: 15 November 2012 / Accepted: 4 December 2012 / Published: 12 December 2012
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2980 | PDF Full-text (1625 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis through interspecific hybridization among different Carica species were studied for the development of a papaya ringspot virus-resistant variety. The maximum fruit sets were recorded from the cross of the native variety C. papaya cv. Shahi with the wild [...] Read more.
Plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis through interspecific hybridization among different Carica species were studied for the development of a papaya ringspot virus-resistant variety. The maximum fruit sets were recorded from the cross of the native variety C. papaya cv. Shahi with the wild species C. cauliflora. The highest hybrid embryos were recorded at 90 days after pollination and the embryos were aborted at 150 days after pollination. The immature hybrid embryos were used for plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora showed the highest percentage of germination, as well as plant regeneration on growth regulators free culture medium after 7 days pre-incubation on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L BAP, 0.5 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora produced maximum callus, as well as somatic embryos when cultured on half-strength MS medium containing 5 mg/L 2,4-D, 100 mg/L glutamine, 100 mg/L casein hydrolysate and 60 g/L sucrose. The somatic embryos were transferred into half-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose for maturation. The highest number of regenerated plants per hybrid embryo (10.33) was recorded from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora. Isoenzyme and dendrogram cluster analysis using UPGMA of the regenerated F1 plantlets confirmed the presence of the hybrid plantlets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Anti-Legionella dumoffii Activity of Galleria mellonella Defensin and Apolipophorin III
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17048-17064; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217048
Received: 24 September 2012 / Revised: 21 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 12 December 2012
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3047 | PDF Full-text (2024 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The gram-negative bacterium Legionella dumoffii is, beside Legionella pneumophila, an etiological agent of Legionnaires’ disease, an atypical form of pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of Galleria mellonella defense polypeptides against L. dumoffii. The extract [...] Read more.
The gram-negative bacterium Legionella dumoffii is, beside Legionella pneumophila, an etiological agent of Legionnaires’ disease, an atypical form of pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of Galleria mellonella defense polypeptides against L. dumoffii. The extract of immune hemolymph, containing a mixture of defense peptides and proteins, exhibited a dose-dependent bactericidal effect on L. dumoffii. The bacterium appeared sensitive to a main component of the hemolymph extract, apolipophorin III, as well as to a defense peptide, Galleria defensin, used at the concentrations 0.4 mg/mL and 40 μg/mL, respectively. L. dumoffii cells cultured in the presence of choline were more susceptible to both defense factors analyzed. A transmission electron microscopy study of bacterial cells demonstrated that Galleria defensin and apolipophorin III induced irreversible cell wall damage and strong intracellular alterations, i.e., increased vacuolization, cytoplasm condensation and the appearance of electron-white spaces in electron micrographs. Our findings suggest that insects, such as G. mellonella, with their great diversity of antimicrobial factors, can serve as a rich source of compounds for the testing of Legionella susceptibility to defense-related peptides and proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences 2012)
Open AccessReview
Organic Solar Cells: Understanding the Role of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17019-17047; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217019
Received: 7 October 2012 / Revised: 3 December 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 12 December 2012
Cited by 64 | Viewed by 5273 | PDF Full-text (1072 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organic solar cells have the potential to become a low-cost sustainable energy source. Understanding the photoconversion mechanism is key to the design of efficient organic solar cells. In this review, we discuss the processes involved in the photo-electron conversion mechanism, which may be [...] Read more.
