Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibodies and Vaccine Development

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2024 | Viewed by 16373

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Division of HIV/AIDS and Sex-transmitted Virus Vaccines, Institute for Biological Product Control, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC), Beijing, China
Interests: SARS-CoV-2; HIV-1; HPV; vaccine development; vaccine evaluation; immune response; neutralizing antibody; standardization of assay

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The COVID-19 pandemic has been ongoing for more than two years, killing more than 6.5 million people and having an unimaginable impact on people’s lives. Safe, effective, affordable and accessible vaccines are considered an important weapon to end the outbreak. Neutralizing antibodies are important indicators for the evaluation of the effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Standardized in vitro potency methods are urgently needed to evaluate antiviral products in both pre-clinical and clinical phases. In addition, the detection of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 would be helpful to understand the status of the protective immune response among COVID-19 patients and asymptomatic cases. At present, there are many methods for detecting SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies, including culture live virus neutralization method, recombinant replication virus neutralization method, pseudotyped virus neutralization method, and competition inhibition neutralization antibody detection method. Even if the same type of method is used, specific operations in different laboratories can lead to differences in results. As a result, the neutralizing antibody test results of different vaccines are incomparable, meaning that the immunogenicity of different vaccines cannot be compared horizontally.

To achieve a more holistic understanding of recent scientific knowledge and current trends in SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assay and vaccine development, this Special issue is focused on the recent scientific and technical progresses made in this field. In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following: (i) recent advances in novel neutralization assay development, (ii) standardization and comparison of different SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assays, (iii) comparison of neutralizing antibody responses induced by different vaccines, and (iv) correlates of protection.

I look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Jianhui Nie
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • vaccine
  • neutralizing antibody
  • correlation of protection
  • standardization

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 7365 KiB  
Article
High-Content Imaging-Based Assay for SARS-CoV-2-Neutralizing Antibodies
by Vinícius Pinto Costa Rocha, Bruna Aparecida Souza Machado, Helenita Costa Quadros, Antônio Márcio Santana Fernandes, Bianca Sampaio Dotto Fiuza, Cássio Santana Meira, Vitória Torres Barbosa da Silva, Afrânio Ferreira Evangelista, Larissa Moraes dos Santos Fonseca, Roberto José da Silva Badaró and Milena Botelho Pereira Soares
Vaccines 2024, 12(3), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12030236 - 24 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1114
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic and the consequent emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern necessitates the determination of populational serum potency against the virus. Here, we standardized and validated an imaging-based method to quantify neutralizing antibodies against lentiviral particles expressing the spike glycoprotein (pseudovirus). [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic and the consequent emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern necessitates the determination of populational serum potency against the virus. Here, we standardized and validated an imaging-based method to quantify neutralizing antibodies against lentiviral particles expressing the spike glycoprotein (pseudovirus). This method was found to efficiently quantify viral titers based on ZsGreen-positive cells and detect changes in human serum neutralization capacity induced by vaccination with up to two doses of CoronaVac, Comirnaty, or Covishield vaccines. The imaging-based protocol was also used to quantify serum potency against pseudoviruses expressing spikes from Delta, Omicron BA.1.1.529, and BA.4/5. Our results revealed increases in serum potency after one and two doses of the vaccines evaluated and demonstrated that Delta and Omicron variants escape from antibody neutralization. The method presented herein represents a valuable tool for the screening of antibodies and small molecules capable of blocking viral entry and could be used to evaluate humoral immunity developed by different populations and for vaccine development. Full article
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13 pages, 2807 KiB  
Article
Antigen-Heterologous Vaccination Regimen Triggers Alternate Antibody Targeting in SARS-CoV-2-DNA-Vaccinated Mice
by Anders Frische, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Anders Fomsgaard and Ria Lassaunière
Vaccines 2024, 12(3), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12030218 - 20 Feb 2024
Viewed by 808
Abstract
An in-depth analysis of antibody epitopes following vaccination with different regimens provides important insight for developing future vaccine strategies. B-cell epitopes conserved across virus variants may be ideal targets for vaccine-induced antibodies and therapeutic drugs. However, challenges lie in identifying these key antigenic [...] Read more.
