Special Issue "Recent Advances in Fluidized Bed Hydrodynamics and Transport Phenomena"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Alberto Di Renzo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Computer Engineering, Modeling, Electronics and Systems Engineering, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, Cubo 42/C, 87036 Rende (CS), Italy
Interests: particle technology and fluid-particle processes; Discrete Element Method (DEM) and DEM-CFD modelling; fluidization; industrial granular materials and powders
Prof. Dr. Fabrizio Scala
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Ingegneria chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione industriale, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy
Interests: combustion; gasification; pyrolysis pollutants control; CO2 capture and utilization
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Stefan Heinrich
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Director of the Institute of Solids Process Engineering and Particle Technology, Hamburg University of Technology, Denickestrasse 15, 21073 Hamburg, Germany
Interests: Fluidization technology; particle formulation in spray fluidized beds by means of granulation, coating and agglomeration; development of particular composite materials; particle based simulation methods (discrete element modelling, population balance modelling) and coupling with continuum approaches (CFD); contact, deformation, attrition and breakage mechanics of particles; multiscale simulation of complex solid systems; flowsheet simulation of solids processes; Chemical Looping Combustion

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fluidized beds find extremely broad industrial applications, including energy production and fuel conversion, refineries and petrochemicals, mineral processing, polymerization, food engineering and pharmaceutical manufacturing, air/water treatments, and recycling. New configurations and cleaner solutions for enhanced performance and sustainability have been continuously introduced over the years, e.g., in the efficient use of clean and renewable energy sources, but the possible utilizations are far from exhausted. The basis of the success of this technology is its effectiveness in fluid–solid contact, enhanced heat/mass transfer, and good solids mixing, that ensures high performance and flexibility of operation. In addition to longstanding challenges for greener technologies and process integration, much remains open to further research and development: Different requirements arise with emerging, increasingly complex, and demanding applications, such as bubbling and circulating beds of ultrafine, cohesive, or irregularly shaped particles, multifunctional units combining two or more fluidized solids or processes, staged or interconnected fluidized beds operation, control of tribocharging, milli- and micro-scale technologies; on the other hand, more advanced experimental methods (e.g., non-invasive particle tracking, tomography, infrared sensors), and sophisticated computational tools (e.g., DEM-CFD and hybrid methods, coarse-graining, AI) offer new opportunities for improved understanding and characterization for unit design, scale-up, and optimization.

This Special Issue focuses on fluidized bed hydrodynamics and transport phenomena and aims to attract top-quality studies addressing recent advances in the fundamental and applied aspects of fluidized beds and fluidized systems. A non-exhaustive list of topics follows:

  1. Green energy technologies (CLC, CCSU, hydrogen, biofuels, solar)
  2. Solids mixing and separation in gas, liquid, and three phase systems
  3. Cohesive powder fluidization: characterization methods, assisted fluidization
  4. Complex particle production: synthesis, agglomeration, granulation, coating
  5. Particle attrition and fragmentation (jets, cyclones, impacts)
  6. Advanced computational techniques (TFM, DEM-CFD, MP-PIC, coarse-graining, AI)
  7. Dynamics, scale-up, and optimization
  8. Innovative solutions (micro-scale, staged) and applications
  9. Ancillary equipment: cyclones, non-mechanical valves

Dr. Alberto Di Renzo
Prof. Dr. Fabrizio Scala
Prof. Dr. Stefan Heinrich
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Multiphase flow regimes
  • Advanced modeling of coupled particle-fluid flow and heat/mass transfer
  • Mixing and segregation
  • Fluidized bed reactor scale-up and optimization
  • Staged and interconnected reactors
  • Novel fluidized bed technologies 
  • Fluidization of cohesive and nano-particles 
  • Attrition and elutriation
  • Agglomeration, granulation, and ash-related problems

Published Papers (22 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Recent Advances in Fluidized Bed Hydrodynamics and Transport Phenomena—Progress and Understanding
Processes 2021, 9(4), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040639 - 06 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 478
Abstract
Fluidization technology has found widespread applications for a variety of chemical and physical transformations since its introduction in the first half of the 1900s [...] Full article

Research

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Article
Influence of the Application of a Sound Field on the Flow State Reduction of Newman Fine Iron Ore
Processes 2021, 9(4), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040725 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 393
Abstract
To improve the fluidization of the fluidized bed in ironmaking, the particle loss and bonding during the fluidized bed are largely removed by changing the properties of the particle surface or by adding an external field. Currently, the vibration, magnetic, sound, and electric [...] Read more.