Organic solar cells have the potential to become a low-cost sustainable energy source. Understanding the photoconversion mechanism is key to the design of efficient organic solar cells. In this review, we discuss the processes involved in the photo-electron conversion mechanism, which may be subdivided into exciton harvesting, exciton transport, exciton dissociation, charge transport and extraction stages. In particular, we focus on the role of energy transfer as described by F¨orster resonance energy transfer (FRET) theory in the photoconversion mechanism. FRET plays a major role in exciton transport, harvesting and dissociation. The spectral absorption range of organic solar cells may be extended using sensitizers that efficiently transfer absorbed energy to the photoactive materials. The limitations of F¨orster theory to accurately calculate energy transfer rates are discussed. Energy transfer is the first step of an efficient two-step exciton dissociation process and may also be used to preferentially transport excitons to the heterointerface, where efficient exciton dissociation may occur. However, FRET also competes with charge transfer at the heterointerface turning it in a potential loss mechanism. An energy cascade comprising both energy transfer and charge transfer may aid in separating charges and is briefly discussed. Considering the extent to which the photo-electron conversion efficiency is governed by energy transfer, optimisation of this process offers the prospect of improved organic photovoltaic performance and thus aids in realising the potential of organic solar cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET))
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Schizonepetin on Activity and mRNA Expression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17006-17018; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217006
Received: 20 August 2012 / Revised: 16 November 2012 / Accepted: 3 December 2012 / Published: 12 December 2012
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2922 | PDF Full-text (262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to find out whether Schizonepetin influences the pharmacokinetics of the main substrates drugs of CYP1A2, CYP3A1/2, CYP2E1, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in rats; the influence on the levels of CYP mRNA was also studied. Phenacetin, dapsone, chlorzoxazone, omeprazole [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to find out whether Schizonepetin influences the pharmacokinetics of the main substrates drugs of CYP1A2, CYP3A1/2, CYP2E1, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in rats; the influence on the levels of CYP mRNA was also studied. Phenacetin, dapsone, chlorzoxazone, omeprazole and metoprolol were selected as probe substrates for CYP1A2, CYP3A1/2, CYP2E1, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 respectively. HPLC methods were employed for the determination of these substrates in plasma and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the effects of Schizonepetin on the mRNA expression of CYP3A1, CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 in the rat liver. After the rats were orally administrated with Schizonepetin once a day for seven consecutive days, there were significant differences in plasma concentration of phenacetin, dapsone, chlorzoxazone and metoprolol, but not omeprazole, as compared with pre-administration. In addition, Schizonepetin induced the expression of CYP3A1, CYP1A and CYP2E1 at dosages of 24 and 48 mg/kg. Our results indicated that Schizonepetin had significant induction effects on CYP3A1/2 and inhibition effects on CYP1A2, CYP2E1 or CYP2D6 as oriented from the pharmacokinetic profiles of the substrates. Moreover, in the mRNA expression levels, Schizonepetin could induce the mRNA expression of CYP3A1, CYP1A and CYP2E1. In conclusion, co-administration of some CYP substrates with Schizonepetin may lead to an undesirable herb-drug interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessReview
Intelligent Design of Nano-Scale Molecular Imaging Agents
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 16986-17005; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131216986
Received: 21 September 2012 / Accepted: 26 November 2012 / Published: 12 December 2012
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3300 | PDF Full-text (792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Visual representation and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels within living subjects are gaining great interest in life science to address frontier issues in pathology and physiology. As intact living subjects do not emit any optical signature, visual representation [...] Read more.
Visual representation and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels within living subjects are gaining great interest in life science to address frontier issues in pathology and physiology. As intact living subjects do not emit any optical signature, visual representation usually exploits nano-scale imaging agents as the source of image contrast. Many imaging agents have been developed for this purpose, some of which exert nonspecific, passive, and physical interaction with a target. Current research interest in molecular imaging has mainly shifted to fabrication of smartly integrated, specific, and versatile agents that emit fluorescence or luminescence as an optical readout. These agents include luminescent quantum dots (QDs), biofunctional antibodies, and multifunctional nanoparticles. Furthermore, genetically encoded nano-imaging agents embedding fluorescent proteins or luciferases are now gaining popularity. These agents are generated by integrative design of the components, such as luciferase, flexible linker, and receptor to exert a specific on–off switching in the complex context of living subjects. In the present review, we provide an overview of the basic concepts, smart design, and practical contribution of recent nano-scale imaging agents, especially with respect to genetically encoded imaging agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2012)
Open AccessArticle
Increased Insulin Sensitivity and Distorted Mitochondrial Adaptations during Muscle Unloading
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 16971-16985; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131216971
Received: 23 September 2012 / Revised: 27 November 2012 / Accepted: 29 November 2012 / Published: 11 December 2012
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2916 | PDF Full-text (382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We aimed to further investigate mitochondrial adaptations to muscle disuse and the consequent metabolic disorders. Male rats were submitted to hindlimb unloading (HU) for three weeks. Interestingly, HU increased insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and decreased blood level of triglyceride and insulin. In skeletal [...] Read more.
