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Special Issue "Monitoring and Modelling Techniques for Sea Environment and Sustainable Development"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 December 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Maurizio Migliaccio

Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope, Centro Direzionale—Isola C4, 80143 Napoli, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +390815476705
Fax: +390815476777
Interests: SAR oil slick and man-made target monitoring; remote sensing for marine and coastal applications; polarimetry; inverse problem for resolution enhancement
Guest Editor
Prof. Guido Benassai

Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope, Centro Direzionale—Isola C4, 80143 Napoli, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +390815476590
Fax: +390815476777
Interests: coastal vulnerability and risk assessment; wave energy; marine spatial planning; coastal hydrodynamics; coastal management
Guest Editor
Dr. Patrizio Mariani

Centre for Ocean Life, National Institute for Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Charlottenlund Castle, Charlottenlund, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +45-31-22-63-35
Fax: +45-35-88-33-53
Interests: physical-biological oceanography; ecology of plankton and fish; population dynamics; behavioural models; cross-disciplinary approach in marine systems
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Renata Archetti

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale e dei Materiali, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39-051-2093756
Interests: coastal hydrodynamics and morphodynamics; pollution in coastal areas; innovative sea-monitoring technology; marine structure design; extreme event risk analysis; renewable energy resource assessment (mini-hydro, wind and wave power); generation and propagation of tsunamis modeling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The main focus of this special issue is an up-to-date report on the state of the art of all aspects of marine studies, remote sensing (satellite, video, drone etc.), and sea modelling to support marine sustainable development.

Ocean and coastal zones represent a complex dynamic natural and human interrelated processes. Many physical phenomena, such as wind waves, swell, tides and wave driven currents are the dominant mechanisms which govern the physical and biological processes in the sea environment and can be affected in some regions by the anthropic activities. The study of these phenomena requires a multi-disciplinary approach and the implementation of monitoring techniques at different spatial and temporal scales.

Contributions dealing with innovative monitoring techniques, including remote sensing and management of the relevant processes, numerical models of the biophysical and/or physical processes of the sea environment, pollution in coastal areas and coastal protection are strongly encouraged.

Prof. Maurizio Migliaccio
Prof. Guido Benassai
Dr. Patrizio Mariani
Prof. Renata Archetti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sea monitoring
  • sea modelling
  • remote sensing
  • electromagnetic model
  • coastal vulnerability
  • sea management
  • marine spatial planning
  • sea pollution
  • physical oceanography
  • biological oceanography
  • sustainable development

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
New Strategies to Improve Co-Management in Enclosed Coastal Seas and Wetlands Subjected to Complex Environments: Socio-Economic Analysis Applied to an International Recovery Success Case Study after an Environmental Crisis
Sustainability 2019, 11(4), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11041039
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Enclosed coastal seas and wetlands are areas of high ecological value with singular fauna and flora, but several cases of environmental catastrophes in recent decades can easily be referenced in the international literature. The management of these natural territories is complex in developed [...] Read more.
Enclosed coastal seas and wetlands are areas of high ecological value with singular fauna and flora, but several cases of environmental catastrophes in recent decades can easily be referenced in the international literature. The management of these natural territories is complex in developed countries since they are usually subjected to intense human activity with a varied catalog of activities and anthropizing features that alter the balance of the ecosystem. In this article, the concept of the Socio-Ecological System (SES) to diagnose and achieve a sustainable cohabitation between human anthropization and the natural values based on the tool of GIS participatory mapping is proposed as an innovative approach for the management and recovery of these complex areas. The article develops a comprehensive general methodology of spatial GIS diagnosis, planning, and co-management implementation between public and private stakeholders combined with economic tools such as the Willingness to Pay (WTP) and the Cost Transfer Sector (CTS). This innovative approach is applied to the Mar Menor lagoon, which is an international and successful case study of environmental recovery on the Spanish Mediterranean coast. The coastal lagoon suffered an unprecedented eutrophication crisis in 2015, but it managed to recover in the summer of 2018 without the need to implement major structural measures. In this case study, several solutions to redress the current impacts will be developed through a participatory process based on GIS mapping. Lastly, the discussion reflects the concept of self-resilience of an ecosystem based on the unexpected positive turn of the environmental crisis in the lagoon ending. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring the Characteristics of the Bohai Sea Ice Using High-Resolution Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) Data
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030777
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Satellite remote sensing data, such as moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometers (MODIS) and advanced very high-resolution radiometers (AVHRR), are being widely used to monitor sea ice conditions and their variability in the Bohai Sea, the southernmost frozen sea in the Northern Hemisphere. Monitoring the [...] Read more.