To improve the fluidization of the fluidized bed in ironmaking, the particle loss and bonding during the fluidized bed are largely removed by changing the properties of the particle surface or by adding an external field. Currently, the vibration, magnetic, sound, and electric fields have been commonly applied to provide external energy to the fluidization bed systems. In this work, experiments are conducted for Newman ore particles under the application of an external sound field at a reduction temperature of 1023 K, linear velocity of 0.6 m/s, duration of 60 min, pressure of 0.2 MPa, and typical mineral powder particle size of 80–100 mesh, with H2 used as the reducing gas. The power and frequency of the ultrasonic field are varied, and the effects of sound field are evaluated by the comparative analysis of the effects of the sound field with different powers of sound fields and application times on the metallization rate and binder ratio of the samples. The acoustic pressure and frequency were varied to determine the critical speed and influence on the bed and to study the interactions of the iron ore powder particles in the sound field and the bonding mechanism of the particles. The results of this paper reproduce the actual particle fluidization process and analysis of the interactions of the particles in the sound field well. The influence of the external sound field on the gas-solid flow was studied from the perspective of macroscopic motion and force analysis. Full article
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Article
Modeling and Flowsheet Simulation of Vibrated Fluidized Bed Dryers
Processes 2021, 9(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010052 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 736
Abstract
Drying in fluidized beds is an important step in the production of powdered materials. Especially in the food and pharmaceutical industry, fluidized bed dryers are often vibrated to improve the drying process. In the current work, a continuous fluidized bed drying model is [...] Read more.
Drying in fluidized beds is an important step in the production of powdered materials. Especially in the food and pharmaceutical industry, fluidized bed dryers are often vibrated to improve the drying process. In the current work, a continuous fluidized bed drying model is implemented in the novel, open-source flowsheet simulation framework Dyssol. The new model accounts for the hydrodynamic characteristics of all Geldart groups as well as the impact of mechanical vibration on the drying process. Distributed particle properties are considered by the model. Comprehensive validation of the model was conducted for a wide range of process parameters, different materials, dryer geometries and dimensions as well as the impact of vibration. Particle properties are predicted accurately and represent the broad experimental data well. A sensitivity analysis of the model confirmed grid independence and the validity of underlying model assumptions. Full article
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Article
Eulerian Multiphase Simulation of the Particle Dynamics in a Fluidized Bed Opposed Gas Jet Mill
Processes 2020, 8(12), 1621; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8121621 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 617
Abstract
The compressible and turbulent gas–solid multiphase flow inside a fluidized bed opposed jet mill was systematically investigated through numerical simulations using the Euler–Euler approach along with the kinetic theory of granular flow and frictional models. The solid holdup and nozzle inlet air velocity [...] Read more.
The compressible and turbulent gas–solid multiphase flow inside a fluidized bed opposed jet mill was systematically investigated through numerical simulations using the Euler–Euler approach along with the kinetic theory of granular flow and frictional models. The solid holdup and nozzle inlet air velocity effects on the gas–solid dynamics were assessed through a detailed analysis of the time-averaged volume fraction, the time-averaged velocity, the time-averaged streamlines, and the time-averaged vector field distributions of both phases. The simulated results were compared with the experimental observations available in the literature. The numerical simulations contributed to a better understanding of the particle–flow dynamics in a fluidized bed opposed gas jet mill which are of fundamental importance for the milling process performance. Full article
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Article
Adsorption of CO2 on Amine-Modified Silica Particles in a Confined-Fluidized Bed
Processes 2020, 8(12), 1531; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8121531 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 481
Abstract
To reduce the anthropogenic CO2 emissions produced from fossil fuel burning plants, the application of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is necessary and development of a more efficient and economically feasible CO2 capture process is essential as an alternative to the [...] Read more.
