Immunological Memory Following Vaccination

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2022) | Viewed by 9533

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Veterinary Immunology, Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of Bern Hochschulstrasse, 6, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
Interests: porcine and bovine mononuclear phagocytes; dendritic cells; viral pathogenesis; vaccines; virology

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Guest Editor
Department of Immunology, Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC), 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands
Interests: B cells; Ag-specific B cells; BCR repertoire; pertussis infection and vaccination; primary and booster vaccination; flow cytometry; molecular biology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Both infection and vaccination lead to the formation of immunological memory in the form of circulating memory B cells and T cells and long-lived immunoglobulin (Ig)-secreting plasma cells in the bone marrow. Although these cellular components play a critical role during consecutive antigen encounters, they are rarely used in the assessment of protective immunity, which is usually based on serological evaluation of antigen-specific Ig levels. While detection of antigen-specific cells may pose several challenges (i.e., related to their scarcity and the need for more complex detection systems), they can provide invaluable insight into the function of an individual immune system and the building of protective immunity. This issue focuses on the detection, characterization and longevity of memory cells following infection and vaccination. Both technological advances in the detection of memory cells, as well as their applications for better assessment of protective immunity are of the outmost interest.

Prof. Dr. Artur Summerield
Dr. Magdalena A. Berkowska
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • infection
  • vaccination
  • serology
  • immunological memory
  • memory B cells
  • memory T cells
  • technological advances

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 1058 KiB  
Article
Cross-Sectional Study of Varicella Zoster Virus Immunity in Healthy Korean Children Assessed by Glycoprotein Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Fluorescent Antibody to Membrane Antigen Test
by Yunhwa Kim, Ji-Young Hwang, Kyung-Min Lee, Eunsil Lee and Hosun Park
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050492 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2539
Abstract
The prevalence of varicella is especially high among children in the age group of 4–6 years in South Korea, regardless of vaccination. We investigated the immune status of healthy children enrolled in day-care centers and compared pre- and post-vaccination immunity. Antibody titers were [...] Read more.
The prevalence of varicella is especially high among children in the age group of 4–6 years in South Korea, regardless of vaccination. We investigated the immune status of healthy children enrolled in day-care centers and compared pre- and post-vaccination immunity. Antibody titers were measured using a glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpEIA) kit, and the seroconversion rate was assessed using a fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) test. Among 541 vaccinated children, 109 (20.1%) had breakthrough varicella. However, 13 (72.2%) of the 18 unvaccinated children had a history of varicella. The gpEIA geometric mean titers (GMTs) of pre- and 5 weeks post-vaccination in 1-year-old children were 14.7 and 72 mIU/mL, respectively, and the FAMA seroconversion rate was 91.1%. The gpEIA GMTs of 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children were 104.1, 133.8, 223.5, 364.1, and 353.0 mIU/mL, respectively. Even though the gpEIA GMT increased with age, the pattern of gpEIA titer distribution in 4- to 6-year-old vaccinees without varicella history represented both waning immunity and natural boosting immunity. These results suggest that some vaccinees are vulnerable to varicella infection. Therefore, it is necessary to consider a two-dose varicella vaccine regimen in South Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunological Memory Following Vaccination)
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10 pages, 746 KiB  
Article
Persistence of Anti-Hbs after up to 30 Years in Health Care Workers Vaccinated against Hepatitis B Virus
by Silvia Cocchio, Vincenzo Baldo, Anna Volpin, Marco Fonzo, Annarosa Floreani, Patrizia Furlan, Paola Mason, Andrea Trevisan and Maria Luisa Scapellato
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040323 - 1 Apr 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 6229
Abstract
The burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem all over the world. Vaccination remains the most effective prevention measure, and safe and effective HBV vaccines have been available since 1982. Health care workers (HCWs) vaccinated against HBV [...] Read more.
The burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem all over the world. Vaccination remains the most effective prevention measure, and safe and effective HBV vaccines have been available since 1982. Health care workers (HCWs) vaccinated against HBV and prospectively followed up for at least 14 years were classified by their antibody titers after primary vaccination as: poor responders (10–99 mIU/mL); moderate responders (100–999 mIU/mL); and good responders (≥1000 mIU/mL). The incidence of antibody loss was calculated for 1000 person-years and the anti-HBs persistence was calculated. The analysis concerned 539 HCWs: 494 good responders (91.7%); 37 moderate responders (6.9%); and eight poor responders (1.5%). The incidence of anti-HBs loss was 52.1 per 1000 person-years for the poor responders, 11.3 per 1000 person-years for the moderate responders, and 1.4 per 1000 person-years for the good responders. The mean persistence of anti-HBs differed significantly between the three groups, being: 19.2 years (95% CI: 15.6–22.8), 25.4 years (95% CI: 23.0–27.9), and 31.0 years (95% CI: 30.5–31.5) for the poor, moderate and good responders, respectively. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a good persistence of protective anti-HBs titers in HCWs exposed to occupational risk for up to 30 years after a primary vaccination cycle (even without a booster dose) if their titer was initially higher than 100 mIU/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunological Memory Following Vaccination)
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