Satellite remote sensing data, such as moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometers (MODIS) and advanced very high-resolution radiometers (AVHRR), are being widely used to monitor sea ice conditions and their variability in the Bohai Sea, the southernmost frozen sea in the Northern Hemisphere. Monitoring the characteristics of the Bohai Sea ice can provide crucial information for ice disaster prevention for marine transportation, oil field operation, and regional climate change studies. Although these satellite data cover the study area with fairly high spatial resolution, their typically limited cloudless images pose serious restrictions for continuous observation of short-term dynamics, such as sub-seasonal changes. In this study, high spatiotemporal resolution (500 m and eight images per day) geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) data with a high proportion of cloud-free images were used to monitor the characteristics of the Bohai Sea ice, including area and thickness. An object-based feature extraction method and an albedo-based thickness inversion model were used for estimating sea ice area and thickness, respectively. To demonstrate the efficacy of the new dataset, a total of 68 GOCI images were selected to analyze the evolution of sea ice area and thickness during the winter of 2012–2013 with severe sea ice conditions. The extracted sea ice area was validated using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data with higher spatial resolution, and the estimated sea ice thickness was found to be consistent with in situ observation results. The entire sea ice freezing–melting processes, including the key events such as the day with the maximum ice area and the first and last days of the frozen season, were better resolved by the high temporal-resolution GOCI data compared with MODIS or AVHRR data. Both characteristics were found to be closely correlated with cumulative freezing/melting degree days. Our study demonstrates the applicability of the GOCI data as an improved dataset for studying the Bohai Sea ice, particularly for purposes that require high temporal resolution data, such as sea ice disaster monitoring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Shoreline Rotation Analysis of Embayed Beaches by Means of In Situ and Remote Surveys
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030725
Received: 1 December 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (11470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the present study is to achieve a better understanding of the possible rotation of embayed beaches using shoreline position data from two beaches on the central Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy) during a 64-year period. With this aim, this study tests the [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study is to achieve a better understanding of the possible rotation of embayed beaches using shoreline position data from two beaches on the central Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy) during a 64-year period. With this aim, this study tests the utility of Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and GPS RTK (Real Time Kinematic) dual-frequency navigation system for the in situ surveys, low-altitude aerial imagery collected by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), and satellite polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measurements. The dataset consists of aerial photographs and orthophotos, DGPS, and remote surveys performed by UAV and SAR platform in 2018 along with wave data coming from the Ponza buoy. The results of the field data analysis explained a part of the beach variations in terms of coastline rotation around a virtual pivotal point. This rotation has been correlated with the wave directional shift in the recent period. The results of the comparison between the different techniques gave the possibility to investigate the limitations of remote survey methods for the identification of shoreline rotation. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Range-Gated Imaging System for Underwater Monitoring in Ocean Environment
Sustainability 2019, 11(1), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010162
Received: 24 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 22 December 2018 / Published: 29 December 2018
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Abstract
High-quality video observations are very much needed in underwater environments for the monitoring of several ecosystem indicators and to support the sustainable development and management of almost all activities in the ocean. Reliable video observations are however challenging to collect, because of the [...] Read more.
High-quality video observations are very much needed in underwater environments for the monitoring of several ecosystem indicators and to support the sustainable development and management of almost all activities in the ocean. Reliable video observations are however challenging to collect, because of the generally poor visibility conditions and the difficulties to deploy cost-effective sensors and platforms in the marine environment. Visibility in water is regulated by natural light availability at different depths, and by the presence of suspended particles, scattering incident light in all directions. Those elements are also largely variable in time and space, making it difficult to identify technological solutions that can be used in all conditions. By combining state-of-the-art “time of flight” (ToF) image sensors and innovative pulsed laser illumination, we have developed a range-gated camera system (UTOFIA) that enables affordable and enhanced 3D underwater imaging at high resolution. This range-gated solution allows users to eliminate close-range backscattering, improving quality of the images and providing information on the distance of each illuminated object, hence giving access to real-time 3D measurements. Furthermore, as the system is based on pulsed laser light, it is almost independent of natural light conditions and can achieve similar performances at an extended depth range. We use this system to collect observations in different oceanographic conditions and for different applications, including aquaculture monitoring, seafloor mapping, litter identifications and structure inspection. Performances are evaluated by comparing images to regular cameras and by using standard targets to assess accuracy and precision of distance measurements. We suggest that this type of technology can become a standard in underwater 3D imaging to support the future development of the ocean economy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Marine Oil Spill Detection Based on the Comprehensive Use of Polarimetric SAR Data
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4408; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124408
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3368 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As a major marine pollution source, oil spills largely threaten the sustainability of the coastal environment. Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar remote sensing has become a promising approach for marine oil spill detection since it could effectively separate crude oil and biogenic look-alikes. However, [...] Read more.
