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Molecules, Volume 22, Issue 6 (June 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The increasing popularity of porphyrinoids in a variety of biomedical and technical applications is [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Virtual Screening against Phosphoglycerate Kinase 1 in Quest of Novel Apoptosis Inhibitors
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061029
Received: 20 April 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (11875 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inhibition of apoptosis is a potential therapy to treat human diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Parkinson’s disease), stroke, and sepsis. Due to the lack of druggable targets, it remains a major challenge to discover apoptosis inhibitors. The recent repositioning of a marketed
[...] Read more.
Inhibition of apoptosis is a potential therapy to treat human diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Parkinson’s disease), stroke, and sepsis. Due to the lack of druggable targets, it remains a major challenge to discover apoptosis inhibitors. The recent repositioning of a marketed drug (i.e., terazosin) as an anti-apoptotic agent uncovered a novel target (i.e., human phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (hPgk1)). In this study, we developed a virtual screening (VS) pipeline based on the X-ray structure of Pgk1/terazosin complex and applied it to a screening campaign for potential anti-apoptotic agents. The hierarchical filters in the pipeline (i.e., similarity search, a pharmacophore model, a shape-based model, and molecular docking) rendered 13 potential hits from Specs chemical library. By using PC12 cells (exposed to rotenone) as a cell model for bioassay, we first identified that AK-918/42829299, AN-465/41520984, and AT-051/43421517 were able to protect PC12 cells from rotenone-induced cell death. Molecular docking suggested these hit compounds were likely to bind to hPgk1 in a similar mode to terazosin. In summary, we not only present a versatile VS pipeline for potential apoptosis inhibitors discovery, but also provide three novel-scaffold hit compounds that are worthy of further development and biological study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Bioactivity Characterization of Scutellarein Sulfonated Derivative
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061028
Received: 27 May 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
Scutellarin (1) has been widely used to treat acute cerebral infarction in clinic, but poor aqueous solubility decreases its bioavailability. Interestingly, scutellarin (1) could be metabolized into scutellarein (2) in vivo. In this study, a sulfonic group
[...] Read more.
Scutellarin (1) has been widely used to treat acute cerebral infarction in clinic, but poor aqueous solubility decreases its bioavailability. Interestingly, scutellarin (1) could be metabolized into scutellarein (2) in vivo. In this study, a sulfonic group was introduced at position C-8 of scutellarein (2) to enhance the aqueous solubility of the obtained derivative (3). DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)-radical scavenging ability and antithrombic activity were also conducted to determine its bioactivity. The result showed that scutellarein derivate (3) could be a better agent for ischemic cerebrovascular disease treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Modification of Natural Product)
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Open AccessArticle Molecular Quantum Similarity, Chemical Reactivity and Database Screening of 3D Pharmacophores of the Protein Kinases A, B and G from Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061027
Received: 26 May 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (9431 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains one of the world’s most devastating pathogens. For this reason, we developed a study involving 3D pharmacophore searching, selectivity analysis and database screening for a series of anti-tuberculosis compounds, associated with the protein kinases A, B, and G. This theoretical
[...] Read more.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains one of the world’s most devastating pathogens. For this reason, we developed a study involving 3D pharmacophore searching, selectivity analysis and database screening for a series of anti-tuberculosis compounds, associated with the protein kinases A, B, and G. This theoretical study is expected to shed some light onto some molecular aspects that could contribute to the knowledge of the molecular mechanics behind interactions of these compounds, with anti-tuberculosis activity. Using the Molecular Quantum Similarity field and reactivity descriptors supported in the Density Functional Theory, it was possible to measure the quantification of the steric and electrostatic effects through the Overlap and Coulomb quantitative convergence (alpha and beta) scales. In addition, an analysis of reactivity indices using global and local descriptors was developed, identifying the binding sites and selectivity on these anti-tuberculosis compounds in the active sites. Finally, the reported pharmacophores to PKn A, B and G, were used to carry out database screening, using a database with anti-tuberculosis drugs from the Kelly Chibale research group (http://www.kellychibaleresearch.uct.ac.za/), to find the compounds with affinity for the specific protein targets associated with PKn A, B and G. In this regard, this hybrid methodology (Molecular Mechanic/Quantum Chemistry) shows new insights into drug design that may be useful in the tuberculosis treatment today. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
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Open AccessArticle Screening and Identification of the Metabolites in Rat Plasma and Urine after Oral Administration of Areca catechu L. Nut Extract by Ultra-High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Linear Ion Trap–Orbitrap Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061026
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 18 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
Areca catechu L. nut, a well-known toxic traditional herbal medicine, has been widely used to treat various diseases in China and many other Asian countries for centuries. However, to date the in vivo absorption and metabolism of its multiple bioactive or toxic components
[...] Read more.
Areca catechu L. nut, a well-known toxic traditional herbal medicine, has been widely used to treat various diseases in China and many other Asian countries for centuries. However, to date the in vivo absorption and metabolism of its multiple bioactive or toxic components still remain unclear. In this study, liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze the major components and their metabolites in rat plasma and urine after oral administration of Areca catechu L. nut extract (ACNE). A total of 12 compounds, including 6 alkaloids, 3 tannins and 3 amino acids, were confirmed or tentatively identified from ACNE. In vivo, 40 constituents, including 8 prototypes and 32 metabolites were identified in rat plasma and urine samples. In summary, this study showed an insight into the metabolism of ACNE in vivo, which may provide helpful chemical information for better understanding of the toxicological and pharmacological profiles of ACNE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Open AccessReview From Farm to Pharma: An Overview of Industrial Heparin Manufacturing Methods
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061025
Received: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purification of heparin from offal is an old industrial process for which commercial recipes date back to 1922. Although chemical, chemoenzymatic, and biotechnological alternatives for this production method have been published in the academic literature, animal-tissue is still the sole source for
[...] Read more.