To reduce the anthropogenic CO2 emissions produced from fossil fuel burning plants, the application of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is necessary and development of a more efficient and economically feasible CO2 capture process is essential as an alternative to the conventional amine scrubbing process which uses aqueous amine solutions. CO2 capture can be enhanced by improving both the gas–solid contact efficiency and by tuning a specific high-performance sorbent. The aim of this research is to investigate the adsorption of CO2 using impregnated mesoporous silica in a “confined-fluidized bed”. This non-conventional fluidized bed (sometimes also termed the “packed-fluidized bed”) seems suitable for improving the efficiency of gas–solid processes for which the bypass effect of the gas–solid contact caused by bubbling represents a major drawback. Results, expressed as grams of CO2 adsorbed per kilogram of material, are discussed in terms of amine load in the sorbent, breakthrough time and fraction of bed utilized. The stability of the materials after regeneration cycles is also discussed. The results obtained confirm that the confinement of the bed allows exploiting fluidization technology in adsorption operations. The operating velocity can be fixed at a value at which the thermal effects also connected to the operation are kept under control. Full article
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Article
Novel Technique for Coating of Fine Particles Using Fluidized Bed and Aerosol Atomizer
Processes 2020, 8(12), 1525; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8121525 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 572
Abstract
Fine particles are widely used in many industrial fields, and there are many techniques applied for these particles, like electroplating, and chemical and physical vapor deposition. However, in the food and pharmaceutical industries, most coating processes conducted with fluidized bed use core particles [...] Read more.
Fine particles are widely used in many industrial fields, and there are many techniques applied for these particles, like electroplating, and chemical and physical vapor deposition. However, in the food and pharmaceutical industries, most coating processes conducted with fluidized bed use core particles with a diameter larger than 200 μm, otherwise agglomerates are formed. This study contributes to the development of a new coating process for fine particles with diameters of around 50 μm. The innovation lies in the combined use of a Wurster fluidized bed and a novel aerosol atomizer. The feasibility of the operation is based on the application of the aerosol atomizer, which generates droplets smaller than 1 μm in diameter. A series of experiments with different coating solutions and glass beads in a 150 mm fluidized bed fed with droplet aerosol supplied from the cone chamber bottom is presented. The quality of the coating product is analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and CAMSIZER®. In this way, the influence of different conditions and core material properties on the product quality were determined. Experimental results showed the coating layer quality getting worse as coating solution viscosity became lower, meanwhile moderate process temperature was found to enhance coating layer formation and quality of that. It was also observed that lower aerosol feed rates help improve the yield of the process. Full article
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Article
Solid Circulating Velocity Measurement in a Liquid–Solid Micro-Circulating Fluidised Bed
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091159 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 686
Abstract
Liquid–solid circulating fluidised beds (CFB) possess many qualities which makes them useful for industrial operations where particle–liquid contact is vital, e.g., improved heat transfer performance, and consequent uniform temperature, limited back mixing, exceptional solid–liquid contact. Despite this, circulating fluidised beds have seen no [...] Read more.
Liquid–solid circulating fluidised beds (CFB) possess many qualities which makes them useful for industrial operations where particle–liquid contact is vital, e.g., improved heat transfer performance, and consequent uniform temperature, limited back mixing, exceptional solid–liquid contact. Despite this, circulating fluidised beds have seen no application in the micro-technology context. Liquid–solid micro circulating fluidised bed (µCFBs), which basically involves micro-particles fluidisation in fluidised beds within the bed of cross-section or inner diameter at the millimetre scale, could find potential applications in the area of micro-process and microfluidics technology. From an engineering standpoint, it is vital to know the solid circulating velocity, since that dictates the bed capability and operability as processing equipment. Albeit there are several studies on solid circulating velocity measurement in CFBs, this article is introducing the first experimental study on solid circulating velocity measurement in a CFB at micro-scale. The experimental studies were done in a novel micro-CFB which was fabricated by micro milling machining 1 mm2 cross-section channels in Perspex and in a 4 mm2 cross-section micro-CFB made by additive manufacturing technology. Soda-lime glass and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) micro-particles were employed as solid materials and tap water as the liquid medium. The digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) method was used as a measurement technique to determine the particle velocity in the micro-CFB system and validated by the valve accumulation technique using a novel magnetic micro-valve. The measured critical transition velocity, Ucr, is comparable to the particle terminal velocity, i.e., the normalised transition velocity is approximately 1 in line with macroscopic systems results and our previous study using simple visual observation. As in macroscopic CFB systems, Ucr decreased with solid inventory (1–9%) and finally becomes stable when the solid inventory is high enough (10–25%) and it increases with a reduction in particle size and density. Full article
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Article
Novel Application of Pretreatment and Diagnostic Method Using Dynamic Pressure Fluctuations to Resolve and Detect Issues Related to Biogenic Residue Ash in Chemical Looping Gasification
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1137; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091137 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 710
Abstract
Biogenic residues are a promising feedstock to produce liquid biofuels via chemical looping gasification (CLG), but they form ashes with a high inorganic matter content, thus causing agglomeration and deposition in CLG-fluidized beds made of oxygen carriers (OC). The aim of this work [...] Read more.
