Special Issue "Novel Vaccine Stabilization and Delivery Technologies"

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Attenuated/Inactivated/Live and Vectored Vaccines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Martin J. D'Souza
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mercer University, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
Interests: bio-fabrication of microparticulate vaccines for infectious diseases and cancer
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Mohammad N. Uddin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Pharmacy, Mercer University, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
Interests: vaccine delivery, microneedle based vaccine delivery, vaccine delivery using oral dissolving films
Dr. Rikhav Gala
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Fraunhofer USA, Center for Molecular Biotechnology, Newark, DE 19711, USA
Interests: vaccine delivery; microneedle-based vaccine delivery; vaccine delivery using oral dissolving films
Dr. Bernadette D’Souza
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmaceutical, Social and Administrative Sciences, McWhorter School of Pharmacy, Samford University, Birmingham, AL 35229, USA
Interests: vaccine delivery; microneedle based vaccine delivery; vaccine delivery using oral dissolving films

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dealing with the recent impact of the coronavirus pandemic, vaccines have become a topic of every household. The overall development of robust vaccines with long-lasting efficacy has gained academic, industrial, and federal interest. Vaccines are the most effective method to prevent infectious diseases, with public immunization campaigns dramatically reducing the incidence of many life-threatening diseases and preventing an estimated 2–3 million deaths a year. Contemporary research has shown that vaccines that equip patients’ immune systems to recognize and target antigens are a promising frontier for infectious, as well as non-infectious diseases. Modern-day vaccine development is a complex process starting with antigen identification, development, and expression followed by formulation and stabilization through the manufacturing process. 

To formulate effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, it is becoming apparent that both the innate and adaptive immune systems must be stimulated to protect from current and future recognition of the target antigen. Further, vaccine formulation in a delivery system that has high patient acceptability, which stabilizes the vaccine and also promotes cost-effective delivery, is essential for long-term use. Vaccine stability can be improved by optimizing the composition of formulations by the addition of excipients, thus, restricting molecular mobility and preventing degradation. This Special Issue focuses on different platforms available for developing robust immunotherapies for use as vaccine candidates along with vaccine stabilizations such as lyophilization, spray drying, nanoparticles, lipid vesicles, etc., and their subsequent delivery via various routes of administration. 

We encourage your submission, with a short turnaround time for publication.

Prof. Dr. Martin J. D'Souza
Dr. Mohammad N. Uddin
Dr. Rikhav Gala
Dr. Bernadette D’Souza
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Vaccine delivery
  • microneedle-based vaccines
  • oral dissolving films
  • microparticulate vaccines
  • nanoparticulate vaccines