The purification of heparin from offal is an old industrial process for which commercial recipes date back to 1922. Although chemical, chemoenzymatic, and biotechnological alternatives for this production method have been published in the academic literature, animal-tissue is still the sole source for commercial heparin production in industry. Heparin purification methods are closely guarded industrial secrets which are not available to the general (scientific) public. However by reviewing the academic and patent literature, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the general methods used in industry for the extraction of heparin from animal tissue. Full article
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Open AccessReview Deoxyelephantopin and Isodeoxyelephantopin as Potential Anticancer Agents with Effects on Multiple Signaling Pathways
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061013
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
Cancer is the 2nd leading cause of death worldwide. The development of drugs to target only one specific signaling pathway has limited therapeutic success. Developing chemotherapeutics to target multiple signaling pathways has emerged as a new prototype for cancer treatment. Deoxyelephantopin (DET) and
[...] Read more.
Cancer is the 2nd leading cause of death worldwide. The development of drugs to target only one specific signaling pathway has limited therapeutic success. Developing chemotherapeutics to target multiple signaling pathways has emerged as a new prototype for cancer treatment. Deoxyelephantopin (DET) and isodeoxyelephantopin (IDET) are sesquiterpene lactone components of “Elephantopus scaber and Elephantopus carolinianus”, traditional Chinese medicinal herbs that have long been used as folk medicines to treat liver diseases, diabetes, diuresis, bronchitis, fever, diarrhea, dysentery, cancer, and inflammation. Recently, the anticancer activity of DET and IDET has been widely investigated. Here, our aim is to review the current status of DET and IDET, and discuss their anticancer activity with specific emphasis on molecular targets and mechanisms used by these compounds to trigger apoptosis pathways which may help to further design and conduct research to develop them as lead therapeutic drugs for cancer treatments. The literature has shown that DET and IDET induce apoptosis through multiple signaling pathways which are deregulated in cancer cells and suggested that by targeting multiple pathways simultaneously, these compounds could selectively kill cancer cells. This review suggests that DET and IDET hold promising anticancer activity but additional studies and clinical trials are needed to validate and understand their therapeutic effect to develop them into potent therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Open AccessReview Insights into Penicillium brasilianum Secondary Metabolism and Its Biotechnological Potential
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22060858
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
Over the past few years Penicillium brasilianum has been isolated from many different environmental sources as soil isolates, plant endophytes and onion pathogen. All investigated strains share a great ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Different authors have investigated this great capability and
[...] Read more.
Over the past few years Penicillium brasilianum has been isolated from many different environmental sources as soil isolates, plant endophytes and onion pathogen. All investigated strains share a great ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Different authors have investigated this great capability and here we summarize the metabolic potential and the biological activities related to P. brasilianums metabolites with diverse structures. They include secondary metabolites of an alkaloid nature, i.e., 2,5-diketopiperazines, cyclodepsipeptides, meroterpenoids and polyketides. Penicillium brasilianum is also described as a great source of enzymes with biotechnological application potential, which is also highlighted in this review. Additionally, this review will focus on several aspects of Penicillium brasilianum and interesting genomic insights. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Antiproliferative Effect of Cyclodipeptides from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 on HeLa Cells Involves Inhibition of Phosphorylation of Akt and S6k Kinases
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061024
Received: 29 May 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3692 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, a potential pathogen of plants and animals, produces the cyclodipeptides cyclo(l-Pro-l-Tyr), cyclo(l-Pro-l-Phe), and cyclo(l-Pro-l-Val) (PAO1-CDPs), whose effects have been implicated in inhibition of human tumor cell line proliferation. Our purpose was to investigate in depth in the mechanisms of HeLa
[...] Read more.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, a potential pathogen of plants and animals, produces the cyclodipeptides cyclo(l-Pro-l-Tyr), cyclo(l-Pro-l-Phe), and cyclo(l-Pro-l-Val) (PAO1-CDPs), whose effects have been implicated in inhibition of human tumor cell line proliferation. Our purpose was to investigate in depth in the mechanisms of HeLa cell proliferation inhibition by the PAO1-CDPs. The results indicate that PAO1-CDPs, both purified individually and in mixtures, inhibited HeLa cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle at the G0–G1 transition. The crude PAO1-CDPs mixture promoted cell death in HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner, showing efficacy similar to that of isolated PAO1-CDPs (LD50 of 60–250 µM) and inducing apoptosis with EC50 between 0.6 and 3.0 µM. Moreover, PAO1-CDPs showed a higher proapoptotic activity (~103–105 fold) than their synthetic analogs did. Subsequently, the PAO1-CDPs affected mitochondrial membrane potential and induced apoptosis by caspase-9-dependent pathway. The mechanism of inhibition of cells proliferation in HeLa cells involves inhibition of phosphorylation of both Akt-S473 and S6k-T389 protein kinases, showing a cyclic behavior of their expression and phosphorylation in a time and concentration-dependent fashion. Taken together our findings indicate that PI3K–Akt–mTOR–S6k signaling pathway blockage is involved in the antiproliferative effect of the PAO1-CDPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptide-Based Drugs and Drug Delivery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Phenolic Glycosides from Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1023; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061023
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 18 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (596 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new sesquilignan glycoside 1, together with seven known phenolic glycosides 28 were isolated from the aerial parts of Capsella bursa-pastoris. The chemical structure of the new compound 1 was elucidated by extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data (1
[...] Read more.