We aimed to further investigate mitochondrial adaptations to muscle disuse and the consequent metabolic disorders. Male rats were submitted to hindlimb unloading (HU) for three weeks. Interestingly, HU increased insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and decreased blood level of triglyceride and insulin. In skeletal muscle, HU decreased expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) and its protein level in mitochondria. HU decreased mtDNA content and mitochondrial biogenesis biomarkers. Dynamin-related protein (Drp1) in mitochondria and Mfn2 mRNA level were decreased significantly by HU. Our findings provide more extensive insight into mitochondrial adaptations to muscle disuse, involving the shift of fuel utilization towards glucose, the decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and the distorted mitochondrial dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Sesamin on Streptozotocin (STZ)-Induced NIT-1 Pancreatic β-Cell Damage
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 16961-16970; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131216961
Received: 14 November 2012 / Revised: 4 December 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 11 December 2012
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2621 | PDF Full-text (748 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The protective effect of sesamin (SES) from sesame meal on NIT-1 pancreatic β-cells damaged by streptozotocin (STZ) in vitro was investigated. The cell viability, insulin secretion, the activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx) and the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) increased significantly [...] Read more.
The protective effect of sesamin (SES) from sesame meal on NIT-1 pancreatic β-cells damaged by streptozotocin (STZ) in vitro was investigated. The cell viability, insulin secretion, the activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx) and the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) increased significantly when incubated with SES (400, 200 µg mL−1). The content of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) production, and the activity of NO synthase (NOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), decreased significantly when incubated with SES. The destructive changes of NIT-1 cells were ameliorated when treated with SES under microscopic observation. These data suggested that SES had obvious protective effect on NIT-1 pancreatic β-cells damaged by STZ, which might be related to its effects of decreasing levels of β-cell-destroying factors such as oxidative stress and NO synthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Oxidative Stress Mediated-Alterations of the MicroRNA Expression Profile in Mouse Hippocampal Neurons
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 16945-16960; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131216945
Received: 1 November 2012 / Revised: 21 November 2012 / Accepted: 29 November 2012 / Published: 11 December 2012
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 3831 | PDF Full-text (1148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the etiology and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, and the molecular mechanisms that control the neuron response to ROS have been extensively studied. However, the oxidative stress-effect on miRNA expression in hippocampal neurons has not been investigated, [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the etiology and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, and the molecular mechanisms that control the neuron response to ROS have been extensively studied. However, the oxidative stress-effect on miRNA expression in hippocampal neurons has not been investigated, and little is known on the effect of ROS-modulated miRNAs on cell function. In this study, H2O2 was used to stimulate the mouse primary hippocampal neurons to develop an oxidative stress cell model. The alterations of miRNAs expression were detected by microarray analysis and five miRNAs were validated by real-time RT-PCR. The bioinformatic analysis of deregulated miRNAs was performed to determine their potential roles in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. We found that H2O2 mediated a total of 101 deregulated miRNAs, which mainly took part in the regulation of the MAPK pathway. Among them, miR-135b and miR-708 were up-regulated significantly and their targets were predicted to be involved in DNA recombination, protein ubiquitination, protein autophosphorylation and development of neurons. These results demonstrated that oxidative stress alters the miRNA expression profile of hippocampal neurons, and the deregulated miRNAs might play a potential role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessReview
DNA Damage and Repair in Atherosclerosis: Current Insights and Future Perspectives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 16929-16944; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131216929
Received: 28 September 2012 / Revised: 20 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 11 December 2012
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3495 | PDF Full-text (440 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among Western populations. Over the past two decades, considerable evidence has supported a crucial role for DNA damage in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. These findings support the concept that the prolonged exposure [...] Read more.
Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among Western populations. Over the past two decades, considerable evidence has supported a crucial role for DNA damage in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. These findings support the concept that the prolonged exposure to risk factors (e.g., dyslipidemia, smoking and diabetes mellitus) leading to reactive oxygen species are major stimuli for DNA damage within the plaque. Genomic instability at the cellular level can directly affect vascular function, leading to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and premature vascular senescence. The purpose of this paper is to review current knowledge on the role of DNA damage and DNA repair systems in atherosclerosis, as well as to discuss the cellular response to DNA damage in order to shed light on possible strategies for prevention and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Damage and Repair in Degenerative Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Evaporation Rate of Water as a Function of a Magnetic Field and Field Gradient
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 16916-16928; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131216916
Received: 3 October 2012 / Revised: 9 November 2012 / Accepted: 3 December 2012 / Published: 11 December 2012
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3189 | PDF Full-text (1018 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of magnetic fields on water is still a highly controversial topic despite the vast amount of research devoted to this topic in past decades. Enhanced water evaporation in a magnetic field, however, is less disputed. The underlying mechanism for this phenomenon [...] Read more.
The effect of magnetic fields on water is still a highly controversial topic despite the vast amount of research devoted to this topic in past decades. Enhanced water evaporation in a magnetic field, however, is less disputed. The underlying mechanism for this phenomenon has been investigated in previous studies. In this paper, we present an investigation of the evaporation of water in a large gradient magnetic field. The evaporation of pure water at simulated gravity positions (0 gravity level (ab. g), 1 g, 1.56 g and 1.96 g) in a superconducting magnet was compared with that in the absence of the magnetic field. The results showed that the evaporation of water was indeed faster in the magnetic field than in the absence of the magnetic field. Furthermore, the amount of water evaporation differed depending on the position of the sample within the magnetic field. In particular, the evaporation at 0 g was clearly faster than that at other positions. The results are discussed from the point of view of the evaporation surface area of the water/air interface and the convection induced by the magnetization force due to the difference in the magnetic susceptibility of water vapor and the surrounding air. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Characterization of Escherichia coli Adaptive Response Protein AidB
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 16899-16915; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131216899
Received: 7 October 2012 / Revised: 26 November 2012 / Accepted: 3 December 2012 / Published: 11 December 2012
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3403 | PDF Full-text (653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
When exposed to known DNA-damaging alkylating agents, Escherichia coli cells increase production of four DNA repair enzymes: Ada, AlkA, AlkB, and AidB. The role of three enzymes (Ada, AlkA, and AlkB) in repairing DNA lesions has been well characterized, while the function of [...] Read more.
When exposed to known DNA-damaging alkylating agents, Escherichia coli cells increase production of four DNA repair enzymes: Ada, AlkA, AlkB, and AidB. The role of three enzymes (Ada, AlkA, and AlkB) in repairing DNA lesions has been well characterized, while the function of AidB is poorly understood. AidB has a distinct cofactor that is potentially related to the elusive role of AidB in adaptive response: a redox active flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). In this study, we report the thermodynamic redox properties of the AidB flavin for the first time, both for free protein and in the presence of potential substrates. We find that the midpoint reduction potential of the AidB flavin is within a biologically relevant window for redox chemistry at −181 mV, that AidB significantly stabilizes the flavin semiquinone, and that small molecule binding perturbs the observed reduction potential. Our electrochemical results combined with structural analysis allow for fresh comparisons between AidB and the homologous acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ACAD) family of enzymes. AidB exhibits several discrepancies from ACADs that suggest a novel catalytic mechanism distinct from that of the ACAD family enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavins)
Open AccessArticle
Bacterial Over-Expression and Purification of the 3'phosphoadenosine 5'phosphosulfate (PAPS) Reductase Domain of Human FAD Synthase: Functional Characterization and Homology Modeling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 16880-16898; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131216880
Received: 10 October 2012 / Revised: 14 November 2012 / Accepted: 20 November 2012 / Published: 11 December 2012
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2616 | PDF Full-text (1119 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
FAD synthase (FADS, EC 2.7.7.2) is a key enzyme in the metabolic pathway that converts riboflavin into the redox cofactor, FAD. Human FADS is organized in two domains: -the 3'phosphoadenosine 5'phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase domain, similar to yeast Fad1p, at the C-terminus, and [...] Read more.
