Comprehensive Analysis of the State of Technology in the Field of Waste Heat Recovery from Grey Water
2. Materials and Methods
3. Theoretical Background
4. DWHR Applications in Domestic Conditions
4.1. General Classification of DWHR Units
4.2. Variants of Heat Exchanger Installation
4.3. DWHR Standards
4.4. A Short Review of Published Studies
5. Results and Discussion
5.1. Horizontal Heat Exchangers
5.2. Vertical Heat Exchangers
5.3. Financial Legitimacy of the Use of Heat Exchangers
5.4. The Concept of the Circular Economy in the Energy Sector
7. Future Directions
- Scientific and industrial research aimed at developing solutions and technologies for low-cost production of heat exchangers and improving their energy efficiency. Activities in this area may be of significant importance for the profitability of industrial production and the financial viability of using these types of solutions.
- Undertaking educational activities aimed at increasing environmental awareness related to the use of waste heat as the most ecological and cheapest way of obtaining energy.
- Implementation of a financial support system for investments in waste heat recovery by individual and institutional recipients for existing and newly built facilities, for various purposes.
- Development of publicly available, reliable tools to calculate the profitability of investments related to the use of heat recovery systems.
- Development of design tools, including building information modeling (BIM) technology, to facilitate the design, selection and management of investment projects.
- Action by public administration bodies, in consultation with research institutes, to develop a common strategy for promoting the CE in the energy sector and in construction.
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Studies||Title of the Invention/Device Type||General Features/Research Conclusions|
|||composite pipe heat exchanger for drainwater heat recovery||a heat exchanger in the form of a horizontal drain containing the upper and lower composite pipes sealed together along respective longitudinal edges; the exchanger is made of copper and plastic in order to reduce production costs; (US 20130306289)|
|||heat exchanger for a shower or bathtub||counterflow heat exchanger for installation under the shower trays and bathtubs; equipped with grey water drain; the cold water duct consists of a long pipe coiled in the grey water drain; the cold water pipe is coiled into several pipes arranged horizontally with respect to the orientation of the exchanger; the invention is made of plastic elements (tubes, partitions) to minimize production costs; (US10072897B2)|
|||shower heat exchanger made of typical sewer components||horizontal shower heat exchanger made of waste water fittings and a spiral copper coil placed in them; sewage inlet takes place at an angle of 45° to the axis of the device; (W.129137)|
|||sewer-type heat absorber||the exchanger consists of a grey water drain; the drain is designed centrally and has two or more cold water supply pipes arranged on its circumference|
|||drainwater heat recovery system||heat exchanger composed of a grey water drain, a cold water drain and a non-pressurized tank; horizontal and vertical installation of an exchanger is disclosed; (US 2001/0004009 A1)|
|||horizontal DWHR||the heat exchanger is made of PVC drainage with a diameter of 40 mm, in which a copper water pipe with a diameter of 12.7 mm is placed; the possible efficiency of the device exceeds 50%|
|||horizontal heat exchanger||device for heat recovery from grey water from shower drain; reduces energy consumption by up to 31%; the maximum amount of grey water supplied to the device is 25 dm3/min; (PCT054506)|
|||horizontal heat exchanger||device for heat recovery from grey water from shower drain; reduces energy consumption by up to 39%; the maximum amount of grey water supplied to the device is 12.5 dm3/min; (PCT054506)|
|||horizontal shower-type heat exchanger||horizontal shower heat exchanger with countercurrent grey and cold water flow; made of a waste water drain and a sealed internal drain through which water flows; the grey water drain is in the form of a rectangular chamber placed in the floor; a heat exchanger is to be installed in the shower tray or directly in the bathroom floor; (Pat.234930)|
|||horizontal heat exchanger||horizontal heat exchanger with countercurrent grey and cold water flow; built with sealed grey water channel and internal cold water channel; inside the casing, there are at least two internal channel partitions; the horizontal heat exchanger is used in particular to recover waste heat from grey water; (Pat.230906)|
|||linear drainage with heat recovery||linear shower drain with heat recovery comprises a casing with a top cover which is an inlet opening for grey waste water; the exchanger consists of a channel separated by a tight wall; grey water flows in the upper part of the channel of the device, and cold water is led in the lower part; linear shower drain with heat recovery is intended for installation both in showers with and without a shower tray; in the absence of a shower tray, the linear drainage is installed in the floor in the area of the shower stall; (Pat.230648)|
|||horizontal shower heat exchanger||compact shower heat exchanger designed for installation under the shower tray, as well as a linear shower drain with heat recovery; research has shown that the compact shower heat exchanger has a higher efficiency (22.43% to 31.82%) than its linear counterpart (23.03%)|
|||shower heat exchanger with clog-removable drain||heat exchanger for installation under the bathtub or shower tray or under the bathroom floor; built of upper and lower channels; the lower channel through which the water flows is wavy; (US8104532B2)|