An in-depth analysis of antibody epitopes following vaccination with different regimens provides important insight for developing future vaccine strategies. B-cell epitopes conserved across virus variants may be ideal targets for vaccine-induced antibodies and therapeutic drugs. However, challenges lie in identifying these key antigenic regions, and directing the immune system to target them. We previously evaluated the immunogenicity of two candidate DNA vaccines encoding the unmodified spike protein of either the SARS-CoV-2 Index strain or the Beta variant of concern (VOC). As a follow-on study, we characterized here the antibody binding profiles of three groups of mice immunized with either the DNA vaccine encoding the SARS-CoV-2 Index strain spike protein only, the Beta VOC spike protein only, or a combination of both as an antigen-heterologous prime-boost regimen. The latter induced an antibody response targeting overlapping regions that were observed for the individual vaccines but with additional high levels of antibody directed against epitopes in the SD2 region and the HR2 region. These heterologous-vaccinated animals displayed improved neutralization breadth. We believe that a broad-focused vaccine regimen increases neutralization breadth, and that the in-depth analysis of B-cell epitope targeting used in this study can be applied in future vaccine research. Full article
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12 pages, 1798 KiB  
Article
The Immunogenicity of CpG, MF59-like, and Alum Adjuvant Delta Strain Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines in Mice
by Kangwei Xu, Jing Li, Xu Lu, Xiaoqin Ge, Kaiqin Wang, Jiahao Wang, Zhizhong Qiao, Yaru Quan and Changgui Li
Vaccines 2024, 12(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12010060 - 07 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1177
Abstract
The continuous evolution and mutation of SARS-CoV-2 have highlighted the need for more effective vaccines. In this study, CpG, MF59-like, and Alum adjuvant Delta strain inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were prepared, and the immunogenicity of these vaccines in mice was evaluated. The Delta + [...] Read more.
The continuous evolution and mutation of SARS-CoV-2 have highlighted the need for more effective vaccines. In this study, CpG, MF59-like, and Alum adjuvant Delta strain inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were prepared, and the immunogenicity of these vaccines in mice was evaluated. The Delta + MF59-like vaccine group produced the highest levels of S- and RBD-binding antibodies and live Delta virus neutralization levels after one shot of immunization, while mice in the Delta + Alum vaccine group had the highest levels of these antibodies after two doses, and the Delta + MF59-like and Delta + Alum vaccine groups produced high levels of cross-neutralization antibodies against prototype, Beta, and Gamma strain SARS-CoV-2 viruses. There was no significant decrease in neutralizing antibody levels in any vaccine group during the observation period. CpG, MF59-like, and Alum adjuvant Delta strain inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines excited different antibody subtypes compared with unadjuvanted vaccines; the Delta + CpG vaccine group had a higher proportion of IgG2b antibodies, indicating bias towards Th1 immunity. The proportions of IgG1 and IgG2b in the Delta + MF59-like vaccine group were similar to those of the unadjuvanted vaccine. However, the Delta + Alum vaccine group had a higher proportion of IgG1 antibodies, indicating bias towards Th2 immunity. Antigen-specific cytokine secretion CD4/8+ T cells were analyzed. In conclusion, the results of this study show differences in the immune efficacy of CpG, MF59-like, and Alum adjuvant Delta strain inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in mice, which have significant implications for the selection strategy for vaccine adjuvants. Full article
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18 pages, 3532 KiB  
Article
A Candidate DNA Vaccine Encoding the Native SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Induces Anti-Subdomain 1 Antibodies
by Anders Frische, Vithiagaran Gunalan, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Anders Fomsgaard and Ria Lassaunière
Vaccines 2023, 11(9), 1451; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11091451 - 03 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1268
Abstract
The ideal vaccine against viral infections should elicit antibody responses that protect against divergent strains. Designing broadly protective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and other divergent viruses requires insight into the specific targets of cross-protective antibodies on the viral surface protein(s). However, unlike therapeutic monoclonal [...] Read more.