FAD synthase (FADS, EC 2.7.7.2) is a key enzyme in the metabolic pathway that converts riboflavin into the redox cofactor, FAD. Human FADS is organized in two domains: -the 3'phosphoadenosine 5'phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase domain, similar to yeast Fad1p, at the C-terminus, and -the resembling molybdopterin-binding domain at the N-terminus. To understand whether the PAPS reductase domain of hFADS is sufficient to catalyze FAD synthesis, per se, and to investigate the role of the molybdopterin-binding domain, a soluble “truncated” form of hFADS lacking the N-terminal domain (Δ1-328-hFADS) has been over-produced and purified to homogeneity as a recombinant His-tagged protein. The recombinant Δ1-328-hFADS binds one mole of FAD product very tightly as the wild-type enzyme. Under turnover conditions, it catalyzes FAD assembly from ATP and FMN and, at a much lower rate, FAD pyrophosphorolytic hydrolysis. The Δ1-328-hFADS enzyme shows a slight, but not significant, change of Km values (0.24 and 6.23 µM for FMN and ATP, respectively) and of kcat (4.2 × 10−2 s−1) compared to wild-type protein in the forward direction. These results demonstrate that the molybdopterin-binding domain is not strictly required for catalysis. Its regulatory role is discussed in light of changes in divalent cations sensitivity of the Δ1-328-hFADS versus wild-type protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavins)
Open AccessReview
UBE4B: A Promising Regulatory Molecule in Neuronal Death and Survival
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 16865-16879; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131216865
Received: 7 October 2012 / Revised: 22 November 2012 / Accepted: 27 November 2012 / Published: 10 December 2012
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2641 | PDF Full-text (200 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neuronal survival and death of neurons are considered a fundamental mechanism in the regulation of the nervous system during early development of the system and in adulthood. Defects in this mechanism are highly problematic and are associated with many neurodegenerative diseases. Because neuronal [...] Read more.
Neuronal survival and death of neurons are considered a fundamental mechanism in the regulation of the nervous system during early development of the system and in adulthood. Defects in this mechanism are highly problematic and are associated with many neurodegenerative diseases. Because neuronal programmed death is apoptotic in nature, indicating that apoptosis is a key regulatory process, the p53 family members (p53, p73, p63) act as checkpoints in neurons due to their role in apoptosis. The complexity of this system is due to the existence of different naturally occurring isoforms that have different functions from the wild types (WT), varying from apoptotic to anti-apoptotic effects. In this review, we focus on the role of UBE4B (known as Ube4b or Ufd2a in mouse), an E3/E4 ligase that triggers substrate polyubiquitination, as a master regulatory ligase associated with the p53 family WT proteins and isoforms in regulating neuronal survival. UBE4B is also associated with other pathways independent of the p53 family, such as polyglutamine aggregation and Wallerian degeneration, both of which are critical in neurodegenerative diseases. Many of the hypotheses presented here are gateways to understanding the programmed death/survival of neurons regulated by UBE4B in normal physiology, and a means of introducing potential therapeutic approaches with implications in treating several neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Damage and Repair in Degenerative Diseases)
Open AccessReview
DNA Damage Due to Oxidative Stress in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 16853-16864; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131216853
Received: 28 September 2012 / Revised: 31 October 2012 / Accepted: 19 November 2012 / Published: 10 December 2012
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 6715 | PDF Full-text (177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
According to the American Thorasic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) Statement, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as a preventable and treatable disease with a strong genetic component, characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible, but is usually progressive and [...] Read more.