A new sesquilignan glycoside 1, together with seven known phenolic glycosides 28 were isolated from the aerial parts of Capsella bursa-pastoris. The chemical structure of the new compound 1 was elucidated by extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data (1H- and 13C-NMR, 1H-1H correlation spectroscopy (1H-1H COSY), heteronuclear single-quantum correlation (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC), and nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY)) and HR-FABMS analysis. The anti-inflammatory effects of 18 were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine microglia BV-2 cells. Compounds 4 and 7 exhibited moderate inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in LPS-activated BV-2 cells, with IC50 values of 17.80 and 27.91 µM, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle Complex Coacervation of Soy Proteins, Isoflavones and Chitosan
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1022; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061022
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
In this study, the chitosan-induced coacervation of soy protein-isoflavone complexes in soymilk was investigated. Most of the soymilk proteins, including β-conglycinin (7S), glycinin (11S), and isoflavones, were found to coacervate into the soymilk pellet fraction (SPF) following the addition of 0.5% chitosan. The
[...] Read more.
In this study, the chitosan-induced coacervation of soy protein-isoflavone complexes in soymilk was investigated. Most of the soymilk proteins, including β-conglycinin (7S), glycinin (11S), and isoflavones, were found to coacervate into the soymilk pellet fraction (SPF) following the addition of 0.5% chitosan. The total protein in the soymilk supernatant fraction (SSF) decreased from 18.1 ± 0.3 mg/mL to 1.6 ± 0.1 mg/mL, and the pH values decreased slightly, from 6.6 ± 0.0 to 6.0 ± 0.0. The results of SDS-PAGE revealed that the 7S α’, 7S α, 7S β, 11S A3, and 11S acidic subunits, as well as the 11S basic proteins in the SSF, decreased to 0.7 ± 0.5%, 0.2 ± 0.1%, 0.1 ± 0.0%, 0.2 ± 0.2%, 0.2 ± 0.2% and 0.3 ± 0.2%, respectively. We also found that isoflavones in the SSF, including daidzein, glycitein, and genistein, decreased to 9.6 ± 2.3%, 5.7 ± 0.9% and 5.9 ± 1.5%, respectively. HPLC analysis indicated that isoflavones mixed with soy proteins formed soy protein-isoflavone complexes and were precipitated into the SPF by 0.5% chitosan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein-Carbohydrate Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Selected Sesquiterpenes from Myrica rubra Essential Oil on the Efficacy of Doxorubicin in Sensitive and Resistant Cancer Cell Lines
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061021
Received: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
β-caryophyllene oxide (CAO), α-humulene (HUM), trans-nerolidol (NER) and valencene (VAL) are constituents of the essential oil of Myrica rubra (MEO), which has significant antiproliferative effect in various cancer cell lines. In the present study, we compared the antiproliferative effect of these sesquiterpenes alone
[...] Read more.
β-caryophyllene oxide (CAO), α-humulene (HUM), trans-nerolidol (NER) and valencene (VAL) are constituents of the essential oil of Myrica rubra (MEO), which has significant antiproliferative effect in various cancer cell lines. In the present study, we compared the antiproliferative effect of these sesquiterpenes alone and in combination with the cytostatic drug doxorubicin (DOX) in cancer cell lines with different sensitivity to DOX. Two ovarian cancer cell lines (sensitive A2780 and partly resistant SKOV3) and two lymphoblast cancer cell lines (sensitive CCRF/CEM and completely resistant CEM/ADR) were used. The observed effects varied among sesquiterpenes and also differed in individual cell lines, with only VAL being effective in all the cell lines. A strong synergism of DOX with NER was found in the A2780 cells, while DOX acted synergistically with HUM and CAO in the SKOV3 cells. In the CCRF/CEM cells, a synergism of DOX with CAO and NER was observed. In resistant CEM/ADR cells, sesquiterpenes did not increase DOX efficacy, although they significantly increased accumulation of DOX (up to 10-times) and rhodamine-123 (substrate of efflux transporter ABCB1) within cancer cells. In conclusion, the tested sesquiterpenes were able to improve DOX efficacy in the sensitive and partly resistant cancer cells, but not in cells completely resistant to DOX. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils: Chemistry and Bioactivity)
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Open AccessArticle Determination of Structural Requirements of N-Substituted Tetrahydro-β-Carboline Imidazolium Salt Derivatives Using in Silico Approaches for Designing MEK-1 Inhibitors
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1020; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061020
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3608 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Novel N-substituted tetrahydro-β-carboline imidazolium salt derivatives proved to have potent antitumor activity in past research. The Topomer CoMFA and CoMSIA function in Sybyl-X 2.0 software was applied for the identification of important features of N-substituted tetrahydro-β-carboline-imidazolium salt derivative moieties. In the
[...] Read more.
