Topic Editors

China-UK Low Carbon College, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 201306, China
NUS Environmental Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 1 Create Way, Create Tower #15-02, Singapore 138602, Singapore

Waste-to-Energy

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 September 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2023)
Viewed by
45018

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Due to rapid economic development and urbanization, huge amounts of resources and energy have been expended annually worldwide, resulting in the generation of solid waste in a big quantity, high-intensity energy consumption, and a number of environmental problems. The traditional approach to the disposal of waste in landfills may not be cost-effective or sustainable in the long term within a city environment. Waste-to-energy approaches, with due consideration given to energy recovery, resource recovery, and volume reduction in waste may be an attractive and viable alternative. Energy recovery from waste could help to alleviate the rapidly increasing energy demand. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop waste-to-energy technologies and systems for energy recovery from city waste, reduce energy reliance on traditional fossil fuel sources and its emission of pollutants, raise the level of energy self-sufficiency, and, at the same time, provide sustainable waste management solutions. This Topic is designed to attract the latest developments in sustainable waste-to-energy technologies, emerging technologies for resources recovery, and low-carbon biotechnologies and bioenergy systems. The editorial team strongly encourages papers providing original research articles, review articles, and case studies, dealing with but not limited to the following research areas:

  • Anaerobic digestion technologies;
  • Microbial biorefinery for biofuels production;
  • Pyrolysis/gasification for bioenergy recovery;
  • Waste-to-energy systems;
  • Resource recovery from residual waste;
  • Biomass energy.

Dr. Jingxin Zhang
Dr. Le Zhang
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • anaerobic digestion
  • biogas
  • biomass
  • solid waste
  • pyrolysis
  • gasification
  • waste-to-energy
  • bioenergy
  • syngas
  • biochar

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600
Fermentation
fermentation
3.7 3.7 2015 14.3 Days CHF 2600
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600
Resources
resources
3.3 7.7 2012 23.8 Days CHF 1600
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400

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Published Papers (26 papers)

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21 pages, 3237 KiB  
Article
The Bioenergetic Potential from Coffee Processing Residues: Towards an Industrial Symbiosis
by Lorena Torres Albarracin, Irina Ramirez Mas, Lucas Tadeu Fuess, Renata Piacentini Rodriguez, Maria Paula Cardeal Volpi and Bruna de Souza Moraes
Resources 2024, 13(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13020021 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1320
Abstract
Coffee processing generates a large amount of organic waste, which has the potential for energy use through biogas production. Although Brazil dominates world coffee production, treating its residue with biogas technology is not a practice, especially due to this product’s seasonality, which hampers [...] Read more.
Coffee processing generates a large amount of organic waste, which has the potential for energy use through biogas production. Although Brazil dominates world coffee production, treating its residue with biogas technology is not a practice, especially due to this product’s seasonality, which hampers continuous digester operation. The implementation of biogas production from coffee residues in a concept of industrial symbiosis could overcome this. This work evaluates the biogas energy potential from the main liquid residues of coffee processing (i.e., mucilage and wash water) and their integration with glycerin and cattle manure. Around 2773 m3 biogas day−1 would be produced (75% CH4), used as biomethane (734 thousand m3 year−1), or thermal energy (23,000,000 MJ year−1), or electricity (2718 MWh year−1), which could supply, respectively, all the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and diesel demands of the farm, all the thermal energy demands of the grain drying process, as well as electricity for 30 residences. Considering the short coffee season, the results have a broader context for the application of biogas production on coffee processing farms, envisaging that the Agroindustrial Eco-Park concept has the potential to integrate various agroindustrial sectors for energy production, residue exchange, and water recirculation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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18 pages, 2832 KiB  
Review
Energy Recovery from Residual Municipal Solid Waste: State of the Art and Perspectives within the Challenge to Climate Change
by Lidia Lombardi and Marco J. Castaldi
Energies 2024, 17(2), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17020395 - 12 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 858
Abstract
Among the technologies for the recovery of energy from waste, in particular residual municipal solid waste (rMSW), combustion is the most widely used thermo-chemical treatment process associated with thermal and electric power production by a steam cycle, named, shortly, Waste to Energy (WtE). [...] Read more.
Among the technologies for the recovery of energy from waste, in particular residual municipal solid waste (rMSW), combustion is the most widely used thermo-chemical treatment process associated with thermal and electric power production by a steam cycle, named, shortly, Waste to Energy (WtE). Today, more than 500 WtE plants in the EU, about 400 in China and 76 in the USA are in operation, based on efficient technologies and advanced air pollution control systems. Energy recovery can be accomplished also by means of gasification; however, the presence of impurities together with the atmospheric pressure, at which syngas is normally produced, impose the feeding of syngas to a conventional steam cycle, leading to generally lower performances than WtE. The energy recovered by WtE offsets traditional energy sources such as fossil fuels and related emissions, providing savings in term of climate change. However, the savings obtainable by replacing electricity and/or heat will diminish as the energy systems will hopefully become increasingly renewable. Over this medium–long-term horizon, one possibility is to capture the CO2 from WtE flue gases and to store/use it. From the life cycle assessment perspective, it has been calculated that the introduction of CO2 capture and storage in WtE, despite energy penalties, is able to reduce the impact on climate change. The alternative approach, proposed to contain the emissions of greenhouse gases in the thermal treatment of waste, is using the carbon contained in it to produce commonly used chemical compounds (waste to chemicals). The benefits, in terms of reductions of greenhouse gases, are expected from the possibility of obtaining chemicals that can replace their analogue normally produced from fossil sources. To date, only one WtC demonstration plant is operating by being fed by rMSW-derived waste, and some similar initiatives are planned, but still adequate assurances in terms of robust knowledge of the involved complex processes, above all, if applied to highly inhomogeneous feed streams such as those obtained from rMSW, are not available. Once the several initiatives come to completion, it will enable waste management professionals to assess performance and to begin to consider such a facility in their planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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44 pages, 2645 KiB  
Article
Aligning Stakeholders and Actors: A New Safety and Security-Based Design Approach for Major National Infrastructures
by Svana Helen Björnsdóttir, Pall Jensson, Saemundur E. Thorsteinsson, Ioannis M. Dokas and Helgi Thor Ingason
Sustainability 2024, 16(1), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16010328 - 29 Dec 2023
Viewed by 692
Abstract
This study introduces a systems-theoretic methodology to meet the requirements of a major national infrastructure for safety and security-based design by enhancing the alignment of stakeholders and actors in the project. Safe-by-Design (SbD) is an engineering concept for risk management that considers safety [...] Read more.