As a major marine pollution source, oil spills largely threaten the sustainability of the coastal environment. Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar remote sensing has become a promising approach for marine oil spill detection since it could effectively separate crude oil and biogenic look-alikes. However, on the sea surface, the signal to noise ratio of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) backscatter is usually low, especially for cross-polarized channels. In practice, it is necessary to combine the refined detail of slick-sea boundary derived from the co-polarized channel and the highly accurate crude slick/look-alike classification result obtained based on the polarimetric information. In this paper, the architecture for oil spill detection based on polarimetric SAR is proposed and analyzed. The performance of different polarimetric SAR filters for oil spill classification are compared. Polarimetric SAR features are extracted and taken as the input of Staked Auto Encoder (SAE) to achieve high accurate classification between crude oil, biogenic slicks, and clean sea surface. A post-processing method is proposed to combine the classification result derived from SAE and the refined boundary derived from VV channel power image based on special density thresholding (SDT). Experiments were conducted on spaceborne fully polarimetric SAR images where both crude oil and biogenic slicks were presented on the sea surface. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Spectral Ship Detection Using Optical, Hyperspectral, and Microwave SAR Remote Sensing Data in Coastal Regions
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4064; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114064
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (14205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The necessity of efficient monitoring of ships in coastal regions has been increasing over time. Multi-satellite observations make it possible to effectively monitor vessels. This study presents the results of ship detection methodology, applied to optical, hyperspectral, and microwave satellite images in the [...] Read more.
The necessity of efficient monitoring of ships in coastal regions has been increasing over time. Multi-satellite observations make it possible to effectively monitor vessels. This study presents the results of ship detection methodology, applied to optical, hyperspectral, and microwave satellite images in the seas around the Korean Peninsula. Spectral matching algorithms are used to detect ships using hyperspectral images with hundreds of spectral channels and investigate the similarity between the spectra and in-situ measurements. In the case of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images, the Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) algorithm is used to discriminate the vessels from the backscattering coefficients of Sentinel-1B SAR and ALOS-2 PALSAR2 images. Validation results exhibited that the locations of the satellite-detected vessels showed good agreement with real-time location data within the Sentinel-1B coverage in the Korean coastal region. This study presented the probability of detection values of optical and SAR-based ship detection and discussed potential causes of the errors. This study also suggested a possibility for real-time operational use of vessel detection from multi-satellite images based on optical, hyperspectral, and SAR remote sensing, particularly in the inaccessible coastal regions off North Korea, for comprehensive coastal management and sustainability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
COSMO–SkyMed Synthetic Aperture Radar Data to Observe the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3599; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103599
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 30 September 2018 / Published: 10 October 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5491 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oil spills are adverse events that may be very harmful to ecosystems and the food chain. In particular, large sea oil spills are very dramatic occurrences that may affect sea and coastal areas. Hence, the sustainability of oil rig infrastructures and oil transportation [...] Read more.
Oil spills are adverse events that may be very harmful to ecosystems and the food chain. In particular, large sea oil spills are very dramatic occurrences that may affect sea and coastal areas. Hence, the sustainability of oil rig infrastructures and oil transportation via oil tankers is linked to law enforcement based on proper monitoring techniques, which are also fundamental to mitigate the impact of such pollution. In this study, a showcase referring to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil incident, one of the world’s largest incidental oil pollution event that occurred in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 affecting a sea area larger than 10,000 km 2 , is analyzed using remotely-sensed information collected by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Although, operationally, SAR sea oil slick observation is typically accomplished using C-band VV-polarized SAR imagery, during the DWH oil incident, because of their very dense revisit time, even single-polarization X-band COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) SAR measurements were collected. In this study, we exploit, for the first time, incoherent dual co-polarization SAR data collected by the Italian CSK X-band SAR constellation showing the key benefits of HH-VV SAR measurements in observing such a huge oil pollution event, especially in terms of the very dense revisit time offered by the CSK constellation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
InSAR Monitoring of Italian Coastline Revealing Natural and Anthropogenic Ground Deformation Phenomena and Future Perspectives
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3152; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093152
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9956 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, we use X and C-band SAR data provided by the COSMO-SkyMed and ENVISAT missions to detect and measure some ground deformation phenomena along six coastal areas of Italy. In particular, we exploit multi-temporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), i.e., small [...] Read more.