Novel N-substituted tetrahydro-β-carboline imidazolium salt derivatives proved to have potent antitumor activity in past research. The Topomer CoMFA and CoMSIA function in Sybyl-X 2.0 software was applied for the identification of important features of N-substituted tetrahydro-β-carboline-imidazolium salt derivative moieties. In the case of Topomer CoMFA, all the compounds were split into two fragments which were used to generate a 3D invariant representation, the statistical results of the Topomer CoMFA model: q2 value of 0.700; r2 value of 0.954; with 5 optimum components. The database alignment was utilized for building the CoMSIA model, and the CoMSIA model had q2 and r2 values of 0.615 and 0.897, with 4 optimum components. Target fishing of the PharmMapper platform was utilised for finding potential targets, the human mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MEK-1) was found to be the primary potential target for the three compounds with the fit scores of 6.288, 5.741, and 6.721. The molecular docking technique of MOE 2015 was carried out to identify the interactions of amino acids surrounding the ligand, and correlating QASR contour maps were used to identify structural requirements of N-substituted tetrahydro-β-carboline imidazolium salt moieties. Molecular dynamics and simulation studies proved that the target protein was stable for 0.8–5 ns. The pivotal moieties of N-substituted tetrahydro-β-carboline imidazolium salt derivatives and its potential targets were verified by the QASR study, PharmMapper, and the molecular docking study which would be helpful to design novel MEK-1 inhibitors for anticancer drugs. Full article
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Open AccessReview Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn. (Jivanti): Botanical, Agronomical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological, and Biotechnological Aspects
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061019
Received: 29 April 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1849 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn. (Apocynaceae), is a traditional medicinal plant species widely used to treat various ailments such as tuberculosis, hematopoiesis, emaciation, cough, dyspnea, fever, burning sensation, night blindness, cancer, and dysentery. In Ayurveda, it is known for its revitalizing, rejuvenating,
[...] Read more.
Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn. (Apocynaceae), is a traditional medicinal plant species widely used to treat various ailments such as tuberculosis, hematopoiesis, emaciation, cough, dyspnea, fever, burning sensation, night blindness, cancer, and dysentery. In Ayurveda, it is known for its revitalizing, rejuvenating, and lactogenic properties. This plant is one of the major ingredients in many commercial herbal formulations, including Speman, Envirocare, Calshakti, Antisept, and Chyawanprash. The therapeutic potential of this herb is because of the presence of diverse bioactive compounds such as α-amyrin, β-amyrin, ferulic acid, luteolin, diosmetin, rutin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, hentricontanol, a triterpene alcohol simiarenol, apigenin, reticulin, deniculatin, and leptaculatin. However, most biological studies on L. reticulata are restricted to crude extracts, and many biologically active compounds are yet to be identified in order to base the traditional uses of L. reticulata on evidence-based data. At present, L. reticulata is a threatened endangered plant because of overexploitation, unscientific harvesting, and habitat loss. The increased demand from pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and veterinary industries has prompted its large-scale propagation. However, its commercial cultivation is hampered because of the non-availability of genuine planting material and the lack of knowledge about its agronomical practices. In this regard, micropropagation techniques will be useful to obtain true-to-type L. reticulata planting materials from an elite germplasm to meet the current demand. Adopting other biotechnological approaches such as synthetic seed technology, cryopreservation, cell culture, and genetic transformation can help conservation as well as increased metabolite production from L. reticulata. The present review summarizes scientific information on the botanical, agronomical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and biotechnological aspects of L. reticulata. This comprehensive information will certainly allow better utilization of this industrially important herb towards the discovery of lead drug molecules. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Systemic Induction of the Defensin and Phytoalexin Pisatin Pathways in Pea (Pisum sativum) against Aphanomyces euteiches by Acetylated and Nonacetylated Oligogalacturonides
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061017
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 17 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
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Abstract
Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are known for their powerful ability to stimulate the plant immune system but little is known about their mode of action in pea (Pisum sativum). In the present study, we investigated the elicitor activity of two fractions of OGs,
[...] Read more.
Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are known for their powerful ability to stimulate the plant immune system but little is known about their mode of action in pea (Pisum sativum). In the present study, we investigated the elicitor activity of two fractions of OGs, with polymerization degrees (DPs) of 2–25, in pea against Aphanomyces euteiches. One fraction was nonacetylated (OGs − Ac) whereas the second one was 30% acetylated (OGs + Ac). OGs were applied by injecting the upper two rachises of the plants at three- and/or four-weeks-old. Five-week-old roots were inoculated with 105 zoospores of A. euteiches. The root infection level was determined at 7, 10 and 14 days after inoculation using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results showed significant root infection reductions namely 58, 45 and 48% in the plants treated with 80 µg OGs + Ac and 59, 56 and 65% with 200 µg of OGs − Ac. Gene expression results showed the upregulation of genes involved in the antifungal defensins, lignans and the phytoalexin pisatin pathways and a priming effect in the basal defense, SA and ROS gene markers as a response to OGs. The reduction of the efficient dose in OGs + Ac is suggesting that acetylation is necessary for some specific responses. Our work provides the first evidence for the potential of OGs in the defense induction in pea against Aphanomyces root rot. Full article
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Open AccessPerspective Photophysics and Photochemistry of Canonical Nucleobases’ Thioanalogs: From Quantum Mechanical Studies to Time Resolved Experiments
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 998; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22060998
Received: 7 May 2017 / Revised: 10 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 18 June 2017
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Abstract
Interest in understanding the photophysics and photochemistry of thiated nucleobases has been awakened because of their possible involvement in primordial RNA or their potential use as photosensitizers in medicinal chemistry. The interpretation of the photodynamics of these systems, conditioned by their intricate potential
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Interest in understanding the photophysics and photochemistry of thiated nucleobases has been awakened because of their possible involvement in primordial RNA or their potential use as photosensitizers in medicinal chemistry. The interpretation of the photodynamics of these systems, conditioned by their intricate potential energy surfaces, requires the powerful interplay between experimental measurements and state of the art molecular simulations. In this review, we provide an overview on the photophysics of natural nucleobases’ thioanalogs, which covers the last 30 years and both experimental and computational contributions. For all the canonical nucleobase’s thioanalogs, we have compiled the main steady state absorption and emission features and their interpretation in terms of theoretical calculations. Then, we revise the main topographical features, including stationary points and interstate crossings, of their potential energy surfaces based on quantum mechanical calculations and we conclude, by combining the outcome of different spectroscopic techniques and molecular dynamics simulations, with the mechanism by which these nucleobase analogs populate their triplet excited states, which are at the origin of their photosensitizing properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental and Computational Photochemistry of Bioorganic Molecules)
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Open AccessArticle Structural Characterization of a Rhamnogalacturonan I Domain from Ginseng and Its Inhibitory Effect on Galectin-3
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061016
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 18 June 2017
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Abstract
A rhamnogalacturonan I domain, named RG-I-3A, was prepared from ginseng pectin by pectinase digestion and chromatography separation. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that it was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, rhamnose, galactose, and arabinose in a molar ratio of 32.5:11.2:31.9:16.5, with a molecular weight
[...] Read more.