This study introduces a systems-theoretic methodology to meet the requirements of a major national infrastructure for safety and security-based design by enhancing the alignment of stakeholders and actors in the project. Safe-by-Design (SbD) is an engineering concept for risk management that considers safety as much as possible in the design phase. The article presents the results of a case study conducted to investigate the efficacy of recent system safety models and analysis techniques in the major national infrastructure of a Waste-to-Energy (WtE) project under consideration in Iceland. The structures and roles within the system responsible for constructing the WtE plant, given the sustainability and circular economy restrictions, are addressed in the study. Stakeholders’ roles and responsibilities are analyzed, yielding their feedback on potential risks and creating a positive image of the project. Also, suitable ways to enter the project and finance it are devised. In essence, this enables the creation of a safety and security-based design approach. Furthermore, detailed documentation of the system model development is presented. The novelty of the study lies in the application of STAM, STPA, and STECA as an SbD approach for a major infrastructure project. Also, the methods discussed here have not been used in a WtE project as far as we know. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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18 pages, 6318 KiB  
Article
A Design Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle Turbine Blades with Radial Basis Neural Network
by Jong-Beom Seo, Hosaeng Lee and Sang-Jo Han
Energies 2024, 17(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17010026 - 20 Dec 2023
Viewed by 521
Abstract
In the present study, a 100 kW organic Rankine cycle is suggested to recover heat energy from commercial ships. A radial-type turbine is employed with R1233zd(E) and back-to-back layout. To improve the performance of an organic Rankine power system, the efficiency of the [...] Read more.
In the present study, a 100 kW organic Rankine cycle is suggested to recover heat energy from commercial ships. A radial-type turbine is employed with R1233zd(E) and back-to-back layout. To improve the performance of an organic Rankine power system, the efficiency of the turbine is significant. With the conventional approach, the optimization of a turbine requires a considerable amount of time and involves substantial costs. By combining design of experiments, an artificial neural network, and Latin hypercube sampling, it becomes possible to reduce costs and achieve rapid optimization. A radial basis neural network with machine learning technique, known for its advantages of being fast and easily applicable, has been implemented. Using such an approach, an increase in efficiency greater than 1% was achieved with minimal design changes at the first and second turbines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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21 pages, 8746 KiB  
Article
An Ejector and Flashbox-Integrated Approach to Flue Gas Waste Heat Recovery: A Novel Systematic Study
by Runchen Wang, Xiaonan Du, Yuetao Shi, Yuhao Wang and Fengzhong Sun
Energies 2023, 16(22), 7607; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16227607 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 641
Abstract
In this study, a comprehensive examination was conducted to explore the technology involved in the recovery of waste heat from flue gas emitted by a 1000 MW unit. Traditional methods are constrained in their ability to harness waste heat from flue gas solely [...] Read more.
In this study, a comprehensive examination was conducted to explore the technology involved in the recovery of waste heat from flue gas emitted by a 1000 MW unit. Traditional methods are constrained in their ability to harness waste heat from flue gas solely for the purpose of generating medium-temperature water. The system being examined not only recovers waste heat but also utilizes it to generate steam, thereby greatly improving resource efficiency. The process entails utilizing the flue gas to heat water to a certain temperature, followed by subjecting it to flash evaporation. This process leads to the generation of low-pressure waste heat steam. Within the steam ejector, the waste heat steam combines with high-pressure motive steam extracted from the source, resulting in the formation of medium-pressure steam. Within the steam ejector, the waste heat steam blends with high-pressure motive steam drawn from the source, forming medium-pressure steam that eventually feeds into the A8 steam extraction pipe (low-pressure turbine pumping pipe). The present study examines the fluctuation patterns in motive steam flow, suction coefficient, waste heat steam volume, and outlet temperature of the flue water heat exchanger when different motive steam sources are used. Additionally, the research calculates the reduction in CO2 emissions, the coal consumption for power supply, and the cost savings in fuel for the retrofitted system. The findings indicate that maximizing energy utilization can be achieved by operating the retrofitted unit at the lowest feasible waste heat steam pressure. The implementation of the new system has resulted in a substantial decrease in coal consumption for power supply. When employing main steam as the extraction steam source, the consumption of coal for power generation decreases in proportion to the decrease in waste heat steam pressure while maintaining a constant unit load. When the waste heat steam pressure reaches 0.0312 MPa, the recorded coal consumption for power generation varies between 289.43 g/kWh at 100% turbine heat acceptance (THA) and 326.94 g/kWh at 30%THA. When comparing this performance with the initial thermal power plant (TPP) unit, it demonstrates reductions of 2.26 g/kWh and 1.52 g/kWh, respectively. After implementing modifications to this 1000 MW unit, it is projected that the annual CO2 emissions can be effectively reduced by 6333.97 tons, resulting in significant cost savings of approximately USD 0.23 million in fuel expenses. This system exhibits considerable potential in terms of emission reduction and provides valuable insights for thermal power plants aiming to decrease unit energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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18 pages, 2962 KiB  
Article
Biosolids-Derived Biochar Improves Biomethane Production in the Anaerobic Digestion of Chicken Manure
by Soulayma Hassan, Tien Ngo, Leadin S. Khudur, Christian Krohn, Charles Chinyere Dike, Ibrahim Gbolahan Hakeem, Kalpit Shah, Aravind Surapaneni and Andrew S. Ball
Resources 2023, 12(10), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources12100123 - 16 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2083
Abstract
Anaerobic digestion has attracted great interest for use in the management of organic wastes and the production of biomethane. However, this process is facing challenges, such as a high concentration of ammonia nitrogen, which affects the methanogenesis process and, thus, the production of [...] Read more.