In this work, we use X and C-band SAR data provided by the COSMO-SkyMed and ENVISAT missions to detect and measure some ground deformation phenomena along six coastal areas of Italy. In particular, we exploit multi-temporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), i.e., small baseline subsets (SBAS) and interferometric point target analysis (IPTA) methods, to retrieve the deformation rate maps and time series for each investigated area. Multi-temporal InSAR analysis revealed local subsidence and uplifting effects in Ravenna Coastal Areas, Fiumicino, Campi Flegrei, Sibari Plain, Augusta Bay, and Taranto Gulf. Our work is meant as a demonstrator to show how InSAR-based analysis can provide a detailed understanding of the coastal hazards. Such analysis also opens up new monitoring scenarios such as the possibility of designing a near real-time surveillance service based on Sentinel-1 SAR data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Morphological Precision Assessment of Reconstructed Surface Models for a Coral Atoll Lagoon
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2749; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082749
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 21 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
In addition to remote-sensing monitoring, reconstructing morphologic surface models through interpolation is an effective means to reflect the geomorphological evolution, especially for the lagoons of coral atolls, which are underwater. However, which interpolation method is optimal for lagoon geomorphological reconstruction and how to [...] Read more.
In addition to remote-sensing monitoring, reconstructing morphologic surface models through interpolation is an effective means to reflect the geomorphological evolution, especially for the lagoons of coral atolls, which are underwater. However, which interpolation method is optimal for lagoon geomorphological reconstruction and how to assess the morphological precision have been unclear. To address the aforementioned problems, this study proposed a morphological precision index system including the root mean square error (RMSE) of the elevation, the change rate of the local slope shape (CRLSS), and the change rate of the local slope aspect (CRLSA), and introduced the spatial appraisal and valuation approach of environment and ecosystems (SAVEE). In detail, ordinary kriging (OK), inverse distance weighting (IDW), radial basis function (RBF), and local polynomial interpolation (LPI) were used to reconstruct the lagoon surface models of a typical coral atoll in South China Sea and the morphological precision of them were assessed, respectively. The results are as follows: (i) OK, IDW, and RBF exhibit the best performance in terms of RMSE (0.3584 m), CRLSS (51.43%), and CRLSA (43.29%), respectively, while with insufficiently robust when considering all three aspects; (ii) IDW, LPI, and RBF are suitable for lagoon slopes, lagoon bottoms, and patch reefs, respectively; (iii) The geomorphic decomposition scale is an important factor that affects the precision of geomorphologic reconstructions; and, (iv) This system and evaluation approach can more comprehensively consider the differences in multiple precision indices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring and Modelling Coastal Vulnerability and Mitigation Proposal for an Archaeological Site (Kaulonia, Southern Italy)
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2017; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062017
Received: 19 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (11558 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a Coastal Vulnerability Assessment (CVA) of a microtidal beach located on the Ionian Sea in Calabria region (southern Italy) in order to examine the influence of the different run-up equations on CVA score and propose mitigation measures for the most [...] Read more.
This paper presents a Coastal Vulnerability Assessment (CVA) of a microtidal beach located on the Ionian Sea in Calabria region (southern Italy) in order to examine the influence of the different run-up equations on CVA score and propose mitigation measures for the most vulnerable parts of the beach. The coastal area has been severely eroded by extreme wave storms, which have also damaged important archaeological structures located on a nearby cliff. A typical 1 year return period (Tr) storm, associated with the recent criticalities, was chosen to test the different run-up formulas (Holman (1986), Mase (1989) Stockdon et al. (2006) and Poate et al. (2016)) on a number of beach profiles in order to check the sensitivity of the CVA calculation with regard to the different run-up equations. The obtained results provide evidence that different run-up levels often give rise to different CVA scores. Based on vulnerability results, some mitigation measures have been proposed for the beach in front of the archaeological area, based on submerged detached breakwater and an adherent gabion wall for the cliff defence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring and Modelling Bio-Physical Parameters for Hypoxia Hazard in a Coastal Sand Pit
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030785
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
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Abstract
Management of coastal areas requires monitoring and modeling of the anthropogenic drivers and the bio-physical processes affecting water quality. To assess the range of hydrographic conditions controlling oxygen distribution in the bottom layers of sand pits, a multi-year oceanographic survey has been conducted [...] Read more.