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Transdermal Vaccination with the Matrix-2 Protein Virus-like Particle (M2e VLP) Induces Immunity in Mice against Influenza A Virus
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9111324 - 15 Nov 2021
Viewed by 378
Abstract
In this study, our goal was to utilize the extracellular domain matrix-2 protein virus-like particle (M2e VLP) that has been found to be highly conserved amongst all strains of influenza and could serve as a potential vaccine candidate against influenza. Previous studies have [...] Read more.
In this study, our goal was to utilize the extracellular domain matrix-2 protein virus-like particle (M2e VLP) that has been found to be highly conserved amongst all strains of influenza and could serve as a potential vaccine candidate against influenza. Previous studies have demonstrated that the VLP of the M2e showed increased activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Therefore, to further explore its level of efficacy and protection, this vaccine was administered transdermally and tested in a pre-clinical mouse model. The M2e VLP was encapsulated into a polymeric matrix with the addition of Alhydrogel® and Monophosphoryl Lipid-A (MPL-A®), together referred to as AS04. The M2e VLP formulations induced IgG titers, with increased levels of IgG1 in the M2e VLP MP groups and further elevated levels of IgG2a were found specifically in the M2e VLP MP Adjuvant group. This trend in humoral immunity was also observed from a cell-mediated standpoint, where M2e VLP MP groups showed increased expression in CD4+ T cells in the spleen and the lymph node and high levels of CD8+ T cells in the lymph node. Taken together, the results illustrate the immunogenic potential of the matrix-2 protein virus-like particle (M2e VLP) vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Vaccine Stabilization and Delivery Technologies)
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Article
Oral Delivery of Novel Recombinant Lactobacillus Elicit High Protection against Staphylococcus aureus Pulmonary and Skin Infections
Vaccines 2021, 9(9), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9090984 - 03 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 585
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of nosocomial and community-associated infection worldwide; however, there is no licensed vaccine available. S. aureus initiates infection via the mucosa; therefore, a mucosal vaccine is likely to be a promising approach against S. aureus infection. Lactobacilli, a [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of nosocomial and community-associated infection worldwide; however, there is no licensed vaccine available. S. aureus initiates infection via the mucosa; therefore, a mucosal vaccine is likely to be a promising approach against S. aureus infection. Lactobacilli, a non-pathogenic bacterium, has gained increasing interest as a mucosal delivery vehicle. Hence, we attempted to develop an oral S. aureus vaccine based on lactobacilli to cushion the stress of drug resistance and vaccine needs. In this study, we designed, constructed, and evaluated recombinant Lactobacillus strains synthesizing S. aureus nontoxic mutated α-hemolysins (HlaH35L). The results from animal clinical trials showed that recombinant Lactobacillus can persist for at least 72 h and can stably express heterologous protein in vivo. Recombinant L. plantarum WXD234 (pNZ8148-Hla) could induce robust mucosal immunity in the GALT, as evidenced by a significant increase in IgA and IL-17 production and the strong proliferation of T-lymphocytes derived from Peyer’s patches. WXD234 (pNZ8148-Hla) conferred up to 83% protection against S. aureus pulmonary infection and significantly reduced the abscess size in a S. aureus skin infection model. Of particular interest is the sharp reduction of the protective effect offered by WXD234 (pNZ8148-Hla) vaccination in γδ T cell-deficient or IL-17-deficient mice. In conclusion, for the first time, genetically engineered Lactobacillus WXD234 (pNZ8148-Hla) as an oral vaccine induced superior mucosal immunity, which was associated with high protection against pulmonary and skin infections caused by S. aureus. Taken together, our findings suggest the great potential for a delivery system based on lactobacilli and provide experimental data for the development of mucosal vaccines for S. aureus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Vaccine Stabilization and Delivery Technologies)
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Article
DNA Vaccine Administered by Cationic Lipoplexes or by In Vivo Electroporation Induces Comparable Antibody Responses against SARS-CoV-2 in Mice
Vaccines 2021, 9(8), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9080874 - 06 Aug 2021
Viewed by 865
Abstract
In view of addressing the global necessity of an effective vaccine in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, a plasmid DNA vaccine, expressing for the spike (S) protein and formulated in lipoplexes, was manufactured and tested for in vitro transfection and in vivo immunogenicity. Blank cationic [...] Read more.
In view of addressing the global necessity of an effective vaccine in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, a plasmid DNA vaccine, expressing for the spike (S) protein and formulated in lipoplexes, was manufactured and tested for in vitro transfection and in vivo immunogenicity. Blank cationic liposomes of 130.9 ± 5.8 nm in size and with a zeta potential of +48 ± 12 mV were formulated using the thin-film layer rehydration method. Liposomes were complexed with pCMVkan-S at different N/P ratios. Ratios of 0.25:1 and 1:1 were selected according to their complex stability and controlled size compared to other ratios and tested in vitro for transfection studies and in vivo for immunogenicity. Both selected formulations showed enhanced neutralizing antibody responses compared to pCMVkan-S injected alone, as well as an increased T cell response. The titers observed were similar to those of intramuscular electroporation (IM-EP), which was set as an efficacy goal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Vaccine Stabilization and Delivery Technologies)
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Review