Anaerobic digestion has attracted great interest for use in the management of organic wastes and the production of biomethane. However, this process is facing challenges, such as a high concentration of ammonia nitrogen, which affects the methanogenesis process and, thus, the production of methane. This study investigates the use of biosolid-derived biochar for mitigating ammonia stress and improving methane production during the anaerobic digestion of chicken manure, using both pristine biochar and biochar modified with a potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution. Batch mesophilic anaerobic digestion (37 °C) was carried out over 18 days. When compared to chicken-manure-only controls, a significant increase in methane formation was observed in the digesters amended with biochar and KOH-modified biochar, producing 220 L kg−1 volatile solids (VSs) and 262 L kg−1 VSs of methane, respectively, compared to 139 L kg−1 VSs from the control digesters. The use of biochar and KOH-modified biochar resulted in a significant reduction of 8 days in the lag phase. The total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentration was reduced in the digesters with biochar and KOH-modified biochar by 25% and 35.5%, respectively. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) data revealed that the number of 16S rRNA gene copies was around 50,000 and 41,000 times higher in the biochar and KOH-modified biochar digesters, respectively, compared to the control digesters on day 18. The taxonomic profiles indicated that the BC and KOH-BC digesters contained a mixture of methanogenic pathways, including acetoclastic (Methanosaetaceae), hydrogenotrophic (Methanosarcinaceae), and methylation (Methanofastidiosaceae). This mix of pathways suggests a more robust archaeal community and, hence, more efficient methanogenesis. The results show that the addition of biosolids biochar enhances anaerobic digestion, mitigates ammonia stress to methanogens, and significantly increases biogas production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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20 pages, 3135 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties Composite Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil and Schleichera oleosa Oil
by Suherman Suherman, Ilmi Abdullah, Muhammad Sabri and Arridina Susan Silitonga
Energies 2023, 16(15), 5771; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16155771 - 02 Aug 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1652
Abstract
Waste cooking oil (WCO) biodiesel has some disadvantages, such as poor cold flow properties, low oxidation stability, and flash point during storage. These poor physicochemical properties can be improved by different ways, such as the addition of non-edible oil. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Waste cooking oil (WCO) biodiesel has some disadvantages, such as poor cold flow properties, low oxidation stability, and flash point during storage. These poor physicochemical properties can be improved by different ways, such as the addition of non-edible oil. The aim of this study to analyse physicochemical properties of the biodiesel made by between WCO and Schleichera oleosa (SO). The biodiesel produced with 70:30% of WCO and SO respectively as crude oil, further introducing of different KOH-based catalyst into this oil to obtained the methyl ester. The optimum yield transesterification process are 94% with 60 min. of the reaction time, 1 wt.% KOH, and 12:1 molar ratio the methanol to oil. On the other hand, the Schleichera oleosa blend shows oxidation stability at 6.8 h and 3.3 h for Waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCME). The reduction of cold flow and, on the contrary, the flash point increase were obtained with a 70:30% ratio of WCO and SO. The cold flow properties and flash point of the fuel. Thus, mixed WCO and Schleichera oleosa oil improve the physiochemical properties such as oxidation stability, flash point, and cold flow of biodiesel without the need for synthetic antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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17 pages, 4114 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Multi-Utility Models with Municipal Solid Waste Combustion as the Primary Source under Specific Geographical and Operating Conditions
by Zakariya Kaneesamkandi and Abdul Sayeed
Energies 2023, 16(15), 5696; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16155696 - 30 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Developments in waste incineration technology in terms of efficient fuel preparation, combustion, and emissions reduction, as well as the growing needs of the community in terms of electricity, water, and air conditioning loads, are the prime motive for this study. This study presents [...] Read more.
Developments in waste incineration technology in terms of efficient fuel preparation, combustion, and emissions reduction, as well as the growing needs of the community in terms of electricity, water, and air conditioning loads, are the prime motive for this study. This study presents a novel approach, in which three models of the fluidized bed combustion of municipal waste for simultaneous power generation, freshwater production, and district cooling are analyzed for their energy and exergy performance. The three simultaneously evaluated utility models are different configurations of a fluidized bed combustion system with Rankine cycle power generation, cooling with a vapor absorption refrigeration system, and fresh water production using multiple effect desalination. The output from the turbine, cooling system, and desalination system is determined using the Engineering Equations Solver for different boiler operating pressures. Energy and exergy analysis data for different pressures are used to identify the best configuration. Two variants of the absorption cooling system, namely, single effect and double effect, are considered. The variants of the multiple-effect desalination are the three-stage and five-stage methods. Input parameters used in this study are municipal solid waste generation and composition data collected for an urban community in an arid climate zone with high demand for electric power, cooling, and fresh water. Model 2, which contains two turbines with the reheating and cooling systems connected to a high-pressure turbine and water desalination connected to a low-pressure turbine, gave the best overall performance. Significant savings in terms of the replacement of conventional energy were observed from these waste conversion plants with greater benefits in arid weather conditions. The results obtained by different models under different operating criteria constitute a guideline for municipal planners for the selection of appropriate waste utilization technology, as well as the appropriate operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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15 pages, 774 KiB  
Article
Lag Phase in the Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Sargassum spp. and Organic Domestic Waste
by Héctor Alfredo López-Aguilar, Bryan Morales-Durán, David Quiroz-Cardoza and Antonino Pérez-Hernández
Energies 2023, 16(14), 5462; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16145462 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 986
Abstract
The mass arrival of pelagic sargassum is an international issue that is currently taking its toll on the economic activity of affected regions by causing a significant reduction in investment and tourism. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the Logistic Modified [...] Read more.