Biogenic residues are a promising feedstock to produce liquid biofuels via chemical looping gasification (CLG), but they form ashes with a high inorganic matter content, thus causing agglomeration and deposition in CLG-fluidized beds made of oxygen carriers (OC). The aim of this work is to develop pretreatments for residual biomasses to prevent this issue. Raw forest pine (as a reference material) and wheat straw residues were considered. The latter were pretreated by torrefaction at 250, 260, or 270 °C and through the washing of torrefied biomasses. Torrefaction encouraged a de-chlorinating effect, while washing allowed the removal of 30–40% of S, 60–70% of K, and 40–50% of P. The analysis of pressure fluctuation signals (standard deviations and dominant frequencies) was utilized to verify the improvement of the performance of treated biomass in fluidized beds: three OCs were, respectively, coupled with ashes from all biomasses, then fluidized from 700 to 1000 °C at two and three times the minimum fluidization velocity. The diagnostic method used to analyze pressure fluctuations was shown to be effective for detecting the incipient fading of bubbling fluidization. This phenomenon was related to the agglomeration or the severe fragmentation of OC particles mixed with ashes, thanks to scanning electron microscopy and particle-size measurements. These characterizations and pressure fluctuations analyses confirmed the general improvement of wheat straw performances after pretreatments. Full article
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Article
Bubble Properties in Bubbling and Turbulent Fluidized Beds for Particles of Geldart’s Group B
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091098 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 968
Abstract
Predicting bubble properties in fluidized beds is of high interest for reactor design and modeling. While bubble sizes and velocities for low velocity bubbling fluidized beds have been examined in several studies, there have been only few studies about bubble behavior at superficial [...] Read more.
Predicting bubble properties in fluidized beds is of high interest for reactor design and modeling. While bubble sizes and velocities for low velocity bubbling fluidized beds have been examined in several studies, there have been only few studies about bubble behavior at superficial gas velocities up into the turbulent regime. For this reason, we performed a thorough investigation of the size, shape and velocity of bubbles at superficial gas velocities ranging from 0.18 m/s up to 1.6 m/s. Capacitance probes were used for the determination of the bubble properties in three different fluidized bed facilities sized of 0.1 m, 0.4 m and 1 m in diameter. Particles belonging to Geldart’s group B (Sauter mean diameter: 188 µm, solid density: ρs = 2600 kg/m3) were used. Correlations for the determination of bubble phase holdup, vertical bubble length and bubble velocity are introduced in this work. The shape of bubbles was found to depend on superficial gas velocity. This implies that at large superficial gas velocities the horizontal size of a bubble must be much smaller in comparison to its vertical size. This leads to a decrease of pressure fluctuations, which is observed in the literature as a characteristic of transitioning into a turbulent regime. Full article
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Article
CFD-DEM Simulation of a Coating Process in a Fluidized Bed Rotor Granulator
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091090 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1316
Abstract
Coating of particles is a widely used technique in order to obtain the desired surface modification of the final product, e.g., specific color or taste. Especially in the pharmaceutical industry, rotor granulators are used to produce round, coated pellets. In this work, the [...] Read more.
Coating of particles is a widely used technique in order to obtain the desired surface modification of the final product, e.g., specific color or taste. Especially in the pharmaceutical industry, rotor granulators are used to produce round, coated pellets. In this work, the coating process in a rotor granulator is investigated numerically using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) coupled with the discrete element method (DEM). The droplets are generated as a second particulate phase in DEM. A liquid bridge model is implemented in the DEM model to take the capillary and viscous forces during the wet contact of the particles into account. A coating model is developed, where the drying of the liquid layer on the particles, as well as the particle growth, is considered. The simulation results of the dry process compared to the simulations with liquid injection show an important influence of the liquid on the particle dynamics. The formation of liquid bridges and the viscous forces in the liquid layer lead to an increase of the average particle velocity and contact time. Changing the injection rate of water has an influence on the contact duration but no significant effect on the particle dynamics. In contrast, the aqueous binder solution has an important influence on the particle movement. Full article
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Article
Effect of Bed Particle Size on Thermal Performance of a Directly-Irradiated Fluidized Bed Gas Heater
Processes 2020, 8(8), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8080967 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 741
Abstract
There is a growing interest in a fluidized bed particle receiver that directly irradiates sunlight to particles in the fluidized bed as a solar thermal collector for heating. Thermal performance of directly-irradiated fluidized bed gas heater is strongly affected by the physical properties [...] Read more.