The ideal vaccine against viral infections should elicit antibody responses that protect against divergent strains. Designing broadly protective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and other divergent viruses requires insight into the specific targets of cross-protective antibodies on the viral surface protein(s). However, unlike therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, the B-cell epitopes of vaccine-induced polyclonal antibody responses remain poorly defined. Here we show that, through the combination of neutralizing antibody functional responses with B-cell epitope mapping, it is possible to identify unique antibody targets associated with neutralization breadth. The polyclonal antibody profiles of SARS-CoV-2 index-strain-vaccinated rabbits that demonstrated a low, intermediate, or high neutralization efficiency of different SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) were distinctly different. Animals with an intermediate and high cross-neutralization of VOCs targeted fewer antigenic sites on the spike protein and targeted one particular epitope, subdomain 1 (SD1), situated outside the receptor binding domain (RBD). Our results indicate that a targeted functional antibody response and an additional focus on non-RBD epitopes could be effective for broad protection against different SARS-CoV-2 variants. We anticipate that the approach taken in this study can be applied to other viral vaccines for identifying future epitopes that confer cross-neutralizing antibody responses, and that our findings will inform a rational vaccine design for SARS-CoV-2. Full article
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8 pages, 1556 KiB  
Communication
Development of a Bioluminescent Imaging Mouse Model for SARS-CoV-2 Infection Based on a Pseudovirus System
by Xi Wu, Nana Fang, Ziteng Liang, Jianhui Nie, Sen Lang, Changfa Fan, Chunnan Liang, Weijin Huang and Youchun Wang
Vaccines 2023, 11(7), 1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11071133 - 22 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1173
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), remains widely pandemic around the world. Animal models that are sensitive to the virus are therefore urgently needed to evaluate potential vaccines and antiviral agents; however, SARS-CoV-2 requires biosafety level [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), remains widely pandemic around the world. Animal models that are sensitive to the virus are therefore urgently needed to evaluate potential vaccines and antiviral agents; however, SARS-CoV-2 requires biosafety level 3 containment. To overcome this, we developed an animal model using the intranasal administration of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. As the pseudovirus contains the firefly luciferase reporter gene, infected tissues and the viral load could be monitored by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. We used the model to evaluate the protective efficacy of monoclonal antibodies and the tissue tropism of different variants. The model may also be a useful tool for the safe and convenient preliminary evaluation of the protective efficacy of vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2, as well as the treatment efficacy of anti-viral drugs. Full article
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12 pages, 1727 KiB  
Article
The Quantification of Spike Proteins in the Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines of the Prototype, Delta, and Omicron Variants by LC–MS
by Kangwei Xu, Huang Sun, Kaiqin Wang, Yaru Quan, Zhizhong Qiao, Yaling Hu and Changgui Li
Vaccines 2023, 11(5), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11051002 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1367
Abstract
Developing variant vaccines or multivalent vaccines is a feasible way to address the epidemic as the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) posed an increased risk to global public health. The spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus was usually used as the main antigen [...] Read more.
Developing variant vaccines or multivalent vaccines is a feasible way to address the epidemic as the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) posed an increased risk to global public health. The spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus was usually used as the main antigen in many types of vaccines to produce neutralizing antibodies against the virus. However, the spike (S) proteins of different variants were only differentiated by a few amino acids, making it difficult to obtain specific antibodies that can distinguish different VOCs, thereby challenging the accurate distinction and quantification of the variants using immunological methods such as ELISA. Here, we established a method based on LC–MS to quantify the S proteins in inactivated monovalent vaccines or trivalent vaccines (prototype, Delta, and Omicron strains). By analyzing the S protein sequences of the prototype, Delta, and Omicron strains, we identified peptides that were different and specific among the three strains and synthesized them as references. The synthetic peptides were isotopically labeled as internal targets. Quantitative analysis was performed by calculating the ratio between the reference and internal target. The verification results have shown that the method we established had good specificity, accuracy, and precision. This method can not only accurately quantify the inactivated monovalent vaccine but also could be applied to each strain in inactivated trivalent SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Hence, the LC–MS method established in this study can be applied to the quality control of monovalent and multivalent SARS-CoV-2 variation vaccines. By enabling more accurate quantification, it will help to improve the protection of the vaccine to some extent. Full article
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11 pages, 612 KiB  
Article
Clinical Characteristics of Mild Patients with Breakthrough Infection of Omicron Variant in China after Relaxing the Dynamic Zero COVID-19 Policy
by Yingyu He, Fang Zhang, Yan Liu, Zhou Xiong, Shangen Zheng, Wanbing Liu and Lei Liu
Vaccines 2023, 11(5), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11050968 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1033
Abstract
For SARS-CoV-2 mutants, the effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccines is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of Omicron-infected patients who completed primary immunization and booster immunization, respectively, during the rapid propagation of the Omicron variant in China. [...] Read more.