The mass arrival of pelagic sargassum is an international issue that is currently taking its toll on the economic activity of affected regions by causing a significant reduction in investment and tourism. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the Logistic Modified and Gompertz Modified sigmoid kinetic models for describing the lag phase in the generation of biomethane. The case studies were: anaerobic co-digestion (ACoD) of Sargassum spp./domestic organic waste and Sargassum spp. in mono-digestion. The experimental method, based on biochemical methane potential (BMP), enabled kinetic models to be built for methane production under environmental conditions and an estimate to be made for the duration of the lag phase. The maximum cumulative production determined for monodigestion was 140.7 cm3 of CH4/g SV at 99 days, and for ACoD, it was 161.3 cm3 of CH4/g SV at 172 days. The lag phase was determined to be approximately 7 days and 93 days, respectively. It was concluded that the modified sigmoid growth functions are a valuable tool for studying the start-up and scaling of systems for the ACoD of organic waste. The results present the ACoD of coastal pelagic sargassum algae and domestic organic waste as a potential alternative energy source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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20 pages, 2278 KiB  
Review
Biogas Valorisation to Biomethane for Commercialisation in South Africa: A Review
by Chipo Shonhiwa, Yolanda Mapantsela, Golden Makaka, Patrick Mukumba and Ngwarai Shambira
Energies 2023, 16(14), 5272; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16145272 - 10 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1490
Abstract
Biogas consists of mainly methane, as a source of energy, and impurities such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, water, and siloxanes. These impurities, such as hydrogen sulphide, reduce the biogas energy content and corrode equipment that store, transport, or utilise biogas. Several reviews [...] Read more.
Biogas consists of mainly methane, as a source of energy, and impurities such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, water, and siloxanes. These impurities, such as hydrogen sulphide, reduce the biogas energy content and corrode equipment that store, transport, or utilise biogas. Several reviews on upgrading biogas to biomethane have been published, but minimal focus has been put on upgrading biogas for commercialisation in South Africa. Thus, this study reviewed biogas upgrading techniques in South Africa to put together information on activities and experiences on biogas valorisation to enhance the chances for different stakeholders to learn and build on from local experiences. To capture all relevant information, literature from the past 10 years was retrieved from online databases and government, municipality, and companies’ websites and institutional repositories. The review covered the sorption, separation, and in situ techniques that are globally used for upgrading biogas. The status of the biogas sector and the upgrading activities that occur in the country with their cost, energy, and environmental impacts were given in detail. It is estimated that a total of 3 million Nm3d−1 of biogas can be produced in the country from biogas substrates. Thus, researchers and entrepreneurs are encouraged to collaborate to utilise the abundant resources used for biogas production to enhance the commercialisation of biomethane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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22 pages, 1531 KiB  
Review
Brief Overview of Refuse-Derived Fuel Production and Energetic Valorization: Applied Technology and Main Challenges
by Santa Margarida Santos, Catarina Nobre, Paulo Brito and Margarida Gonçalves
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10342; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310342 - 30 Jun 2023
Viewed by 2362
Abstract
A large part of municipal solid waste (MSW) still goes to landfills, representing an environmental concern. A circular economy approach can enable safe management of MSW while mitigating the increasing energy needs when waste is used as a feedstock in energy production processes [...] Read more.
A large part of municipal solid waste (MSW) still goes to landfills, representing an environmental concern. A circular economy approach can enable safe management of MSW while mitigating the increasing energy needs when waste is used as a feedstock in energy production processes (waste to energy). Currently, MSW can be converted into refuse-derived fuel (RDF) through mechanical and biological treatment processes. This study analyzes the status of MSW and RDF production, as well as its main destinations in Portugal and Europe. The legislation applied, possible energy-recovery routes, and challenges associated with energy recovery are discussed throughout this paper. This research finds that the production of RDF in Portugal has been neglected, mostly because of RDF composition being quite heterogeneous and its poor fuel properties. Therefore, the need to improve and upgrade the characteristics and properties of RDF for waste-to-energy processes was detected. RDF can be pretreated to be further applied to waste-to-energy and waste-to-gas processes, such as incineration and gasification. The technology readiness level data, costs, and SWOT analysis allowedto assess that although incineration is the most mature and widely used technology, gasification becomes more attractive, having lower costs and gaseous emissions, proving to be more efficient and sustainable for MSW and RDF conversion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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19 pages, 5685 KiB  
Article
Increased Flux of Lipid Metabolism Enhances Bioethanol Fermentability and Inhibitor Tolerance of Xylose-Utilizing Zymomonas mobilis
by Junyi Hu, William Wang, Feifei Zhang, Xuequan Jiang, Lida Peng, Yichao Fang and Haoyong Wang
Fermentation 2023, 9(6), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9060569 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1250
Abstract
The microbial production of fuel ethanol is an attractive and sustainable biotechnological approach. This study presents a metabolic engineering strategy of Zymomonas mobilis aimed at coproducing bioethanol and fatty acids. The increased flux of fatty acids stabilizes the cell membrane and thus counteracts [...] Read more.
The microbial production of fuel ethanol is an attractive and sustainable biotechnological approach. This study presents a metabolic engineering strategy of Zymomonas mobilis aimed at coproducing bioethanol and fatty acids. The increased flux of fatty acids stabilizes the cell membrane and thus counteracts the progressively higher ethanol toxicity. In a glucose medium, the highest ethanol titer achieved was 146.7 g/kg of broth, surpassing the wild-type Z. mobilis CP4 and angel yeast by 30% and 45%, respectively. The recombinant strain exhibited a total fatty acid titer of 0.4 g/L from 230 g/L total sugar solution (5 L bioreactor), representing a 12-fold increase compared to the wild-type Z. mobilis CP4. Furthermore, when using a 4:2:1 mixture of glucose: xylose: mannose (w/v), an ethanol concentration of 142.8 g/kg of broth was attained, only 2.66% lower than that of the glucose-only medium. These findings highlight the enormous potential of this genetically engineered strain for the sustainable production of ethanol and fatty acids from lignocellulosic renewable carbon sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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14 pages, 1917 KiB  
Article
Hot-Water Extraction (HWE) Method as Applied to Lignocellulosic Materials from Hemp Stalk
by Mateusz Leszczyński and Kamil Roman
Energies 2023, 16(12), 4750; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16124750 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1335
Abstract
The article describes the process of hot water extraction treatment of a specific material—in this case, shavings of hemp shives of different thicknesses, sorted by their thickness into three different fractions of 0–4 mm, 4–8 mm, and 8–12 mm. In addition, each sample [...] Read more.