Management of coastal areas requires monitoring and modeling of the anthropogenic drivers and the bio-physical processes affecting water quality. To assess the range of hydrographic conditions controlling oxygen distribution in the bottom layers of sand pits, a multi-year oceanographic survey has been conducted in a coastal area with several extraction pits. Hydrographic data including profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen were collected and related to local wind conditions and circulation. Moreover, 1D and 3D high-resolution non-hydrostatic ocean models were used to describe turbulent mixing regimes and to obtain the range of wind speeds for which the critical anoxic conditions may occur. It is shown that wind speed appears to control the dynamics of oxygen concentrations, with oxygen depleted zones developing in a short time in low wind speed conditions. Moreover, the depth and the shape of the extraction pit contribute to decrease the mixing of the bottom layers and increase the water retention in the hole increasing the output and the persistence of oxygen depleted zones in the excavated area. The results of the numerical simulations show that the risk of hypoxia at the bottom of the sand pits is associated with higher temperatures and wind speed lower than 5 m/s, which is not infrequent during the summer season. However, the number of consecutive days of oxygen depletion can be considered lower than the danger threshold level assumed in the literature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Flood Risk Due to Sea Level Rise in the Menor Sea (Murcia, Spain)
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030780
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 12 March 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (22903 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article analyzes the coastal vulnerability and flood risk due to sea level rise in the Menor Sea, Murcia (Spain). The vulnerability has been estimated from Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8 satellite imagery using Remote Sensing techniques. The risk of coastal flooding was calculated [...] Read more.
This article analyzes the coastal vulnerability and flood risk due to sea level rise in the Menor Sea, Murcia (Spain). The vulnerability has been estimated from Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8 satellite imagery using Remote Sensing techniques. The risk of coastal flooding was calculated based on various time scenarios (X0-current, X1-100 years, X2-500 years, X3-1000 years, X4-Storm, X5-Tsunami). Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing techniques were used to build a regional model to predict changes in the mean sea level for several future scenarios, showing susceptible areas to be flooded. We have included new parameters to the model such as swell, mareal range or neotectonic factors aiming to better adjust it to the local conditions. The results showed a high risk of flooding in the barrier beach and coastal areas of the Menor Sea, with a medium to very high degree of vulnerability for the most populated and touristic areas. The maximum and minimum expected increase of the water sheet for the 100 year scenarios ranged from +4.22 to +5.69 m. This methodology can establish sectors that need structural measures to minimize the impact of the sea level rise occurring due to natural tendency in the short or long term, as well as by extreme events such as storm surges or tsunamis. Furthermore, it can be used in other areas to assist land management decision makers to reduce or mitigate the vulnerability and risk presented against the rise of the sea level. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Exploring Marine Environments for the Identification of Extremophiles and Their Enzymes for Sustainable and Green Bioprocesses
Sustainability 2019, 11(1), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010149
Received: 1 December 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 22 December 2018 / Published: 28 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4522 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sea environments harbor a wide variety of life forms that have adapted to live in hard and sometimes extreme conditions. Among the marine living organisms, extremophiles represent a group of microorganisms that attract increasing interest in relation to their ability to produce an [...] Read more.
Sea environments harbor a wide variety of life forms that have adapted to live in hard and sometimes extreme conditions. Among the marine living organisms, extremophiles represent a group of microorganisms that attract increasing interest in relation to their ability to produce an array of molecules that enable them to thrive in almost every marine environment. Extremophiles can be found in virtually every extreme environment on Earth, since they can tolerate very harsh environmental conditions in terms of temperature, pH, pressure, radiation, etc. Marine extremophiles are the focus of growing interest in relation to their ability to produce biotechnologically useful enzymes, the so-called extremozymes. Thanks to their resistance to temperature, pH, salt, and pollutants, marine extremozymes are promising biocatalysts for new and sustainable industrial processes, thus representing an opportunity for several biotechnological applications. Since the marine microbioma, i.e., the complex of microorganisms living in sea environments, is still largely unexplored finding new species is a central issue for green biotechnology. Here we described the main marine environments where extremophiles can be found, some existing or potential biotechnological applications of marine extremozymes for biofuels production and bioremediation, and some possible approaches for the search of new biotechnologically useful species from marine environments. Full article
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