There is a growing interest in a fluidized bed particle receiver that directly irradiates sunlight to particles in the fluidized bed as a solar thermal collector for heating. Thermal performance of directly-irradiated fluidized bed gas heater is strongly affected by the physical properties of the particles. The effect of SiC particle size on heat transfer characteristics in the solar fluidized bed gas heater (50 mm-ID × 100 mm high) has been determined. The outlet gas temperatures showed a maximum value with increasing gas velocity due to the particles motion by bubble behavior in the bed, and the maximum values were found at 3.6 times of Umf for fine SiC and less than 2.0 times of Umf for coarse SiC. Heat absorption from the receiver increased with increasing gas velocity, showing with maximum 18 W for the fine SiC and 23 W for the coarse SiC at 4.5 times of Umf. The thermal efficiency of the receiver increased with increasing gas velocity, but was affected by the content of finer particles. The maximum thermal efficiency of the receiver was 14% for fine SiC and 20% for coarse SiC within the experimental range, but showing higher for the fine SiC at the same gas velocity. A design consideration was proposed to improve the thermal efficiency of the system. Full article
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Article
Pulsed Multiphase Flows—Numerical Investigation of Particle Dynamics in Pulsating Gas–Solid Flows at Elevated Temperatures
Processes 2020, 8(7), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8070815 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 883
Abstract
Although the benefits of pulsating multiphase flows and the concomitant opportunity to intensify heat and mass transfer processes for, e.g., drying, extraction or chemical reactions have been known for some time, the industrial implementation is still limited. This is particularly due to the [...] Read more.
Although the benefits of pulsating multiphase flows and the concomitant opportunity to intensify heat and mass transfer processes for, e.g., drying, extraction or chemical reactions have been known for some time, the industrial implementation is still limited. This is particularly due to the lack of understanding of basic influencing factors, such as amplitude and frequency of the pulsating flow and the resulting particle dynamics. The pulsation generates oscillation of velocity, pressure, and temperature, intensifying the heat and mass transfer by a factor of up to five compared to stationary gas flow. With the goal of process intensification and targeted control of sub-processes or even the development of completely new processing routes for the formation, drying or conversion of particulate solids in pulsating gas flows as utilized in, e.g., pulse combustion drying or pulse combustion spray pyrolysis, the basic understanding of occurring transport processes is becoming more and more important. In the presented study, the influence of gas-flow conditions and particle properties on particle dynamics as well as particle residence time and the resulting heat and mass transfer in pulsating gas–solid flows are investigated. Full article
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Article
Hydrodynamics of Pulsed Fluidized Bed of Ultrafine Powder: Fully Collapsing Fluidized Bed
Processes 2020, 8(7), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8070807 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 795
Abstract
The processing of fine and ultrafine particles using a fluidized bed is challenging in view of their unpredictable hydrodynamic behavior due to interparticle forces. The use of assisted fluidization techniques in such cases can be effective in improving the bed hydrodynamics. This work [...] Read more.
The processing of fine and ultrafine particles using a fluidized bed is challenging in view of their unpredictable hydrodynamic behavior due to interparticle forces. The use of assisted fluidization techniques in such cases can be effective in improving the bed hydrodynamics. This work investigates the dynamics of pulsed fluidized bed of ultrafine nanosilica subjected to square-wave flow pulsations. The pulse duration used in this study is sufficient to allow the complete collapse of the pulsed fluidized bed between two consecutive flow pulsations. The proposed pulsation strategy is carefully implemented using electronic mass flow controllers with the help of analog output signals from data acquisition system. Given that the different regions of the fluidized bed exhibit varying dynamics, which together contribute to overall bed dynamics, the bed transients in the upper, central, and lower regions of the fluidized bed are monitored using several sensitive pressure transducers located along the height of the bed. The effect of the flow pulsation on the hydrodynamics of the fluidized bed is rigorously characterized. A significant reduction in the minimum fluidization velocity was obtained and an increase in the bed homogeneity was observed due to flow pulsations. The frequency domain analysis of the signals clearly delineated the frequency of the various events occurring during the fluidization. Full article
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Article
Relative Effect of Additional Solid Media on Bubble Hydrodynamics in Bubble Column and Airlift Reactors towards Mass Transfer Enhancement
Processes 2020, 8(6), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060713 - 20 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 992
Abstract
Many researchers have focused on multi-phase reactor development for improving mass transfer performance. However, solid particle addition in gas–liquid contactor for better oxygen mass transfer performance is still limited. Hence, this study aims to analyze the relative effect of different types of local [...] Read more.
