# Evaporation Rate of Water as a Function of a Magnetic Field and Field Gradient

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Results

#### 2.1. Effect of Magnetic Field on the Evaporation of Water

#### 2.2. Effect of Magnetic Field Gradient on the Evaporation of Water

#### 2.3. Combined Effect of Magnetic Field and Magnetic Field Gradient on the Evaporation of Water

## 3. Discussion

#### 3.1. Magnetization Force Causes Different Liquid Surface Areas at Different Positions in the Magnetic Field

_{m}acting on the materials in a gradient magnetic field, can be defined as [12],

_{0}is a constant (μ

_{0}= 4π × 10

^{−7}H m

^{−1}), and B and B′ are the magnetic field and its gradient, respectively.

^{2}, 34.65 mm

^{2}and 44.65 mm

^{2}, respectively.

#### 3.2. Effect of Magnetic Field on Hydrogen Bonds and van der Waals Force

#### 3.3. Effect of Field Gradient on the Convection near the Liquid/Gas Interface during Evaporation

_{m}, can be defined using Equation 2:

_{air}− χ

_{wet}= 0.0088 × 10

^{−6}and depends on the susceptibilities of the air composition [7]. Because different compositions in the air near the liquid/gas interface (including oxygen, nitrogen and water vapor) have distinct magnetic susceptibilities, they are exerted on by different magnetization forces even at the same position in a magnetic field. The paramagnetic volume susceptibilities of oxygen, nitrogen and water vapor are χ

_{O2}= 1.9 × 10

^{−6}, χ

_{N2}= −5 × 10

^{−9}and χ

_{H2Ovapors}= −6.8 × 10

^{−}, respectively where a negative value indicates that the gas is diamagnetic. Therefore, Δχ in Equation 2 has a large contribution from oxygen due to its larger paramagnetic susceptibility as opposed to the diamagnetic nitrogen or water vapor.

_{m}is positively correlated to the convection, which definitely affects the speed of evaporation [7,8]. In our superconducting magnetic field, BB′ had a greater value in larger field gradient positions (0 g/8.69 T and 1.96 g/12.64 T) than that in smaller field gradient positions (1 g/16.12 T and 1.56 g/8.69 T), and produced a larger ΔF

_{m}, which then accelerated the convection near the liquid/gas interface. Consequently, the evaporation in larger field gradient positions was enhanced. This situation arose from the acceleration of convection that was observed.

_{evaporation}is the amount of water evaporation and is determined by f(A), f(B) and f(B′). In Equation 3,A is the area in the water/air interface, B is the magnetic field, and B′ is the field gradient.

## 4. Experimental Section

^{2}/m to 1312 T

^{2}/m. The large range of gradient magnetic fields allows for the simulation of gravities ranging from microgravity (~0 g) to hypergravity (~2 g). Such gravity simulation is useful in investigations that depend on gravity change (e.g., studies related to space exploration) [13,20–27].

_{m}exerted on the object in the gradient magnetic field in Equation 1 [12].

_{sim}in a gradient magnetic field can be expressed as follow:

- Mark a series of points along the liquid/air interface in each image by the integration of automatic image enhancement and manual marking.
- Map the positions of all marked points in each image into a Cartesian coordinate system of which the origin is the lowest point in the image. Next, perform a polynomial curve fitting on their coordinates to get a curve corresponding to the cross section of the liquid surface.
- Obtain the contact angle by calculating the tangent slope of the fitted curve at the contact position.
- Calculate the surface area by integral operation. The liquid surface can be formed by rotating the fitted curve around the central axis of the vessel.

## 5. Conclusions

## Acknowledgments

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**Figure 1.**Comparison of water evaporation in a homogeneous magnetic field (at position 1 g/16.12 T) and in the absence of the magnetic field (at position 1 g/0 T) (error bars: s.e.m. (standard error of the mean), n = 3).

**Figure 2.**Comparison of water evaporation in simulated microgravity (at position 0 g/8.69 T) and in simulated hypergravity (at position 1.56 g/8.69 T) (error bars: s.e.m. (standard error of the mean), n = 3). Based on the comparison, the effect of the magnetic field gradient on water evaporation is illustrated. The results show that simulated microgravity exhibited a stronger ability to enhance the evaporation of water compared with simulated hypergravity.

**Figure 3.**The combined effect of a magnetic field and magnetic field gradient comparing the amount evaporation at three positions (1.96 g/12.64 T, 0 g/8.69 T and 1 g/0 T) (error bars: s.e.m. (standard error of the mean), n = 3). The results show that simulated microgravity exhibited the highest evaporation rate and the control showed the lowest evaporation rate.

**Figure 4.**Images of the sample cells with water in the magnetic field at (

**a**) position 1.96 g/12.64 T, (

**b**) position 1 g/16.12 T, and (

**c**) position 0 g/8.69 T.

**Figure 5.**Simulated diagram of the water/air interface in the magnetic field at (

**a**) position 1.96 g/12.64T, (

**b**) position 1 g/16.12T, and (

**c**) position 0 g/8.69T.

**Figure 6.**Overall configuration of the instruments with a large-gradient high-field magnet. (

**a**) photograph of the system and (

**b**) a schematic illustration of the system. Four special positions in the magnet bore (simulated 0 g, 1 g, 1.56 g and 1.96 g) and a control were utilized for placing the samples

**Figure 7.**Schematic illustration of the experimental processes including (

**a**) heating the containers to remove water, (

**b**) filling the vessel with water and measuring the weight of the filled vessel, (

**c**) placing the filled vessel into the bottle cap and sealing the bottle (the bottle is set upside down), (

**d**) placing the sealed bottles into different experimental positions inside and outside the magnet, (

**e**) measuring the weight of the filled vessel after evaporation and obtaining the evaporated amount by comparing it with the initial weight.

© 2012 by the authors; licensee Molecular Diversity Preservation International, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Guo, Y.-Z.; Yin, D.-C.; Cao, H.-L.; Shi, J.-Y.; Zhang, C.-Y.; Liu, Y.-M.; Huang, H.-H.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Guo, W.-H.;
et al. Evaporation Rate of Water as a Function of a Magnetic Field and Field Gradient. *Int. J. Mol. Sci.* **2012**, *13*, 16916-16928.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131216916

**AMA Style**

Guo Y-Z, Yin D-C, Cao H-L, Shi J-Y, Zhang C-Y, Liu Y-M, Huang H-H, Liu Y, Wang Y, Guo W-H,
et al. Evaporation Rate of Water as a Function of a Magnetic Field and Field Gradient. *International Journal of Molecular Sciences*. 2012; 13(12):16916-16928.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131216916

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Guo, Yun-Zhu, Da-Chuan Yin, Hui-Ling Cao, Jian-Yu Shi, Chen-Yan Zhang, Yong-Ming Liu, Huan-Huan Huang, Yue Liu, Yan Wang, Wei-Hong Guo,
and et al. 2012. "Evaporation Rate of Water as a Function of a Magnetic Field and Field Gradient" *International Journal of Molecular Sciences* 13, no. 12: 16916-16928.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131216916