For SARS-CoV-2 mutants, the effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccines is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of Omicron-infected patients who completed primary immunization and booster immunization, respectively, during the rapid propagation of the Omicron variant in China. A total of 932 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from 18 December 2022 to 1 January 2023 were included in this survey by filling out questionnaires online. The enrolled patients were divided into the primary immunization group and the booster immunization group according to their vaccination status. During the whole course of disease, the most frequent symptoms were fever (90.6%), cough (84.3%), weakness (77.4%), headache and dizziness (76.1%), and myalgia (73.9%). Nearly 90% of the patients had symptoms lasting for less than 10 days, and 39.8% of the patients ended the course of the disease in 4–6 days. A total of 58.8% of these patients had a fever with a maximum body temperature of over 38.5 °C. Moreover, 61.4% of the patients had a fever that lasted less than 2 days. There were no obvious differences in initial symptoms, cardinal symptoms, symptom duration time, maximum body temperature, and fever duration time between the two groups of patients. In addition, no significant difference was found in the positive or negative conversion time of SARS-CoV-2 antigen/nucleic acid between the two groups of patients. For mild patients with Omicron breakthrough infection, enhanced immunization has no significant impact on the clinical performance and duration of viral infection compared with primary immunization. The reasons behind the different clinical manifestations of patients with mild symptoms after the breakthrough infection of the Omicron strain are still worth further research. Heterologous vaccination may be a better strategy for enhanced immunization, which can help improve the immune protection ability of the population. Further research should be carried out on vaccines against mutant strains and spectral anti-COVID-19 vaccines. Full article
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17 pages, 4655 KiB  
Article
Heterologous Vector—mRNA Based SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination Strategy Appears Superior to a Homologous Vector—Based Vaccination Scheme in German Healthcare Workers Regarding Humoral SARS-CoV-2 Response Indicating a High Boosting Effect by mRNA Vaccines
by Catharina Gerhards, Margot Thiaucourt, Michael Hetjens, Verena Haselmann, Michael Neumaier and Maximilian Kittel
Vaccines 2023, 11(3), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11030701 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1728
Abstract
Background: Longitudinal humoral SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2) immunity for up to 15 months due to vaccination, the efficacy of vaccination strategies (homologous, vector–vector versus heterologous, vector–mRNA), the influence of vaccination side effects, and the infection rate in German healthcare [...] Read more.
Background: Longitudinal humoral SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2) immunity for up to 15 months due to vaccination, the efficacy of vaccination strategies (homologous, vector–vector versus heterologous, vector–mRNA), the influence of vaccination side effects, and the infection rate in German healthcare workers need to be investigated. Methods: In this study, 103 individuals vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 were enrolled to examine their anti-SARS-CoV-2 anti-N- and anti-RBD/S1-Ig levels. A total of 415 blood samples in lithium heparin tubes were prospectively obtained, and a structured survey regarding medical history, type of vaccine, and vaccination reactions was conducted. Results: All participants demonstrated a humoral immune response, among whom no values decreased below the positivity cutoff. Five to six months after the third vaccination, three participants showed anti-RBD/S1 antibodies of less than 1000 U/mL. We observed higher levels for heterologous mRNA-/vector-based combinations compared to pure vector-based vaccination after the second vaccination, which is harmonized after a third vaccination with the mRNA-vaccine only in both cohorts. The incidence of vaccine breakthrough in a highly exposed cohort was 60.3%. Conclusion: Sustained long-term humoral immunity was observed, indicating the superiority of a heterologous mRNA-/vector-based combination compared to pure vector-based vaccination. There was longevity of anti-RBD/S1 antibodies of at least 4 and up to 7 months without external stimulus. Regarding vaccination reactogenity, the occurrence of local symptoms as pain at the injection site was increased after the first mRNA application compared to the vector–vector cohort with a general decrease in adverse events at later vaccination time points. Overall, a correlation between the humoral vaccination response and vaccination side effects was not observed. Despite the high prevalence of vaccine breakthroughs, these only occurred in the later course of the study when more infectious variants, which are, however, associated with milder courses, were present. These results provide insights into vaccine-related serologic responses, and the study should be expanded using additional vaccine doses and novel variants in the future. Full article
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10 pages, 1255 KiB  
Article
Rapid Quantification of SARS-CoV-2 Neutralising Antibodies Using Time-Resolved Fluorescence Immunoassay
by Gary R. McLean, Yueke Zhang, Rene Ndoyi, Adam Martin and Julian Winer
Vaccines 2022, 10(12), 2149; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10122149 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1766
Abstract
The quantification of neutralising antibodies (NAb) for SARS-CoV-2 has become an important tool for monitoring protective immunity following infection or immunisation. In this study, we evaluated using World-Health-Organisation-standard immunoglobulin preparations, a novel point-of-care test that quantitates NAb by time-resolved fluorescent immunoassay. The assay [...] Read more.