A rhamnogalacturonan I domain, named RG-I-3A, was prepared from ginseng pectin by pectinase digestion and chromatography separation. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that it was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, rhamnose, galactose, and arabinose in a molar ratio of 32.5:11.2:31.9:16.5, with a molecular weight of 50 kDa. Partial acid hydrolysis, monoclonal antibody detection, and NMR spectra analysis suggested RG-I-3A was composed of →4)-α-GalpA-(1→2)-α-Rhap-(1→disaccharide repeating units as backbone, with β-1,4-galactan, α-1,5-arabinan, AG-I, and AG-II side chains substituted via the O-4 of Rhap. Galectin-3-mediated hemagglutination and biolayer interferometry assay indicated that RG-I-3A had inhibitory activity on galectin-3. These findings suggest the potential use of this ginseng RG-I domain as a galectin-3 inhibitor in drug development applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Repositioning FDA Drugs as Potential Cruzain Inhibitors from Trypanosoma cruzi: Virtual Screening, In Vitro and In Vivo Studies
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061015
Received: 22 May 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 18 June 2017
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Abstract
Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which affects underdeveloped countries. The current drugs of choice are nifurtimox and benznidazole, but both have severe adverse effects and less effectivity in chronic infections; therefore, the need to
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Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which affects underdeveloped countries. The current drugs of choice are nifurtimox and benznidazole, but both have severe adverse effects and less effectivity in chronic infections; therefore, the need to discover new drugs is essential. A computer-guided drug repositioning method was applied to identify potential FDA drugs (approved and withdrawn) as cruzain (Cz) inhibitors and trypanocidal effects were confirmed by in vitro and in vivo studies. 3180 FDA drugs were virtually screened using a structure-based approach. From a first molecular docking analysis, a set of 33 compounds with the best binding energies were selected. Subsequent consensus affinity binding, ligand amino acid contact clustering analysis, and ranked position were used to choose four known pharmacological compounds to be tested in vitro. Mouse blood samples infected with trypomastigotes from INC-5 and NINOA strains were used to test the trypanocidal effect of four selected compounds. Among these drugs, one fibrate antilipemic (etofyllin clofibrate) and three β-lactam antibiotics (piperacillin, cefoperazone, and flucloxacillin) showed better trypanocidal effects (LC50 range 15.8–26.1 μg/mL) in comparison with benznidazole and nifurtimox (LC50 range 33.1–46.7 μg/mL). A short-term in vivo evaluation of these compounds showed a reduction of parasitemia in infected mice (range 90–60%) at 6 h, but this was low compared to benznidazole (50%). This work suggests that four known FDA drugs could be used to design and obtain new trypanocidal agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Drug Discovery Approaches against Infectious Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Cancer Chemoprevention by Resveratrol: The p53 Tumor Suppressor Protein as a Promising Molecular Target
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061014
Received: 20 May 2017 / Revised: 11 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 18 June 2017
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (3073 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Increasing epidemiological and experimental evidence has demonstrated an inverse relationship between the consumption of plant foods and the incidence of chronic diseases, including cancer. Microcomponents that are naturally present in such foods, especially polyphenols, are responsible for the benefits to human health. Resveratrol
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Increasing epidemiological and experimental evidence has demonstrated an inverse relationship between the consumption of plant foods and the incidence of chronic diseases, including cancer. Microcomponents that are naturally present in such foods, especially polyphenols, are responsible for the benefits to human health. Resveratrol is a diet-derived cancer chemopreventive agent with high therapeutic potential, as demonstrated by different authors. The aim of this review is to collect and present recent evidence from the literature regarding resveratrol and its effects on cancer prevention, molecular signaling (especially regarding the involvement of p53 protein), and therapeutic perspectives with an emphasis on clinical trial results to date. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improvements for Resveratrol Efficacy)
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Open AccessArticle Mechanistic Explanation of the Weak Carbonic Anhydrase’s Esterase Activity
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061009
Received: 10 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 18 June 2017
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Abstract
In order to elucidate the elementary mechanism of the promiscuous esterase activity of human carbonic anhydrase (h-CA), we present an accurate theoretical investigation on the hydrolysis of fully-acetylated d-glucose functionalized as sulfamate. This h-CA’s inhibitor is of potential relevance in cancer therapy.