Many researchers have focused on multi-phase reactor development for improving mass transfer performance. However, solid particle addition in gas–liquid contactor for better oxygen mass transfer performance is still limited. Hence, this study aims to analyze the relative effect of different types of local solid media on the bubble hydrodynamic characteristics towards mass transfer enhancement in bubble columns (BCR) and airlift reactors (ALR). This was investigated by varying solid media types (ring, sphere, cylinder, and square), solid loadings (0%–15%), and superficial gas velocities (Vg) (2.6–15.3 × 10−3 m/s) in terms of the bubble hydrodynamic and oxygen mass transfer parameters. The result showed that bubble size distribution in BCR and ALR with additional plastic media was smaller than that without media addition, approximately 22%–27% and 5%–29%, respectively, due to the increase of the bubble breaking rate and the decrease of the bubble rising velocity (UB). Further, adding media in both reactors significantly decreased the UB value. Since media increased flow resistance, resulting in decreased liquid velocity, it can also be the moving bed to capture or block the bubbles from free rising. Therefore, oxygen mass transfer performance was investigated. The oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa) in BCR with solid media addition was enhanced up to 31%–56% compared to a non-addition case, while this enhancement was greater at higher solid loading due to its higher effective surface, resulting in a higher bubble break-up rate compared to the lower loading. In ALR, up to 38.5% enhanced KLa coefficient was archived after adding plastic media over the non-addition case. In conclusion, ring and cylinder media were found to be the most significant for improving KLa value in BCR and ALR, respectively, without extra energy. Full article
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Article
Experimental and Statistical Validation of Data on Mesh-Coupled Annular Distributor Design for Swirling Fluidized Beds
Processes 2020, 8(5), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050632 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1012
Abstract
In this study, velocimetry and statistical analyses were conducted on a swirling fluidized bed. A bed of spherical particles (4 mm) was fluidized by using an annular distributor covered with mesh. The angles of rectangular blades in the distributor were set at 30°, [...] Read more.
In this study, velocimetry and statistical analyses were conducted on a swirling fluidized bed. A bed of spherical particles (4 mm) was fluidized by using an annular distributor covered with mesh. The angles of rectangular blades in the distributor were set at 30°, 45°, 60°, 75° and 90°, and the cell size of the mesh cover was 2.5 × 2.5 mm2. The weight was varied from 500 to 1250 g and the effect of each variable on bed velocity response was quantified through velocimetry and statistical analysis. The statistical analysis was conducted using NCSS statistical software. The blade angle, bed weight and superficial velocity for 4 mm particles were statistically optimized at 750 g, 58.26° and 1.45 m/s, respectively. On the experimental side, these parameters have been optimized at 750 g, 60° and 1.41 m/s, respectively. A small difference of 1.74° was noticed in experimental and statistical predictions for the blade angle. The bed weights and superficial velocities were found to be same in both cases. The confidence interval (95%) for bed velocity was proposed in the range of 0.513 to 0.519 m/s. The experimentally optimized bed velocity remained within the proposed range. The well-agreeing results indicate good practical value of distributor design and high precision of the experimental measurements. Full article
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Article
Characterization of the Bulk Flow Properties of Industrial Powders from Shear Tests
Processes 2020, 8(5), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050540 - 05 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1348
Abstract
Bulk flow properties from shear analysis of compacted powders can be evaluated following different approaches. Experimental values of shear stresses obtained by conventional shear cells are traditionally used to build yield loci, from which the most relevant flow properties could be found. Such [...] Read more.