|||heat exchange devices||exchanger made of two outlets—one for cold water, and the other for grey water; the cold water drain forms sections of the pipes in the serpentine system passing through the grey water drain, the exchanger uses countercurrent media flow; (US 8893319 B2)|
|||heat exchanger and use thereof in showers||heat exchanger made out of two systems of drains; the first set of drains comprises horizontal pipes through which grey water is discharged; the second drain set comprises vertical and horizontal pipes for supplying cold water to the installation; horizontal cold water drains are placed inside the horizontal grey water drains; the pipes in the horizontal plane additionally form a loop in order to increase the heat exchange surface while maintaining the compactness of the exchanger; (20080000616A1)|
|Studies||Title of the Invention/Device Type||General Features/Research Conclusions|
|||vertical spiral heat exchanger||heat exchanger consists of a vertical copper drain for grey water around which a copper drain for cold water is wrapped; available heat exchange surface for grey water drain at 0.20 m2; available heat exchange surface for a cold water drain of 0.57 m2; the possibility of heat recovery from waste water at the level of 25%|
|||cascade spiral heat exchanger||cascade spiral heat exchanger in the form of connected drains of different diameters, one of which is wrapped in a spiral on a drain of larger diameter; intended to recover heat lost in the process of discharging domestic grey water from buildings and industrial grey water from facilities; (Rp.25423)|
|||helical coil on tube heat exchanger||heat exchanger with a spiral pipe for cold water; the spiral drain is wrapped around the main grey water drain; the unit has fixed tube assemblies for both heat transfer media; (US20130025836A1)|
|||shower heat exchanger made of typical sewer components||horizontal shower heat exchanger made of waste water fittings and a spiral copper coil placed in them; grey water inlet is arranged at an angle of 45° to the axis of the device; (W.129137)|
|||vertical spiral heat exchanger||vertical spiral heat exchanger with countercurrent grey and cold water flow; built of a grey water pipe inside, with a tight spiral pipe for cold water, around it. The inner channel is equipped with the so-called helically arranged plates around the vertical axis of the heat exchanger; placed along the entire height of the sewage pipe; (Pat.230910)|
|||vertical heat exchanger||vertical tube-in-tube exchanger with heat recovery for shower trays, shower drains or bathtubs, with a recommended flow of up to 12.5 dm3/min; energy savings of up to 64% possible|
|||vertical heat exchanger||vertical tube-in-tube exchanger with heat recovery for shower trays, shower drains or bathtubs, with a recommended flow of up to 25 dm3/min; energy savings of up to 75% possible|
|||vertical heat exchanger||vertical heat exchanger with an outer drain with grey water inside; grey water flows through the main vertical pipe, with space between the outer pipe and the main grey water pipe through which cold water is routed counter- currently and fed to the heat exchanger; (Pat.230590)|
|||method of and apparatus for recuperating waste heat from waste water||heat exchanger for recovering grey water heat, in particular domestic sewage discharged into the sewage system, taking into account the separation of cold and warm waste water by means of a pressure-temperature valve; the heat is collected by the water to be heated in the domestic hot water preparation installation; the device allows for a minimum 50% savings in energy consumption needed to heat domestic water; (Pat.198134)|
|||grey water heat recovery system||exchanger with a copper coil for cold water supply; the coil is placed inside the vertical grey water drain; the device may use a countercurrent geometry and is equipped with a controller that directs grey water through the bypass pipe; the device includes a dirt filter; the controller informs about the need to clean the filter; (US 2011/0155366 A1)|
|||heat recovery unit for grey water equipped with a protection method and device preventing contamination of potable water||heat recovery installation consisting of grey water drain, heat exchanger, check valve, anode; the device is a recuperator with the function of removing heat contained in waste water in order to heat the water supplied to the bathtub or shower or water heater; the heat exchanger is an external vessel made of high-quality stainless steel; (CA2991210A1)|
|Location of Heat Exchanger Units||DWHR Unit Type||Heat Source Temperature Range||Wastewater Flow Rate||Efficiency||Purchase Cost of the Heat Exchanger Unit (EUR)|
|Heat exchangers installed directly under the sanitary utensil||Vertical heat exchangers||30–50 °C||7–14 dm3/min||40–75%||400–2000|
|Horizontal heat exchangers||30–50 °C||7–14 dm3/min||18–50%||≅1000|
|Heat exchangers installed before the discharge to the sewage system||Vertical heat exchangers||10–25 °C||≅130 dm3/day||>40%||≅1000|
|Heat recovery system integrated with heat pump||10–25 °C||≅130 dm3/day||40–70%||>1000|
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Piotrowska, B.; Słyś, D. Comprehensive Analysis of the State of Technology in the Field of Waste Heat Recovery from Grey Water. Energies 2023, 16, 137. https://doi.org/10.3390/en16010137
Piotrowska B, Słyś D. Comprehensive Analysis of the State of Technology in the Field of Waste Heat Recovery from Grey Water. Energies. 2023; 16(1):137. https://doi.org/10.3390/en16010137Chicago/Turabian Style
Piotrowska, Beata, and Daniel Słyś. 2023. "Comprehensive Analysis of the State of Technology in the Field of Waste Heat Recovery from Grey Water" Energies 16, no. 1: 137. https://doi.org/10.3390/en16010137