The article describes the process of hot water extraction treatment of a specific material—in this case, shavings of hemp shives of different thicknesses, sorted by their thickness into three different fractions of 0–4 mm, 4–8 mm, and 8–12 mm. In addition, each sample from a given fraction was separately subjected to one, two, and three extraction processes. After the material was treated with extraction, cellulose determination was performed using the Kürschner–Hoffer method in order to find out the effect that hot water extraction had on the cellulose content of the test material. This research aims to determine whether hot water extraction strongly alters the cellulose content, which may translate into a change in efficiency when producing second-generation biofuel produced from this material. The cellulose determination showed the smallest cellulose losses were in chips 4–8 mm thick, while the largest were in chips 0–4 mm thick. Each repetition resulted in a loss of cellulose, with the steepest loss occurring after the second repetition of HWE, and the smallest after the third repetition—the exception being the 4–8 fraction, in which the smallest decrease occurred after the first repetition of the HWE (Hot Water Extraction) process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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9 pages, 433 KiB  
Perspective
Perspectives on the Promotion of Solid Recovered Fuels in Taiwan
by Wen-Tien Tsai
Energies 2023, 16(7), 2944; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16072944 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1403
Abstract
Due to the economic inefficiency of material recycling of general industrial waste and urban waste, the use of solid recovered fuels (SRFs) not only mitigates the environmental loadings from waste incineration plants and sanitary landfills but also creates green electricity and/or heat and [...] Read more.
Due to the economic inefficiency of material recycling of general industrial waste and urban waste, the use of solid recovered fuels (SRFs) not only mitigates the environmental loadings from waste incineration plants and sanitary landfills but also creates green electricity and/or heat and thus reduces the use of fossil fuels. In this regard, the Taiwan government formulated the “Solid Recovered Fuel Manufacturing Guidelines and Quality Standards” in 2020 to ensure the manufacturing quality of SRFs. This paper focused on the status of waste management and energy supply, the current regulations for adopting SRFs, and the challenges in the development of SRFs from the viewpoints (or life cycle) of the environmental, economic, and engineering (or technological) characters in Taiwan. Based on the database of the official handbook/yearbook, the energy supply from indigenous biomass and waste was 1678.7 × 103 kiloliters of oil equivalent (KLOE) in 2021, which only accounted for about 1.2% of the total energy supply. Obviously, available indigenous biomass and waste for producing SRFs were mostly from waste wood, sugarcane bagasse, and mixtures containing wood/paper. Finally, some suggestions for the increasing use of SRFs in the energy and industrial sectors were addressed to keep in step with the sustainable development goals (SDGs) in 2030, especially in the mitigation of GHG emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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20 pages, 4074 KiB  
Review
Waste-to-Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste: Global Scenario and Prospects of Mass Burning Technology in Brazil
by Natália Dadario, Luís Roberto Almeida Gabriel Filho, Camila Pires Cremasco, Felipe André dos Santos, Maria Cristina Rizk and Mario Mollo Neto
Sustainability 2023, 15(6), 5397; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15065397 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3859
Abstract
Inadequate disposal of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is one of the greatest environmental issues confronted nowadays. One of the techniques used for its final disposal is incineration, otherwise known as mass burning. Although this procedure remains very controversial in Brazil, some recent studies [...] Read more.
Inadequate disposal of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is one of the greatest environmental issues confronted nowadays. One of the techniques used for its final disposal is incineration, otherwise known as mass burning. Although this procedure remains very controversial in Brazil, some recent studies published in Europe reveal a large amount of misinformation about it. It has been widely used in European countries, Japan, and a few U.S. cities and has been increasingly and significantly adopted in China. Therefore, this article aims to carry out a literature review on the evolution of waste-to-energy recovery from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) worldwide and the progress of mass-burning technologies, particularly in the Brazilian context. For such a purpose, global scientific databases were selected and some of their results allowed us to present how the main WtE recovery technologies function, as well as their benefits and impacts. Moreover, it was possible to systematize the main regulatory frameworks on the theme in Brazil and to reveal the country’s electricity generation capacity, in addition to depicting the progress of Waste-to-Energy Plants (WtEPs) undergoing licensing processes in the state of São Paulo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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25 pages, 4935 KiB  
Article
Effect of Acid Pretreatment on the Primary Products of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis
by David O. Usino, Taner Sar, Päivi Ylitervo and Tobias Richards
Energies 2023, 16(5), 2377; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16052377 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1810
Abstract
A high load of inorganics in raw lignocellulosic biomass is known to inhibit the yield of bio-oil and alter the chemical reactions during fast pyrolysis of biomass. In this study, palm kernel shell (PKS), an agricultural residue from palm oil production, and two [...] Read more.
A high load of inorganics in raw lignocellulosic biomass is known to inhibit the yield of bio-oil and alter the chemical reactions during fast pyrolysis of biomass. In this study, palm kernel shell (PKS), an agricultural residue from palm oil production, and two other woody biomass samples (mahogany (MAH) sawdust and iroko (IRO) sawdust) were pretreated with distilled water or an acidic solution (either acetic, formic, hydrochloric (HCl) or sulfuric acid (H2SO4)) before fast pyrolysis in order to investigate its effect on the primary products and pyrolysis reaction pathways. The raw and pretreated PKS, MAH and IRO were pyrolysed at 600 °C and 5 s with a micro-pyrolyser connected to a gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer/flame ionisation detector (GC-MS/FID). Of the leaching solutions, HCl was the most effective in removing inorganics from the biomass and enhancing the primary pyrolysis product formed compared to the organic acids (acetic and formic acid). The production of levoglucosan was greatly improved for all pretreated biomasses when compared to the original biomass but especially after HCl pretreatment. Additionally, the relative content of the saccharides was maximised after pretreatment with H2SO4, which was due to the increased production of levoglucosenone. The relative content of the saccharides increased by over 70%. This increase may have occurred due to a possible reaction catalysed by the remaining acid in the biomass. The production of furans, especially furfural, was increased for all pretreatments but most noticeable when H2SO4 was used. However, the relative content of acids and ketones was generally reduced for PKS, MAH and IRO across all leaching solutions. The relative content of the phenol-type compound decreased to a large extent during pyrolysis after acid pretreatment, which may be attributed to dehydration and demethoxylation reactions. This study shows that the production of valuable chemicals could be promoted by pretreatment with different acid solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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13 pages, 1102 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Co-Combustion Characteristics of Coal and Bio-SRF in CFBC
by Jeong-Seon Shin, Dowon Shun, Churl-Hee Cho and Dal-Hee Bae
Energies 2023, 16(4), 1981; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16041981 - 16 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1460
Abstract
Bio-SRF based on livestock waste has low heating value and high moisture content. The concentration of toxic gases such as SOx, NOx, and HCl in the flue gas is changed according to the composition of fuel, and it has been reported. Therefore, the [...] Read more.