According to the American Thorasic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) Statement, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as a preventable and treatable disease with a strong genetic component, characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible, but is usually progressive and associated with an enhanced inflammatory response of the lung to noxious particles or gases. The main features of COPD are chronic inflammation of the airways and progressive destruction of lung parenchyma and alveolar structure. The pathogenesis of COPD is complex due to the interactions of several mechanisms, such as inflammation, proteolytic/antiproteolytic imbalance, oxidative stress, DNA damage, apoptosis, enhanced senescence of the structural cells and defective repair processes. This review focuses on the effects of oxidative DNA damage and the consequent immune responses in COPD. In susceptible individuals, cigarette smoke injures the airway epithelium generating the release of endogenous intracellular molecules or danger-associated molecular patterns from stressed or dying cells. These signals are captured by antigen presenting cells and are transferred to the lymphoid tissue, generating an adaptive immune response and enhancing chronic inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Damage and Repair in Degenerative Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Molecular Characteristics of Cereal Carbohydrates after Processing and Digestion
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 16833-16852; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131216833
Received: 11 October 2012 / Revised: 30 November 2012 / Accepted: 4 December 2012 / Published: 10 December 2012
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2698 | PDF Full-text (616 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Different extraction, purification and digestion methods were used to investigate the molecular properties of carbohydrates in arabinoxylan and β-glucan concentrates, dietary fiber (DF) rich breads and ileum content of bread fed pigs. The breads studied were: a low DF wheat bread (WF), whole [...] Read more.
Different extraction, purification and digestion methods were used to investigate the molecular properties of carbohydrates in arabinoxylan and β-glucan concentrates, dietary fiber (DF) rich breads and ileum content of bread fed pigs. The breads studied were: a low DF wheat bread (WF), whole meal rye bread (GR), rye bread with kernels (RK), wheat bread supplemented with wheat arabinoxylan concentrate (AX) and wheat bread supplemented with oat β-glucan concentrate (BG). The weight average molecular weight (Mw) of extractable carbohydrates in β-glucan concentrate decreased eight-fold after inclusion in the BG bread when exposed to in vitro digestion, while the Mw of purified extractable carbohydrates in AX bread was reduced two-fold, and remained almost unaffected until reaching the terminal ileum of pigs. Similarly, the Mw of purified extractable carbohydrates in GR and RK bread was not significantly changed in the ileum. The AX bread resulted in the highest concentration of dissolved arabinoxylan in the ileum among all the breads that caused a substantial increased in ileal AX viscosity. Nevertheless, for none of the breads, the Mw of extractable carbohydrates was related neither to the bread extract nor ileal viscosity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Turn-On Fluorescent Chemosensor for Hg2+ Based on Multivalent Rhodamine Ligands
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 16822-16832; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131216822
Received: 22 November 2012 / Accepted: 4 December 2012 / Published: 7 December 2012
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3589 | PDF Full-text (1357 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Rhodamine-based fluorescent chemosensors 1 and 2 exhibit selective fluorescence enhancement to Fe3+ and Hg2+ over other metal ions at 580 nm in CH3CN/H2O (3/1, v/v) solution. Bis(rhodamine) chemosensor 1, under optimized conditions (CH [...] Read more.
Rhodamine-based fluorescent chemosensors 1 and 2 exhibit selective fluorescence enhancement to Fe3+ and Hg2+ over other metal ions at 580 nm in CH3CN/H2O (3/1, v/v) solution. Bis(rhodamine) chemosensor 1, under optimized conditions (CH3CN/HEPES buffer (0.02 M, pH = 7.0) (95/5, v/v)), shows a high selectivity and sensitivity to Hg2+, with a linear working range of 0–50 μM, a wide pH span of 4–10, and a detection limit of 0.4 μM Hg2+. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Self-Assembly 2012)
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