Special Issue "Sustainable High Volume Road and Rail Transport in Developed and Developing Countries"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Transportation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Michael Burrow
Website
Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
Interests: road and rail asset management with a focus on developing countries
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Gurmel Ghataora
Website
Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
Interests: road and rail geotechnical engineering, use of marginal materials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue addresses the sustainable provision of high-volume transport in developed and developing countries. It is recognised that transportation is vital for economic and social development. However, to realise these goals, transportation must be safe, affordable, reliable, and accessible to all in society. Transportation also needs to be sustainable without incurring excessive greenhouse gas consequences and environmental impacts. This Issue of Sustainability explores these ideals in the developing country context. Contributions are invited that address high-volume transport infrastructure and its sustainable management, low-carbon transport, and inclusivity in high-volume transport provision. Theoretical, empirical, and review studies are welcome from the researchers and practitioners alike.

Dr. Michael Michael Burrow
Dr. Gurmel Ghataora
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • High volume transport
  • Sustainable, long-distance, strategic road and rail
  • Road and rail transport services
  • Road infrastructure
  • Rail infrastructure
  • Urban transport
  • High-volume corridors and networks
  • Low-carbon transport
  • Gender, vulnerable groups and inclusion in high volume transport

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between High Speed Rail and Tourism
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 5103; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125103 - 23 Jun 2020
Abstract
Much research has verified that the active development of the High Speed Rail (HSR) can create business activities and promote tourism growth. However, based on the related research review, there is currently a lack of profound discussion on the development of the overall [...] Read more.
Much research has verified that the active development of the High Speed Rail (HSR) can create business activities and promote tourism growth. However, based on the related research review, there is currently a lack of profound discussion on the development of the overall transportation system and tourism growth in Taiwan, thus, this study intends to discuss this issue and hopes to provide an important reference for future regional development. This study conducts an in-depth investigation of the relationship between HSR and tourism volume. The Difference in Difference (DID) model is used to verify the impact of HSR services on the tourism volume in Taiwan. In addition, the aggregate data of socio-economic variables and the constituent factors of the transportation mode are incorporated. Finally, the possible consequences are described through elastic analysis. The results of this study can be an important reference for the future development of counties and cities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Scheme of Outbound Railway Container Organization in Rail-Water Intermodal Transportation
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041519 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
It has been proven that exploring how to achieve an efficient transportation system is a crucial component of every sustainable transportation study. Rail-water intermodal transportation is recognized as one of the future transportation methods for being efficient, economical and environmentally friendly. To improve [...] Read more.
It has been proven that exploring how to achieve an efficient transportation system is a crucial component of every sustainable transportation study. Rail-water intermodal transportation is recognized as one of the future transportation methods for being efficient, economical and environmentally friendly. To improve the efficiency, reduce transportation costs and maximize the resource utilization of outbound intermodal container transportation, based on the relationship between the container central station and the port station in the actual problems, the organization of railway container transportation was studied. A multi-objective optimization model was established in order to minimize the total cost in the process of transportation, which means maximizing the resource utilization and ensuring it is environmentally friendly. Additionally, an improved genetic algorithm (GA) was developed to solve the model. The calculation results of the model are obtained by the simulation calculation. The comparison with the conventional fixed axis transportation organization method proves that the model and algorithm can reduce costs by up to 24.57%. The result also shows that the container transport organization should be tried to satisfy the direct loading and discharging condition of “train-ship,” meanwhile reducing the storage time at the high toll central station. In conclusion, the model and algorithm are feasible and effective. Due to the universality of the model, it can be easily used and generalized in or out of China. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Crossing Borders and Expanding Modal Shift Measures: Effects on Mode Choice and Emissions from Freight Transport in the Nordics
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12030894 - 24 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Considering the underachievement on modal shift and environmental objectives for freight transport, scholars and policy makers recurrently ask how more road freight can be shifted to rail and waterborne transport. The current study simulates transport and modal distribution effects for several scenarios in [...] Read more.