Bio-SRF based on livestock waste has low heating value and high moisture content. The concentration of toxic gases such as SOx, NOx, and HCl in the flue gas is changed according to the composition of fuel, and it has been reported. Therefore, the study of fuel combustion characteristics is necessary. In this study, we investigated combustion characteristics on the blended firing of coal and Bio-SRF (bio-solid refused fuel) made from livestock waste fuel in CFBC (circulating fluidized bed combustor). The raw materials for manufacturing Bio-SRF include agricultural waste, herbaceous plants, waste wood, and vegetable residues. Bio-SRF, which is formed from organic sludge, has a low heating value and a high moisture content. Bio-SRF of livestock waste fuel is blended with different ratios of coal based on heating values when coal is completely combusted in CFBC. In the result of experiment, the combustor efficiency of calculated unburned carbon concentration in the fly ash shows 98.87%, 99.04%, 99.64%, and 99.71% when the multi co-combustion ratio of livestock waste fuel increased from 100/0 (coal/livestock waste) to 70/30 (coal/livestock waste). In addition, the boiler efficiency is shown to be 86.23%, 86.30%, 87.24% and 87.27%. Through the experimental results, we have identified that co-combustion of livestock waste fuel does not affect boiler efficiency. We have systematically investigated and discussed the temperature changes of the internal combustor, compositions of flue gases, solid ash characteristics, and the efficiency of combustion and of the boiler during co-combustion of coal and Bio-SRF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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20 pages, 3101 KiB  
Review
Comprehensive Analysis of the State of Technology in the Field of Waste Heat Recovery from Grey Water
by Beata Piotrowska and Daniel Słyś
Energies 2023, 16(1), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16010137 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1985
Abstract
The use of energy from waste can be a key means of reducing the consumption of fossil fuels and thus reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Waste energy can be a worthy alternative to conventional energy sources in construction. This paper presents data on [...] Read more.
The use of energy from waste can be a key means of reducing the consumption of fossil fuels and thus reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Waste energy can be a worthy alternative to conventional energy sources in construction. This paper presents data on energy consumption for the preparation of domestic hot water in residential buildings. A review of the literature sources and inventions in the area of waste energy recovery from grey water was carried out. It also presents the results of research on prototypes of devices used to receive energy deposited in wastewater, published in recent years. The benefits of using drain water heat recovery systems for preheating utility water in residential buildings are presented. An analysis of technical solutions for grey water energy collection units was made, revealing their advantages and disadvantages. Great importance was attached to the review of patent sources as well as devices available on the market. According to the authors, the results of the technical review may be useful for contractors and designers of heat recovery equipment and installations, researchers and potential users of these technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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13 pages, 1369 KiB  
Article
Thermodynamic Assessment of the Impact of Selected Plastics on the Energy Parameters of Explosives
by Jolanta Biegańska, Krzysztof Barański, Kamil Hebda and Mateusz Pytlik
Energies 2022, 15(24), 9583; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15249583 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1255
Abstract
Global economic development and the associated increase in consumption increase the demand for plastics. The result of these changes is the increase in the share of this group of used plastics in the structure of household waste. An innovative way of managing plastic [...] Read more.
Global economic development and the associated increase in consumption increase the demand for plastics. The result of these changes is the increase in the share of this group of used plastics in the structure of household waste. An innovative way of managing plastic waste is to use it as a component of a high-energy material. According to the conceptual assumptions, some plastics introduced into the structure of an explosive (Ex) in appropriate amounts can improve the energy parameters of a high-energy material. Modification of the composition of the explosive causes a change in its explosive and operational parameters. It also becomes necessary to develop a method of introducing an additional component. Computer programs for thermodynamic calculations are a tool for modeling the predicted energy parameters of an explosive. The performed simulations and modeling allow for the selection of appropriate compositions for laboratory and “in situ” tests. This reduces the number of field tests performed. This enables the more effective design of new explosive compositions. The use of waste plastics as a corrector of explosive properties may also be pro-environmental in nature through the use of a detonation method of their disposal and will reduce the cost of manufacturing the product. The conducted analyses showed that for three ANFO-type explosives containing 2% polyethylene—PE 2.0, 1% polypropylene—PP 1.0 and 1% polyurethane—PU 1.0, obtained energy parameters similar to ANFO and qualitatively and quantitatively similar structure of post-detonation gases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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11 pages, 1940 KiB  
Article
Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Bioplastics and Food Waste under Mesophilic and Thermophilic Conditions: Synergistic Effect and Biodegradation
by Jeong-Hee Kang, Sung-Won Kang, Weon-Jae Kim, Dong-Hoon Kim and Seong-Won Im
Fermentation 2022, 8(11), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8110638 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2364
Abstract
To mitigate the various problems caused by using conventional plastics, bioplastic (BP) has emerged as a substitute for plastics. BP wastes after use are commonly treated using composting, causing many environmental problems. Anaerobic digestion (AD) has become prominent as an alternative method of [...] Read more.