The quantification of neutralising antibodies (NAb) for SARS-CoV-2 has become an important tool for monitoring protective immunity following infection or immunisation. In this study, we evaluated using World-Health-Organisation-standard immunoglobulin preparations, a novel point-of-care test that quantitates NAb by time-resolved fluorescent immunoassay. The assay provided robust data of binding antibody units (BAU) in 15 min that were well correlated with NAb values obtained by traditional in vitro neutralisation assay. The data also correlated well to spike-receptor-binding domain-binding antibodies over a broad range of plasma dilutions. The assay was extremely sensitive, able to detect positive samples after dilution 1:10,000 and over a wide range of BAU. Assay specificity was estimated at 96% using Pre-COVID-19 serum samples when applying a cut-off value of 47 BAU/mL, although readings of up to 100 BAU/mL could be considered borderline. This point-of-care diagnostic test is useful for rapid population screening and includes the use of capillary blood samples. Furthermore, it provides results for SARS-CoV-2 NAb in 15 min, which can inform immediate decisions regarding protective immunity levels and the need for continued COVID immunisations. Full article
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Review

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30 pages, 3586 KiB  
Review
A Clinical Insight on New Discovered Molecules and Repurposed Drugs for the Treatment of COVID-19
by Surojit Banerjee, Debadri Banerjee, Anupama Singh, Sumit Kumar, Deep Pooja, Veerma Ram, Hitesh Kulhari and Vikas Anand Saharan
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020332 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3107
Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began churning out incredulous terror in December 2019. Within several months from its first detection in Wuhan, SARS-CoV-2 spread to the rest of the world through droplet infection, making it a pandemic situation and a healthcare [...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began churning out incredulous terror in December 2019. Within several months from its first detection in Wuhan, SARS-CoV-2 spread to the rest of the world through droplet infection, making it a pandemic situation and a healthcare emergency across the globe. The available treatment of COVID-19 was only symptomatic as the disease was new and no approved drug or vaccine was available. Another challenge with COVID-19 was the continuous mutation of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Some repurposed drugs, such as hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and remdesivir, received emergency use authorization in various countries, but their clinical use is compromised with either severe and fatal adverse effects or nonavailability of sufficient clinical data. Molnupiravir was the first molecule approved for the treatment of COVID-19, followed by Paxlovid™, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), and others. New molecules have variable therapeutic efficacy against different variants or strains of SARS-CoV-2, which require further investigations. The aim of this review is to provide in-depth information on new molecules and repurposed drugs with emphasis on their general description, mechanism of action (MOA), correlates of protection, dose and dosage form, route of administration, clinical trials, regulatory approval, and marketing authorizations. Full article
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Other

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10 pages, 7965 KiB  
Brief Report
Measuring Variant-Specific Neutralizing Antibody Profiles after Bivalent SARS-CoV-2 Vaccinations Using a Multivariant Surrogate Virus Neutralization Microarray
by David Niklas Springer, Eva Höltl, Katja Prüger, Elisabeth Puchhammer-Stöckl, Judith Helene Aberle, Karin Stiasny and Lukas Weseslindtner
Vaccines 2024, 12(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12010094 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 783
Abstract
The capability of antibodies to neutralize different SARS-CoV-2 variants varies among individuals depending on the previous exposure to wild-type or Omicron-specific immunogens by mono- or bivalent vaccinations or infections. Such profiles of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) usually have to be assessed via laborious live-virus [...] Read more.
The capability of antibodies to neutralize different SARS-CoV-2 variants varies among individuals depending on the previous exposure to wild-type or Omicron-specific immunogens by mono- or bivalent vaccinations or infections. Such profiles of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) usually have to be assessed via laborious live-virus neutralization tests (NTs). We therefore analyzed whether a novel multivariant surrogate-virus neutralization test (sVNT) (adapted from a commercial microarray) that quantifies the antibody-mediated inhibition between the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and variant-specific receptor-binding domains (RBDs) can assess the neutralizing activity against the SARS-CoV-2 wild-type, and Delta Omicron BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5 subvariants after a booster with Omicron-adapted bivalent vaccines in a manner similar to live-virus NTs. Indeed, by using the live-virus NTs as a reference, we found a significant correlation between the variant-specific NT titers and levels of ACE2-RBD binding inhibition (p < 0.0001, r ≤ 0.78 respectively). Furthermore, the sVNTs identified higher inhibition values against BA.5 and BA.1 in individuals vaccinated with Omicron-adapted vaccines than in those with monovalent wild-type vaccines. Our data thus demonstrate the ability of sVNTs to detect variant-specific nAbs following a booster with bivalent vaccines. Full article
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