Considering the underachievement on modal shift and environmental objectives for freight transport, scholars and policy makers recurrently ask how more road freight can be shifted to rail and waterborne transport. The current study simulates transport and modal distribution effects for several scenarios in which modal shift policy measures are strengthened, expanded, combined, and harmonized across borders in the Nordics. Found transport effects were then used in an environmental model to assess implications for energy use and emissions of CO2,eq, NOx, and particulate matter, gaining insights into which policy measures are more effective or complement each other, and whether international harmonization might increase effectiveness, and modal shift. From our simulations, a Norwegian ecobonus scheme for rail yields larger modal shift away from road than a similar ecobonus for sea transport. Facilitating longer freight trains yields more modal shift but has high policy costs. Effects of harmonizing policies across Nordic countries vary but can be strengthened by combining different measures. However, even for scenarios with strong policy measures, reductions in CO2,eq emissions do not exceed 3.6% in 2030 while sometimes increasing local air pollution. Modal shift policy should therefore not exclusively be regarded as environmental strategy, although it may contribute to other policy objectives. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Classification of Urban Street Networks Based on Tree-Like Network Features
Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020628 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Urban street networks derive their complexity not only from their hierarchical structure, but also from their tendency to simultaneously exhibit properties of both grid-like and tree-like networks. Using topological indicators based on planning parameters, we develop a method of network division that makes [...] Read more.
Urban street networks derive their complexity not only from their hierarchical structure, but also from their tendency to simultaneously exhibit properties of both grid-like and tree-like networks. Using topological indicators based on planning parameters, we develop a method of network division that makes classification of such intermediate networks possible. To quantitatively describe the differences between street network patterns, we first carefully define a tree-like network structure according to topological principles. Based on the requirements of road planning, we broaden this definition and also consider three other types of street networks with different microstructures. We systematically compare the structure variables (connectivity, hierarchy, and accessibility) of selected street networks around the world and find several explanatory parameters (including the relative incidence of through streets, cul-de-sacs, and T-type intersections), which relate network function and features to network type. We find that by measuring a network’s degree of similarity to a tree-like network, we can refine the classification system to more than four classes, as well as easily distinguish between the extreme cases of pure grid-like and tree-like networks. Each indicator has different distinguishing capabilities and is adapted to a different range, thereby permitting networks to be grouped into corresponding types when the indicators are evaluated in a certain order. This research can further improve the theory of interaction between transportation and land use. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Train-Scheduling Optimization Model for Railway Networks with Multiplatform Stations
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010257 - 28 Dec 2019
Abstract
This paper focuses on optimizing the schedule of trains on railway networks composed of busy complex stations. A mathematical formulation of this problem is provided as a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP). However, the creation of an optimal new timetable is an NP-hard [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on optimizing the schedule of trains on railway networks composed of busy complex stations. A mathematical formulation of this problem is provided as a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP). However, the creation of an optimal new timetable is an NP-hard problem; therefore, the MILP can be solved for easy cases, computation time being impractical for more complex examples. In these cases, a heuristic approach is provided that makes use of genetic algorithms to find a good solution jointly with heuristic techniques to generate an initial population. The algorithm was applied to a number of problem instances producing feasible, though not optimal, solutions in several seconds on a laptop, and compared to other proposals. Some improvements are suggested to obtain better results and further improve computation time. Rail transport is recognized as a sustainable and energy-efficient means of transport. Moreover, each freight train can take a large number of trucks off the roads, making them safer. Studies in this field can help to make railways more attractive to travelers by reducing operative cost, and increasing the number of services and their punctuality. To improve the transit system and service, it is necessary to build optimal train scheduling. There is an interest from the industry in automating the scheduling process. Fast computerized train scheduling, moreover, can be used to explore the effects of alternative draft timetables, operating policies, station layouts, and random delays or failures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Distribution Organization Optimization for Inbound China Railway Express at Alataw Pass Railway Station
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 6914; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11246914 - 04 Dec 2019
Abstract
Recently, in the context of “The Belt and Road” Initiative, the China Railway Express, which has a high volume and spans a long distance has greatly facilitated the construction of international freight transport corridors between developed and developing countries. To ensure sustainable development, [...] Read more.