Bulk flow properties from shear analysis of compacted powders can be evaluated following different approaches. Experimental values of shear stresses obtained by conventional shear cells are traditionally used to build yield loci, from which the most relevant flow properties could be found. Such flow properties play an important role in determining their performance under fluidization conditions. In this work, a useful app, named cYield, was developed by using the new Matlab’s App Developer environment. This tool enables users to calculate both linear (Coulomb) and non-linear (Warren–Spring) yield loci as the best fitting of the σ-τ experimental shear points. It also provides a wide range of statistical information related to the quality of the outcomes obtained. The different features of the tool are presented, and the crucial steps for the execution of its calculations are illustrated. Moreover, it has been applied for the yield loci analysis of four different materials traditionally used in manufacturing processes. The results confirm that the flow behavior of many industrial powders, especially if cohesive, is better described by a non-linear yield locus. Full article
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Article
Fabrication of Highly Filled Composites with an Innovative Miniaturized Spouted Bed
Processes 2020, 8(5), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050521 - 28 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1342
Abstract
In nature bio-composites such as nacre show remarkable mechanical properties due to their complex hierarchical structure and high-volume fraction of its hard component. These composites are highly interesting for structural applications in different branches of industries for mechanical engineering and process technology. The [...] Read more.
In nature bio-composites such as nacre show remarkable mechanical properties due to their complex hierarchical structure and high-volume fraction of its hard component. These composites are highly interesting for structural applications in different branches of industries for mechanical engineering and process technology. The aim of this work was to provide a scalable method for the production of highly filled composites by mimicking the structure of bio-composites. Therefore, composites from iron oxide (Fe2O3) and SBC-polymer (styrene-butadiene block copolymer) were fabricated by using a miniaturized spouted bed with an innovative fluidization gap design. Small iron oxide particles (25–45 μm) were fluidized in the spouted bed and coated with a polymer solution via a bottom spray nozzle. Afterwards the coated granules were hot-pressed and the mechanical properties of the obtained composites were tested. By this method composites with a bending strength of up to 6 MPa were fabricated. Although the mechanical properties of these artificial composites are still lower than those of the natural role models, it was shown that the spouted bed is a suitable technique for the fabrication of highly filled composites. For further optimization of the mechanical properties more complex and tailor-made starting materials will be used in following studies. Full article
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Article
Hydrodynamic and Heat Transfer Study of a Fluidized Bed by Discrete Particle Simulations
Processes 2020, 8(4), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040463 - 14 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
A numerical simulation study was carried out to study the combined thermal behavior and hydrodynamics of a pseudo-2D fluidized bed using a computational fluid dynamics–discrete element method (CFD-DEM). To mimic the effect of heterogeneous exothermic reactions, a constant heat source was implemented in [...] Read more.
A numerical simulation study was carried out to study the combined thermal behavior and hydrodynamics of a pseudo-2D fluidized bed using a computational fluid dynamics–discrete element method (CFD-DEM). To mimic the effect of heterogeneous exothermic reactions, a constant heat source was implemented in the particle energy equation. The effects of superficial gas velocity, bed height and heat source distribution were analyzed with the aid of averaged volume fraction and temperature distributions and velocity profiles. It was found that both the gas superficial velocity and the bed aspect ratio have a profound influence on fluidization behavior and temperature distributions. Full article
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Article
Systematic Experimental Investigation of Segregation Direction and Layer Inversion in Binary Liquid-Fluidized Bed
Processes 2020, 8(2), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020177 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 874
Abstract
Multi-component liquid-fluidized beds are encountered in a variety of industrial processes. Often, segregation severely affects the performance of the process unit. Unfortunately, size-driven and density-driven separation processes may occur with a complex interplay, showing prevailing mechanisms that change with the operating conditions. For [...] Read more.
Multi-component liquid-fluidized beds are encountered in a variety of industrial processes. Often, segregation severely affects the performance of the process unit. Unfortunately, size-driven and density-driven separation processes may occur with a complex interplay, showing prevailing mechanisms that change with the operating conditions. For example, when the solids exhibit contrasting differences in size and density, even the direction of segregation can turn out hard to predict, giving rise for some systems to the so-called “layer inversion phenomenon”. A systematic experimental investigation is presented on 14 different binary beds composed of glass beads and ABS spheres with different size and density ratios and different bed composition. The analysis allows assessing the reliability of a model for predicting the segregation direction of fluidized binary beds (the Particle Segregation Model, PSM). By measurements of the solids’ concentration at the surface, expansion/segregation properties and the inversion voidage are compared with the PSM predictions, offering a direct means of model validation. Both the segregation direction throughout the expansion range and the value of the inversion voidage are compared. Extensive qualitative agreement is obtained for 12 out of 14 fluidized mixtures. Quantitatively, the average discrepancy between predicted and measured inversion voidage is below 5%, with a maximum of 17%. Full article
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Article
3D CPFD Simulation of Circulating Fluidized Bed Downer and Riser: Comparisons of Flow Structure and Solids Back-Mixing Behavior
Processes 2020, 8(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020161 - 01 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 952
Abstract
The difference of gas-solids flow between a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) downer and riser was compared by computational particle fluid dynamics (CPFD) approach. The comparison was conducted under the same operating conditions. Simulation results demonstrated that the downer showed much more uniform solids [...] Read more.