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Review
Potential Applications of Microparticulate-Based Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) Vaccine Platform for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9111245 - 27 Oct 2021
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major global health issue. Approximately 250 million new cases of STDs occur each year globally. Currently, only three STDs (human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis A, and hepatitis B) are preventable by vaccines. Vaccines for other STDs, including gonorrhea, [...] Read more.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major global health issue. Approximately 250 million new cases of STDs occur each year globally. Currently, only three STDs (human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis A, and hepatitis B) are preventable by vaccines. Vaccines for other STDs, including gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis, await successful development. Currently, all of these STDs are treated with antibiotics. However, the efficacy of antibiotics is facing growing challenge due to the emergence of bacterial resistance. Therefore, alternative therapeutic approaches, including the development of vaccines against these STDs, should be explored to tackle this important global public health issue. Mass vaccination could be more efficient in reducing the spread of these highly contagious diseases. Bacterial outer membrane vesicle (OMV) is a potential antigen used to prevent STDs. OMVs are released spontaneously during growth by many Gram-negative bacteria. They present a wide range of surface antigens in native conformation that possess interesting properties such as immunogenicity, adjuvant potential, and the ability to be taken up by immune cells, all of which make them an attractive target for application as vaccines against pathogenic bacteria. The major challenge associated with the use of OMVs is its fragile structure and stability. However, a particulate form of the vaccine could be a suitable delivery system that can protect the antigen from degradation by a harsh acidic or enzymatic environment. The particulate form of the vaccine can also act as an adjuvant by itself. This review will highlight some practical methods for formulating microparticulate OMV-based vaccines for STDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Vaccine Stabilization and Delivery Technologies)
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Review
Buccal and Sublingual Vaccines: A Review on Oral Mucosal Immunization and Delivery Systems
Vaccines 2021, 9(10), 1177; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101177 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 910
Abstract
Currently, most vaccines available on the market are for parental use; however, this may not be the best option on several occasions. Mucosal routes of administration such as intranasal, sublingual, and buccal generate great interest due to the benefits they offer. These range [...] Read more.
Currently, most vaccines available on the market are for parental use; however, this may not be the best option on several occasions. Mucosal routes of administration such as intranasal, sublingual, and buccal generate great interest due to the benefits they offer. These range from increasing patient compliance to inducing a more effective immune response than that achieved through conventional routes. Due to the activation of the common mucosal immune system, it is possible to generate an effective systemic and local immune response, which is not achieved through parenteral administration. Protection against pathogens that use mucosal entry routes is provided by an effective induction of mucosal immunity. Mucosal delivery systems are being developed, such as films and microneedles, which have proven to be effective, safe, and easy to administer. These systems have multiple advantages over commonly used injections, which are simple to manufacture, stable at room temperature, painless for the patient since they do not require puncture. Therefore, these delivery systems do not require to be administered by medical personnel; in fact, they could be self-administered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Vaccine Stabilization and Delivery Technologies)
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Review
A Review on Current COVID-19 Vaccines and Evaluation of Particulate Vaccine Delivery Systems
Vaccines 2021, 9(10), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101086 - 27 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
First detected in Wuhan, China, a highly contagious coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as COVID-19, spread globally in December of 2019. As of 19 September 2021, approximately 4.5 million people have died globally, and 215 million active cases have [...] Read more.
First detected in Wuhan, China, a highly contagious coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as COVID-19, spread globally in December of 2019. As of 19 September 2021, approximately 4.5 million people have died globally, and 215 million active cases have been reported. To date, six vaccines have been developed and approved for human use. However, current production and supply capabilities are unable to meet global demands to immunize the entire world population. Only a few countries have been able to successfully vaccinate many of their residents. Therefore, an alternative vaccine that can be prepared in an easy and cost-effective manner is urgently needed. A vaccine that could be prepared in this manner, as well as can be preserved and transported at room temperature, would be of great benefit to public health. It is possible to develop such an alternative vaccine by using nano- or microparticle platforms. These platforms address most of the existing vaccine limitations as they are stable at room temperature, are inexpensive to produce and distribute, can be administered orally, and do not require cold chain storage for transportation or preservation. Particulate vaccines can be administered as either oral solutions or in sublingual or buccal film dosage forms. Besides improved patient compliance, the major advantage of oral, sublingual, and buccal routes of administration is that they can elicit mucosal immunity. Mucosal immunity, along with systemic immunity, can be a strong defense against SARS-CoV-2 as the virus enters the system through inhalation or saliva. This review discusses the possibility to produce a particulate COVID vaccine by using nano- or microparticles as platforms for oral administration or in sublingual or buccal film dosage forms in order to accelerate global vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Vaccine Stabilization and Delivery Technologies)
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Review
Challenges of Storage and Stability of mRNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccines
Vaccines 2021, 9(9), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9091033 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1516
Abstract
In December 2019, a new and highly pathogenic coronavirus emerged—coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), quickly spread throughout the world. In response to this global pandemic, a few vaccines were allowed for emergency use, beginning [...] Read more.
In December 2019, a new and highly pathogenic coronavirus emerged—coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), quickly spread throughout the world. In response to this global pandemic, a few vaccines were allowed for emergency use, beginning in November 2020, of which the mRNA-based vaccines by Moderna (Moderna, Cambridge, MA, USA) and BioNTech (BioTech, Mainz, Germany)/Pfizer (Pfizer, New York, NY, USA) have been identified as the most effective ones. The mRNA platform allowed rapid development of vaccines, but their global use is limited by ultracold storage requirements. Most resource-poor countries do not have cold chain storage to execute mass vaccination. Therefore, determining strategies to increase stability of mRNA-based vaccines in relatively higher temperatures can be a game changer to address the current global pandemic and upcoming new waves. In this review, we summarized the current research strategies to enhance stability of the RNA vaccine delivery system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Vaccine Stabilization and Delivery Technologies)
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