To mitigate the various problems caused by using conventional plastics, bioplastic (BP) has emerged as a substitute for plastics. BP wastes after use are commonly treated using composting, causing many environmental problems. Anaerobic digestion (AD) has become prominent as an alternative method of producing renewable energy. The aim of this study was to estimate the methane production yield (MPY) of BPs (polylactic acid (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)) with mechanical pretreatment (particle size < 0.5 cm) and investigate the effect of co-digestion of BPs and food waste (FW). Batch experiments were conducted under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions at various mixing ratios (FW/PLA or PHA = 95:5 and 90:10 on a weight basis). During 20 d of digestion at temperatures of 37 and 55 °C, MPYs of PHA were 153.8–172.0 mL CH4/g chemical oxygen demand (COD), but that of PLA was significantly low (<25.6 mL CH4/g COD). Higher MPYs were attained at 55 °C than at 37 °C. The synergistic effects of FW addition on BP AD were observed at both temperatures, especially at 55 °C. By comparing theoretical (based on mono-digestion results) and actual (based on co-digestion results) MPYs, the synergistic effect of FW addition on MPY of co-digestion reached 8.5–26.6% and 12.7–25.5% for PLA- and PHA-fed tests, respectively. The biodegradation rates (on a volatile solids (VS) basis) of PLA and PHA were 6.0–13.7% and 49.1–52.3% and increased by 1.8–4.3 and 1.2–1.5 times in the PLA- and PHA-fed co-digestion tests, respectively. Co-digestion of FW might be a feasible treatment option for BPs combined with simple mechanical pretreatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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23 pages, 2105 KiB  
Article
Unlocking New Value from Urban Biowaste: LCA of the VALUEWASTE Biobased Products
by David Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alejandra Argüelles, Gemma Castejón Martínez, José M. Soriano Disla and Andrés J. Lara-Guillén
Sustainability 2022, 14(22), 14962; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142214962 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1505
Abstract
The VALUEWASTE project can offer a sustainable solution to transform biowaste into added-value bioproducts, such as proteins from microorganisms and insects and biofertilizers. The present study focused on the environmental impacts linked to obtaining these bioproducts, which was performed by the standardized Life [...] Read more.
The VALUEWASTE project can offer a sustainable solution to transform biowaste into added-value bioproducts, such as proteins from microorganisms and insects and biofertilizers. The present study focused on the environmental impacts linked to obtaining these bioproducts, which was performed by the standardized Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach, using the Environmental Footprint methodology to evaluate the midpoint impact categories considered. At the same time, the bioproducts coming from biowaste were compared to regular ones: other protein sources and mineral fertilizers. The study results show that these new protein sources are firm candidates to reach the market from an environmental point of view. Furthermore, their environmental impacts could be improved by reducing the energy use (the main contributor) within some impact categories, such as ecotoxicity and global warming. In case of the biofertilizers, their environmental performance was overall worse compared to mineral fertilizers, except for the following impact categories: mineral and metal use and water scarcity. Nevertheless, these biofertilizers come from biowaste, extending the circularity concept, and from local places, reducing the dependency on other actors. Hence, the study showed that the obtained bioproducts are real alternatives to implement in a circular economy. However, continuous improvement of the solution should be performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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18 pages, 1499 KiB  
Review
Sensitivity Analysis and Anaerobic Digestion Modeling: A Scoping Review
by Zahir Barahmand and Gamunu Samarakoon
Fermentation 2022, 8(11), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8110624 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2108
Abstract
A growing awareness of global climate change has led to an increased interest in investigating renewable energy sources, such as the anaerobic digestion of biomass. This process utilizes a wide range of microbial communities to degrade biodegradable material in feedstock through a complex [...] Read more.
A growing awareness of global climate change has led to an increased interest in investigating renewable energy sources, such as the anaerobic digestion of biomass. This process utilizes a wide range of microbial communities to degrade biodegradable material in feedstock through a complex series of biochemical interactions. Anaerobic digestion exhibits nonlinear dynamics due to the complex and interacting biochemical processes involved. Due to its dynamic and nonlinear behavior, uncertain feedstock quality, and sensitivity to the process’s environmental conditions, anaerobic digestion is highly susceptible to instabilities. Therefore, in order to model and operate a biogas production unit effectively, it is necessary to understand which parameters are most influential on the model outputs. This also reduces the amount of estimation required. Through a scoping review, the present study analyzes the studies on the application of sensitivity analysis in anaerobic digestion modeling. Both local and global sensitivity analysis approaches were carried out using different mathematical models. The results indicate that anaerobic digestion model no.1 (ADM1) was the most commonly used model for analyzing sensitivity. Both local and global sensitivity analyses are widely employed to investigate the influence of key model parameters such as kinetic, stoichiometric, and mass transfer parameters on model outputs such as biogas production, methane concentration, pH, or economic viability of the plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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24 pages, 2570 KiB  
Article
Prospective Life Cycle Costing of Electricity Generation from Municipal Solid Waste in Nigeria
by Oluwaseun Nubi, Stephen Morse and Richard J. Murphy
Sustainability 2022, 14(20), 13293; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142013293 - 16 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1964
Abstract
Waste management and electricity supply have always been among the main challenges faced by developing countries. So far, the use of waste to energy (WtE) is one strategy that could simultaneously address these two challenges. However, the use of such technologies requires detailed [...] Read more.