Recently, in the context of “The Belt and Road” Initiative, the China Railway Express, which has a high volume and spans a long distance has greatly facilitated the construction of international freight transport corridors between developed and developing countries. To ensure sustainable development, this paper introduces an optimization problem of a container distribution organization scheme for the China Railway Express resulting from the major existing problems arising in railway port stations, which is a special and crucial link in transportation organization of the China Railway Express. The problem of a long dwell time of inbound trains is typically concerned with the operation process in railway port stations. Taking various real-world influencing factors of efficiency into account, this paper formulates a distribution organization optimization model to minimize the total container-hours of inbound China Railway Express at Alataw Pass railway station. Subsequently, a solution method based on the main idea of a genetic algorithm is developed to solve the problem, and two examples of different modes of transportation organization are given for validating the effectiveness of the model. Finally, we compare the results between two modes under different orders of magnitude according to the characteristics of sustainability to discuss the possible change and development of the China Railway Express in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
China’s Provincial Vehicle Ownership Forecast and Analysis of the Causes Influencing the Trend
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3928; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143928 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The growth of vehicle ownership not only brings opportunity for the economy, but also brings environment and transport problems, which is not good for sustainable transportation. It is of great significance to build supporting infrastructure and other services based on accurate forecasts of [...] Read more.
The growth of vehicle ownership not only brings opportunity for the economy, but also brings environment and transport problems, which is not good for sustainable transportation. It is of great significance to build supporting infrastructure and other services based on accurate forecasts of vehicle ownership in various provinces because of the variance of economic development stages, the carrying capacity of resources, and different degrees of transport planning in each province. We used the Gompertz model in order to predict China’s provincial vehicle ownership from 2018 to 2050. Considering the impact of the population structure, we summed up the growth rate of GDP per labor, the growth rate of population and the growth rate of employment rate to get the growth rate of GDP and then the GDP per capita of each province. We found that the vehicle ownership in each province will grow rapidly in the next 30 years; however, the change in the ranking of vehicle ownership among provinces varies. The ranking of some provinces with high or middle ranking now will decline in the following years, especially Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Xinjiang. While the ranking of some provinces that locates in the middle and low ranking now will increase, such as Chongqing, Hubei, Anhui, Sichuan, Heilongjiang, Jiangxi, Hunan and Guangxi. We also investigate the reasons that affect the trend in each province and we find that the suitable vehicle growth pattern of each province, the stage of economic development and government policy, which are related to the growth rate of GDP per labor, employment rate, and GDP per capita, can affect vehicle ownership in the future. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
A Sustainable Transport Competitiveness Analysis of the China Railway Express in the Context of the Belt and Road Initiative
Sustainability 2019, 11(10), 2896; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11102896 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
The implementation of China’s Belt and Road Initiative macro strategy has promoted exchanges and cooperation between China and Europe and countries along the route. The operation of the China Railway Express provides a new transportation platform for China–Europe trade. The sustainable development of [...] Read more.
The implementation of China’s Belt and Road Initiative macro strategy has promoted exchanges and cooperation between China and Europe and countries along the route. The operation of the China Railway Express provides a new transportation platform for China–Europe trade. The sustainable development of the China Railway Express has a great significance in terms of promoting the growth of China–Europe trade and meeting the demand for freight in Asia and Europe. Its time-saving advantage over shipping and its economic advantage over air transport cannot be ignored. This paper is based on the discrete selection model of stochastic utility theory. The paper constructs a multi-logit model based on generalized cost functions, including economics, timeliness, reliability, convenience, safety, and environmental protection. To calculate the market share of the China Railway Express and China–Europe Shipping, the paper conducts a quantitative analysis of the market competitiveness of the China Railway Express. Then, the sensitivity analysis and elastic analysis are carried out on the China Railway Express freight rate, the Chinese road freight rate, the China Railway Express service fee, the China Railway Express travelling speed, the China Railway Express sending operation time at the departure station, the China Railway Express transportation time error, the China Railway Express transportation frequency, and the China Railway Express carbon emissions per unit. Finally, based on the analysis results, suggestions for promoting the sustainable development of the China Railway Express are given. Full article
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