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In order to elucidate the elementary mechanism of the promiscuous esterase activity of human carbonic anhydrase (h-CA), we present an accurate theoretical investigation on the hydrolysis of fully-acetylated d-glucose functionalized as sulfamate. This h-CA’s inhibitor is of potential relevance in cancer therapy. The study has been performed within the framework of three-layer ONIOM (QM-high:QM’-medium:MM-low) hybrid approach. The computations revealed that the hydrolysis process is not energetically favored, in agreement with the observed weak carbonic anhydrase’s esterase activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallopeptides)
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Open AccessArticle Metabolomics Characterization of Two Apocynaceae Plants, Catharanthus roseus and Vinca minor, Using GC-MS and LC-MS Methods in Combination
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22060997
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
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Abstract
Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) and Vinca minor (V. minor) are two common important medical plants belonging to the family Apocynaceae. In this study, we used non-targeted GC-MS and targeted LC-MS metabolomics to dissect the metabolic profile of two plants
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Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) and Vinca minor (V. minor) are two common important medical plants belonging to the family Apocynaceae. In this study, we used non-targeted GC-MS and targeted LC-MS metabolomics to dissect the metabolic profile of two plants with comparable phenotypic and metabolic differences. A total of 58 significantly different metabolites were present in different quantities according to PCA and PLS-DA score plots of the GC-MS analysis. The 58 identified compounds comprised 16 sugars, eight amino acids, nine alcohols and 18 organic acids. We subjected these metabolites into KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and highlighted 27 metabolic pathways, concentrated on the TCA cycle, glycometabolism, oligosaccharides, and polyol and lipid transporter (RFOS). Among the primary metabolites, trehalose, raffinose, digalacturonic acid and gallic acid were revealed to be the most significant marker compounds between the two plants, presumably contributing to species-specific phenotypic and metabolic discrepancy. The profiling of nine typical alkaloids in both plants using LC-MS method highlighted higher levels of crucial terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) intermediates of loganin, serpentine, and tabersonine in V. minor than in C. roseus. The possible underlying process of the metabolic flux from primary metabolism pathways to TIA synthesis was discussed and proposed. Generally speaking, this work provides a full-scale comparison of primary and secondary metabolites between two medical plants and a metabolic explanation of their TIA accumulation and phenotype differences. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sensory Characteristics and Volatile Components of Dry Dog Foods Manufactured with Sorghum Fractions
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061012
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
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Abstract
Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a modified headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was performed on three extruded dry dog food diets manufactured with different fractions of red sorghum and a control diet containing corn, brewer’s rice, and wheat as
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Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a modified headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was performed on three extruded dry dog food diets manufactured with different fractions of red sorghum and a control diet containing corn, brewer’s rice, and wheat as a grain source in order to determine the effect of sorghum fractions on dry dog food sensory properties. The aroma compounds and flavor profiles of samples were similar with small differences, such as higher toasted aroma notes, and musty and dusty flavor in the mill-feed sample. A total of 37 compounds were tentatively identified and semi-quantified. Aldehydes were the major group present in the samples. The total volatile concentration was low, reflecting the mild aroma of the samples. Partial least squares regression was performed to identify correlations between sensory characteristics and detected aroma compounds. Possible relationships, such as hexanal and oxidized oil, and broth aromatics were identified. Volatile compounds were also associated with earthy, musty, and meaty aromas and flavor notes. This study showed that extruded dry dog foods manufactured with different red sorghum fractions had similar aroma, flavor, and volatile profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Recent Advances in Flavors and Fragrances)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Evaluation of Phenylxanthine Derivatives as Potential Dual A2AR Antagonists/MAO-B Inhibitors for Parkinson’s Disease
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061010
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this research was to prove the speculation that phenylxanthine (PX) derivatives possess adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-blocking properties and to screening and evaluate these PX derivatives as dual A2AR antagonists/MAO-B inhibitors for Parkinson′s disease. To explore this hypothesis, two series of
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The aim of this research was to prove the speculation that phenylxanthine (PX) derivatives possess adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-blocking properties and to screening and evaluate these PX derivatives as dual A2AR antagonists/MAO-B inhibitors for Parkinson′s disease. To explore this hypothesis, two series of PX derivatives were prepared and their antagonism against A2AR and inhibition against MAO-B were determined in vitro. In order to evaluate further the antiparkinsonian properties, pharmacokinetic and haloperidol-induced catalepsy experiments were carried out in vivo. The PX-D and PX-E analogues acted as potent A2AR antagonists with Ki values ranging from 0.27 to 10 μM, and these analogues displayed relatively mild MAO-B inhibition potencies, with inhibitor dissociation constants (Ki values) ranging from 0.25 to 10 μM. Further, the compounds PX-D-P6 and PX-E-P8 displayed efficacious antiparkinsonian properties in haloperidol-induced catalepsy experiments, verifying that these two compounds were potent A2AR antagonists and MAO-B inhibitors. We conclude that PX-D and PX-E analogues are a promising candidate class of dual-acting compounds for treating Parkinson′s disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polypharmacology and Multitarget Drug Discovery)
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Open AccessArticle Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of Adamantyl-Based Derivatives and Their Molecular Docking Studies
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1005; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061005
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 10 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
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Abstract
Adamantyl-based compounds are clinically important for the treatments of type 2 diabetes and for their antiviral abilities, while many more are under development for other pharmaceutical uses. This study focused on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of adamantyl-based ester derivatives