Waste management and electricity supply have always been among the main challenges faced by developing countries. So far, the use of waste to energy (WtE) is one strategy that could simultaneously address these two challenges. However, the use of such technologies requires detailed studies to ensure their sustainability. In this paper, the potential of WtE in two cities in Nigeria (Abuja and Lagos) using anaerobic digestion (AD), incineration, gasification and landfill gas to energy (LFGTE), is presented with the aim of evaluating their economic viability using life cycle costing (LCC) as an analytical tool. This economic feasibility analysis includes LCC, levelised cost of electricity (LCOE), net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of several parameters on the economic viability of the selected technologies for the two cities. The economic assessment revealed that all the WtE systems were feasible and viable in both cities except for LFGTE in Abuja where the NPV was negative (−USD 105.42/t), and the IRR was 4.17%. Overall, incineration for both cities proved to be the most favourable economic option based on its positive LCC (Lagos USD 214.1/t Abuja USD 232.76/t), lowest LCOE (Lagos USD 0.046/t Abuja USD 0.062/t), lowest payback period (Lagos 1.6 years Abuja 2.2 years) and the highest IRR (Lagos 62.8% Abuja 45.3%). The results of the sensitivity analysis also indicated that variation in parameters such as the capital cost and discount rate have significant effects on the LCC. This paper provides information for potential investors and policy makers to enhance optimal investment in WtE technologies in Nigeria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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16 pages, 15371 KiB  
Article
Finite Element Analysis of Elastoplastic Elements in the Iwan Model of Bolted Joints
by Sheng-Ao Wang, Min Zhu, Xin Xie, Biao Li, Tian-Xi Liang, Zhao-Qun Shao and Yi-Long Liu
Materials 2022, 15(17), 5817; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15175817 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1854
Abstract
The Iwan model is composed of elastoplastic elements and is widely used to represent the stiffness degradation of bolted joints under mixed-mode loading (normal and tangential loading). The latest static methods of parameter identification established the relationship between the elastoplastic elements and the [...] Read more.
The Iwan model is composed of elastoplastic elements and is widely used to represent the stiffness degradation of bolted joints under mixed-mode loading (normal and tangential loading). The latest static methods of parameter identification established the relationship between the elastoplastic elements and the contact pressure under normal loading. Under mixed-mode loading, the parameters of the Iwan model are dynamic for the evolution of contact conditions. Therefore, static parameter identification methods are not suitable for the dynamic Iwan model. A new technique was proposed to identify the parameters of the elastoplastic elements in this paper. Firstly, several different finite element models were established. The influence of the contact method and the thread structure were analyzed, and a reliable and efficient bolted-joint modeling method was proposed. Secondly, the evolution of contact conditions was studied. The dynamic elliptical contact model and the ellipticity discrete method were proposed. Finally, the residual stiffness of the Iwan model was analyzed to establish the mapping between the residual stiffness and the bending of the screw. The results can provide a technique for identifying the parameters of the dynamic Iwan model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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14 pages, 2209 KiB  
Article
Thermal Degradation and Organic Chlorine Removal from Mixed Plastic Wastes
by Zhuo Xu, Victor Ierulli, Ezra Bar-Ziv and Armando G. McDonald
Energies 2022, 15(16), 6058; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15166058 - 21 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1740
Abstract
Plastic waste accumulation has been growing due to the increase in plastic generation and the lack of infrastructure for recycling. One of the approaches is to treat the mixed plastic waste (MPW) through thermal processes to produce feedstocks for other applications. However, the [...] Read more.
Plastic waste accumulation has been growing due to the increase in plastic generation and the lack of infrastructure for recycling. One of the approaches is to treat the mixed plastic waste (MPW) through thermal processes to produce feedstocks for other applications. However, the presence of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in MPW would produce HCl during processing and has negative impacts (emission, catalyst poisoning, etc.). In addition, due to the high heterogeneity of MPW, it is difficult to generate consistent experimental data. In this study, MPW was homogenized through double compounding–extrusion and then formed into a sheet to be treated at 400 °C. The solid products at various mass losses were characterized by heat and chlorine content, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and elemental composition analysis. It was found that the thermal degradation of MPW started at ~260 °C. The chlorine removal efficiency increased with mass loss and reached an asymptotic value of ~84% at ~28% mass loss, and the remaining chlorine can be attributed to inorganic sources. A PVC de-chlorination model was developed for MPW using TGA data for PVC and MPW to determine organic chlorine removal efficiency. These results show that PVC de-chlorination was not affected by other plastics at this temperature. As the mass loss increases, the heat content first increases and then decreases. It was found that mass loss is a universal parameter for organic chlorine removal efficiency and heat content. The elemental composition analysis and FTIR spectroscopy also shed more light into the chemical changes during MPW thermal degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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13 pages, 3524 KiB  
Article
Usage of Converter Gas as a Substitute Fuel for a Tunnel Furnace in Steelworks
by Dorota Musial, Magdalena Szwaja, Marek Kurtyka and Stanislaw Szwaja
Materials 2022, 15(14), 5054; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15145054 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1373
Abstract
Converter gas (BOFG) is a by-product of the steel manufacturing process in steelworks. Its usage as a substitute fuel instead of natural gas for fueling a metallurgical furnace seems to be reasonable due to potential benefits as follows: CO2 emission reduction into [...] Read more.
Converter gas (BOFG) is a by-product of the steel manufacturing process in steelworks. Its usage as a substitute fuel instead of natural gas for fueling a metallurgical furnace seems to be reasonable due to potential benefits as follows: CO2 emission reduction into the ambient air and savings in purchasing costs of natural gas. Results of theoretical analysis focused on implementing converter gas as a fuel for feeding a tunnel furnace for either steel plate rolling, steel sheet hardening in its real working condition or both, are discussed. The analysis was focused on the combustion chemistry of the converter gas and its potential ecological and economic benefits obtained from converter gas usage to heat up steel in a tunnel furnace. Simulations of combustion were conducted using a skeletal chemical kinetic mechanism by Konnov. The directed relation graph with error propagation aided sensitivity analysis (DRGEPSA) method was used to obtain this skeletal kinetic mechanism. Finally, the model was validated on a real tunnel furnace fueled by natural gas. Regarding exhaust emissions, it was found that nitric oxide (NO) dropped down from 275 to 80 ppm when natural gas was replaced by converter gas. However, carbon dioxide emissions increased more than three times in this case, but there is no possibility of eliminating carbon dioxide from steel manufacturing processes at all. Economic analysis showed savings of 44% in fuel purchase costs when natural gas was replaced by converter gas. Summing up, the potential benefits resulting from substituting natural gas with converter gas led to the conclusion that converter gas is strongly recommended as fuel for a tunnel furnace in the steel manufacturing process. Practical application requires testing gas burners in terms of their efficiency, which should provide the same amount of energy supplied to the furnace when fed with converter gas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Waste-to-Energy)
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