The difference of gas-solids flow between a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) downer and riser was compared by computational particle fluid dynamics (CPFD) approach. The comparison was conducted under the same operating conditions. Simulation results demonstrated that the downer showed much more uniform solids holdup and solids velocity distribution compared with the riser. The radial non-uniformity index of the solids holdup in the riser was over 10 times than that in the downer. In addition, small clusters tended to be present in the whole downer, large clusters tended to be present near the wall in riser. It was found that the different cluster behavior is important in determining the different flow behaviors of solids in the downer and riser. While the particle residence time increased evenly along the downward direction in the downer, particles with both shorter and longer residence time were predicted in the whole riser. The nearly vertical cumulative residence time distribution (RTD) curve in the downer further demonstrated that the solids back-mixing in the downer is limited while that in the riser is severe. Solids turbulence in the downer was much weaker compared with the riser, while the large clusters formation near the wall in the riser would hinder solids transportation ability. Full article
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Article
Systematic Study of Pressure Fluctuation in the Riser of a Dual Inter-Connected Circulating Fluidized Bed: Using Single and Binary Particle Species
Processes 2019, 7(12), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7120890 - 01 Dec 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
This study systematically investigates the pressure fluctuation in the riser of a dual interconnected circulating fluidized bed (CFB) representing a 10 kWth cold-flow model (CFM) of a chemical-looping combustion (CLC) system. Specifically, a single-species system (SSS) and a binary-mixtures system (BMS) of [...] Read more.
This study systematically investigates the pressure fluctuation in the riser of a dual interconnected circulating fluidized bed (CFB) representing a 10 kWth cold-flow model (CFM) of a chemical-looping combustion (CLC) system. Specifically, a single-species system (SSS) and a binary-mixtures system (BMS) of particles with different sizes and densities were utilized. The pressure fluctuation was analyzed using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method. The effect of introducing a second particle, changing the inventory, composition (i.e., 5, 10 to 20 wt.%), particle size ratio, and fluidization velocity were investigated. For typical SSS experiments, the results were similar to those scarcely reported in the literature, where the pressure fluctuation intensity was influenced by varying the initial operating conditions. The pressure fluctuations of BMS were investigated in detail and compared with those obtained from SSS experiments. BMS exhibited different behaviour; it had intense pressure fluctuation in the air reactor and in the riser when compared to SSS experiments. The standard deviation (SD) of the pressure fluctuation was found to be influenced by the fluidization regime and initial operating conditions, while the power spectrum density (PSD) values were more sensitive to the presence of the particles with the higher terminal velocity in the binary mixture. Full article
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Review

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Review
Coarse-Grain DEM Modelling in Fluidized Bed Simulation: A Review
Processes 2021, 9(2), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020279 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1139
Abstract
In the last decade, a few of the early attempts to bring CFD-DEM of fluidized beds beyond the limits of small, lab-scale units to larger scale systems have become popular. The simulation capabilities of the Discrete Element Method in multiphase flow and fluidized [...] Read more.
In the last decade, a few of the early attempts to bring CFD-DEM of fluidized beds beyond the limits of small, lab-scale units to larger scale systems have become popular. The simulation capabilities of the Discrete Element Method in multiphase flow and fluidized beds have largely benefitted by the improvements offered by coarse graining approaches. In fact, the number of real particles that can be simulated increases to the point that pilot-scale and some industrially relevant systems become approachable. Methodologically, coarse graining procedures have been introduced by various groups, resting on different physical backgrounds. The present review collects the most relevant contributions, critically proposing them within a unique, consistent framework for the derivations and nomenclature. Scaling for the contact forces, with the linear and Hertz-based approaches, for the hydrodynamic and cohesive forces is illustrated and discussed. The orders of magnitude computational savings are quantified as a function of the coarse graining degree. An overview of the recent applications in bubbling, spouted beds and circulating fluidized bed reactors is presented. Finally, new scaling, recent extensions and promising future directions are discussed in perspective. In addition to providing a compact compendium of the essential aspects, the review aims at stimulating further efforts in this promising field. Full article
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