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Adamantyl-based compounds are clinically important for the treatments of type 2 diabetes and for their antiviral abilities, while many more are under development for other pharmaceutical uses. This study focused on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of adamantyl-based ester derivatives with various substituents on the phenyl ring using Ellman’s colorimetric method. Compound 2e with a 2,4-dichloro electron-withdrawing substituent on the phenyl ring exhibited the strongest inhibition effect against AChE, with an IC50 value of 77.15 µM. Overall, the adamantyl-based ester with the mono-substituent at position 3 of the phenyl ring exhibited good AChE inhibition effects with an ascending order for the substituents: Cl < NO2 < CH3 < OCH3. Furthermore, compounds with electron-withdrawing groups (Cl and NO2) substituted at position 3 on their phenyl rings demonstrated stronger AChE inhibition effects, in comparison to their respective positional isomers. On the other hand, compound 2j with a 3-methoxyphenyl ring showed the highest inhibition effect against BChE, with an IC50 value of 223.30 µM. Molecular docking analyses were conducted for potential AChE and BChE inhibitors, and the results demonstrated that the peripheral anionic sites of target proteins were predominant binding sites for these compounds through hydrogen bonds and halogen interactions instead of hydrophobic interactions in the catalytic active site. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Comparative Study of the Inhibitory Effects of Mangiferin and Its Aglycone Norathyriol towards UDP-Glucuronosyl Transferase (UGT) Isoforms
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061008
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
Mangiferin (MGF), the predominant constituent of extracts of the mango plant Mangifera Indica L., has been investigated extensively because of its remarkable pharmacological effects. In vitro recombinant UGTs-catalyzed glucuronidation of 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) was used to investigate the inhibition of mangiferin and aglycone norathyriol
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Mangiferin (MGF), the predominant constituent of extracts of the mango plant Mangifera Indica L., has been investigated extensively because of its remarkable pharmacological effects. In vitro recombinant UGTs-catalyzed glucuronidation of 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) was used to investigate the inhibition of mangiferin and aglycone norathyriol towards various isoforms of UGTs in our study, which evaluated the inhibitory capacity of MGF and its aglycone norathyriol (NTR) towards UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms. Initial screening experiment showed that deglycosylation of MGF into NTR strongly increased the inhibitory effects towards almost all the tested UGT isoforms at a concentration of 100 μM. Kinetic experiments were performed to further characterize the inhibition of UGT1A3, UGT1A7 and UGT1A9 by NTR. NTR competitively inhibited UGT1A3, UGT1A7 and UGT1A9, with an IC50 value of 8.2, 4.4, and 12.3 μM, and a Ki value of 1.6, 2.0, and 2.8 μM, respectively. In silico docking showed that only NTR could dock into the activity cavity of UGT1A3, UGT1A7 and UGT1A9. The binding free energy of NTR to UGT1A3, 1A7, 1A9 were −7.4, −7.9 and −4.0 kcal/mol, respectively. Based on the inhibition evaluation standard ([I]/Ki < 0.1, low possibility; 0.1 < [I]/Ki < 1, medium possibility; [I]/Ki > 1, high possibility), an in vivo herb–drug interaction between MGF/NTR and drugs mainly undergoing UGT1A3-, UGT1A7- or UGT1A9-catalyzed metabolism might occur when the plasma concentration of NTR is above 1.6, 2.0 and 2.8 μM, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Open AccessArticle Comprehensive Identification of Guan-Xin-Shu-Tong Capsule via a Mass Defect and Fragment Filtering Approach by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry: In Vitro and In Vivo Study
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061007
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 10 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
The Guan-Xin-Shu-Tong capsule (GXSTC) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine that is used for the treatment of coronary heart disease. Despite its common use in China, basic pharmacological research on its active components is limited. A comprehensive analytical method using quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry
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The Guan-Xin-Shu-Tong capsule (GXSTC) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine that is used for the treatment of coronary heart disease. Despite its common use in China, basic pharmacological research on its active components is limited. A comprehensive analytical method using quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF/MS), specifically with the Triple TOF 5600 platform, was developed to characterize the compounds in the GXSTC powder itself (in vitro) as well as the active components in healthy and heart disease model rats after its oral administration (in vivo). The 5600 platform was operated in both positive and negative ion modes, before the raw data were processed using the extracted ion chromatography (EIC), mass defect filtering (MDF) and fragment filtering (FF) techniques. With the aid of reference compounds for retention time and fragment ion comparisons, 18 compounds were unambiguously identified in vitro. An additional 56 other compounds were tentatively characterized using the accurate quasi-molecular ion mass and Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) fragmentation pattern strategies. Among them, 30 compounds were characterized based on the MDF and FF approaches. Normal rats in addition to hyperlipidemic (HL) and acute blood stasis (ABS) model rats were given a single oral dose of GXSTC solution for subsequent blood analysis at 1 and 2 h after administration. A total of 24 prototypecomponents and 20 metabolites derived from GXSTC were differentially detected across the three animal groups, including the absence of four phase II phenolic acid metabolites in the ABS group and the presence of three diterpenoid-related metabolites exclusive to the HL group. The use of reference compounds as well as the mass defect and fragment-filtering strategies were critical to identify GXSTC compounds in vitro and in vivo. This can be used for further quality control and pharmacological studies aimed at characterizing the active and potential beneficial compounds of this ancient medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Tacrine-Scutellarin Hybrids as Multipotent Anti-Alzheimer’s Agents: Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061006
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
A novel series of 6-chlorotacrine-scutellarin hybrids was designed, synthesized and the biological activity as potential anti-Alzheimer’s agents was assessed. Their inhibitory activity towards human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) and human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE), antioxidant activity, ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB)
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A novel series of 6-chlorotacrine-scutellarin hybrids was designed, synthesized and the biological activity as potential anti-Alzheimer’s agents was assessed. Their inhibitory activity towards human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) and human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE), antioxidant activity, ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and hepatotoxic profile were evaluated in vitro. Among these compounds, hybrid K1383, bearing two methylene tether between two basic scaffolds, was found to be very potent hAChE inhibitor (IC50 = 1.63 nM). Unfortunately, none of the hybrids displayed any antioxidant activity (EC50 ≥ 500 μM). Preliminary data also suggests a comparable hepatotoxic profile with 6-Cl-THA (established on a HepG2 cell line). Kinetic studies performed on hAChE with the most active compound in the study, K1383, pointed out to a mixed, non-competitive enzyme inhibition. These findings were further corroborated by docking studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polypharmacology and Multitarget Drug Discovery)
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Open AccessArticle Hydronopylformamides: Modification of the Naturally Occurring Compound (-)-β-Pinene to Produce Insect Repellent Candidates against Blattella germanica
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1004; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061004
Received: 5 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
The development of a novel repellent plays an important role in the integrated control of Blattella germanica. A series of novel hydronopylformamides derivatives were synthesized from a naturally occurring compound (-)-β-pinene. The structures of these hydronopylformamides derivatives were characterized by Fourier transform
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The development of a novel repellent plays an important role in the integrated control of Blattella germanica. A series of novel hydronopylformamides derivatives were synthesized from a naturally occurring compound (-)-β-pinene. The structures of these hydronopylformamides derivatives were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR), and electron impact mass spectrometry (EI-MS). Repellency of these hydronopylformamides derivatives against Blattella germanica was evaluated by the using petri dish arena method. The results showed that four derivatives (compounds 8a, 8b, 8c and 8e) exhibited repellency against Blattella germanica at a concentration of 20 mg/mL. Compound 8a was the most active compound among these derivatives, where the repelling ratios of compound 8a against Blattella germanica were 66.10%, 50.46%, 48.26%, at concentrations of 20 mg/mL, 10 mg/mL, and 5 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 8a showed better repellency than the traditional insect repellent N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), which indicated that compound 8a had a good application prospect in the prevention of Blattella germanica. This research hopes to promote the value-added utilization of (-)-β-pinene and the development of novel German cockroach repellents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Product Inspired Scaffolds Designs)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidant Potential of the Root Extract and Constituents of Doronicum austriacum
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1003; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061003
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
Background: Doronicum austriacum Jacq., Asteraceae, is a plant which is used in traditional alpine medicine. Historical sources describe the medical use of the root, but up until now only a few studies evaluated its pharmacological properties. The evaluation of the dichloromethane extract, and
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Background: Doronicum austriacum Jacq., Asteraceae, is a plant which is used in traditional alpine medicine. Historical sources describe the medical use of the root, but up until now only a few studies evaluated its pharmacological properties. The evaluation of the dichloromethane extract, and its major compounds for their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant potential was performed in macrophages J774A.1 and C6 astrocytes. Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) release, as well as nitrotyrosine formation, were evaluated. Moreover, in order to evaluate the potential anti-proliferative activity, under the same experimental conditions, 3-(4,5-dimethyltiazol-2yl)-2,5-phenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was also performed. Our results indicate that Doronicum austriacum has a significant effect in inhibiting both pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative mediators. All isolated compounds were able to significantly inhibit NO and ROS release both in macrophage and in astrocytes cells, even if the effect was more pronounced in macrophage. In particular, among the tested compounds, 6,12-dihydroxy-(−)-2S-tremetone exerted stronger activity. Both extract and single compounds did not affect cellular viability. This study provides evidence for the pharmacological anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant potential of Doronicum austriacum extract. These effects could be due to the activity of its major constituents and subsequent identification of benzofurans as a promising compound class to combat inflammation and related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Onosma visianii Roots Extract and Purified Shikonin Derivatives as Potential Acaricidal Agents against Tetranychus urticae
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061002
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (580 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
There is an increasing need for the discovery of reliable and eco-friendly pesticides and natural plant-derived products may play a crucial role as source of new active compounds. In this research, a lipophilic extract of Onosma visianii roots extract containing 12% of shikonin
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There is an increasing need for the discovery of reliable and eco-friendly pesticides and natural plant-derived products may play a crucial role as source of new active compounds. In this research, a lipophilic extract of Onosma visianii roots extract containing 12% of shikonin derivatives demonstrated significant toxicity and inhibition of oviposition against Tetranychus urticae mites. Extensive chromatographic separation allowed the isolation of 11 naphthoquinone derivatives that were identified by spectral techniques and were tested against Tetranychus urticae. All the isolated compounds presented effects against the considered mite and isobutylshikonin (1) and isovalerylshikonin (2) were the most active, being valuable model compounds for the study of new anti-mite agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Discovery of Indeno[1,2-c]quinoline Derivatives as Potent Dual Antituberculosis and Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061001
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of indeno[1,2-c]quinoline derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) and anti-inflammatory activities. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the newly synthesized compound was tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37RV. Among the tested compounds,
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A series of indeno[1,2-c]quinoline derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) and anti-inflammatory activities. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the newly synthesized compound was tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37RV. Among the tested compounds, (E)-N′-[6-(4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-11H-indeno[1,2-c]quinolin-11-ylidene]isonicotino-hydrazide (12), exhibited significant activities against the growth of M. tuberculosis (MIC values of 0.96 μg/mL) with a potency approximately equal to that of isoniazid (INH), an anti-TB drug. Important structure features were analyzed by quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) analysis to give better insights into the structure determinants for predicting the anti-TB activity. The anti-inflammatory activity was induced by superoxide anion generation and neutrophil elastase (NE) release using the formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine (fMLF)-activated human neutrophils method. Results indicated that compound 12 demonstrated a potent dual inhibitory effect on NE release and superoxide anion generation with IC50 values of 1.76 and 1.72 μM, respectively. Our results indicated that compound 12 is a potential lead compound for the discovery of dual anti-TB and anti-inflammatory drug candidates. In addition, 6-[3-(hydroxymethyl)piperidin-1-yl]-9-methoxy-11H-indeno[1,2-c]quinolin-11-one (4g) showed a potent dual inhibitory effect on NE release and superoxide anion generation with IC50 values of 0.46 and 0.68 μM, respectively, and is a potential lead compound for the discovery of anti-inflammatory drug candidates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Antimicrobial Drug Discovery and Design)
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