Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 60102

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences (SAFE), University of Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza, PZ, Italy
Interests: natural products; microbiology; plant pathology; antimicrobial activities; bioactive secondary metabolites
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of European and Mediterranean Cultures, Architecture, Environment and Cultural Heritage (DiCEM), University of Basilicata, Via Lanera, 20, 75100 Matera, Italy
Interests: agricultural and environmental chemistry; environmental botany; soil ecology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The journal and MDPI (the pioneer in scholarly open access publishing) will publish a Special Issue on “Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity”. Plant essential oils (PEOs), extracted from many aromatic and medicinal plants, have been used in folk medicine and often represent an important part of the traditional pharmacopoeia: they have a long history of use, in folk medicine, as antimicrobial agents, to control several human and phyto-pathogens. In the last decades, research in this field has gained great momentum, especially from many research/medical institutions and pharmaceutical companies: many PEOs have been registered as effective alternatives to chemical and synthetic antimicrobials as well as have been used effectively in the food industry as antioxidants and anticarcinogens. The current special issue discusses the chemical composition and biological-pharmaceutical activities of some important PEOs and their single constituents. Detailed information regarding the mechanisms, possible mode of actions, and factors affecting these activities, such as geographical origins, environmental conditions, nutritional status, the extraction methods, are of great interest.

Prof. Hazem Salaheldin Elshafie
Prof. Laura De Martino
Dr. Adriano Sofo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Plants is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • essential oils
  • antimicrobial activity
  • cytotoxicity
  • phytotoxicity
  • antioxidant
  • phytopathogens

Related Special Issues

Published Papers (16 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

4 pages, 199 KiB  
Editorial
Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity
by Hazem S. Elshafie
Plants 2022, 11(7), 980; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11070980 - 4 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
Plant essential oils (PEOs), extracted from many aromatic and medicinal plants, are used in folk medicine and often represent an important part of the traditional pharmacopoeia: they have a long history of use in folk medicine as antimicrobial agents to control several human [...] Read more.
Plant essential oils (PEOs), extracted from many aromatic and medicinal plants, are used in folk medicine and often represent an important part of the traditional pharmacopoeia: they have a long history of use in folk medicine as antimicrobial agents to control several human and phyto-pathogens. Many PEOs have been registered as effective alternatives to chemical and synthetic antimicrobials, and in the last few decades, they have also been effectively used in the food industry as antioxidants and anticarcinogens, thanks to the efforts of many research/medical institutions and pharmaceutical companies. This Special Issue discussed the chemical composition and biological-pharmaceutical activities of some important PEOs and their single constituents. Detailed information has been also covered in this Special Issue regarding the mechanisms, possible modes of action, and factors affecting these activities, such as geographical origins, environmental conditions, nutritional status, and the extraction methods used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

13 pages, 994 KiB  
Article
Enantiomeric Composition, Antioxidant Capacity and Anticholinesterase Activity of Essential Oil from Leaves of Chirimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.)
by Eduardo Valarezo, Jeannette Ludeña, Estefanía Echeverria-Coronel, Luis Cartuche, Miguel Angel Meneses, James Calva and Vladimir Morocho
Plants 2022, 11(3), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030367 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3080
Abstract
Annona cherimola Mill. is a native species of Ecuador cultivated worldwide for the flavor and properties of its fruit. In this study, hydrodistillation was used to isolate essential oil (EO) of fresh Annona cherimola leaves collected in Ecuadorian Sierra. The EO chemical composition [...] Read more.
Annona cherimola Mill. is a native species of Ecuador cultivated worldwide for the flavor and properties of its fruit. In this study, hydrodistillation was used to isolate essential oil (EO) of fresh Annona cherimola leaves collected in Ecuadorian Sierra. The EO chemical composition was determined using a non-polar and a polar chromatographic column and enantiomeric distribution with an enantioselective column. The qualitative analysis was carried out by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer and quantitative analysis using gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector. The antibacterial potency was assessed against seven Gram-negative bacteria and one Gram-positive bacterium. ABTS and DPPH assays were used to evaluate the radical scavenging properties of the EO. Spectrophotometric method was used to measure acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. GC-MS analysis allowed us to identify more than 99% of the EO chemical composition. Out of the fifty-three compounds identified, the main were germacrene D (28.77 ± 3.80%), sabinene (3, 9.05 ± 1.69%), β-pinene (4, 7.93 ± 0.685), (E)-caryophyllene (10.52 ± 1.64%) and bicyclogermacrene (11.12 ± 1.39%). Enantioselective analysis showed the existence of four pairs of enantiomers, the (−)-β-Pinene (1S, 5S) was found pure (100%). Chirimoya essential oil exhibited a strong antioxidant activity and a very strong anticholinesterase potential with an IC50 value of 41.51 ± 1.02 µg/mL. Additionally, EO presented a moderate activity against Campylobacter jejuni and Klebsiella pneumoniae with a MIC value of 500 μg/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2770 KiB  
Article
Biochemical Characterization, Antifungal Activity, and Relative Gene Expression of Two Mentha Essential Oils Controlling Fusarium oxysporum, the Causal Agent of Lycopersicon esculentum Root Rot
by Seham A. Soliman, Elsayed E. Hafez, Abdu M. G. Al-Kolaibe, El-Sayed S. Abdel Razik, Sawsan Abd-Ellatif, Amira A. Ibrahim, Sanaa S. A. Kabeil and Hazem S. Elshafie
Plants 2022, 11(2), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020189 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3010
Abstract
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is important food in daily human diets. Root rot disease by Fusarium oxysporum caused huge losses in tomato quality and yield annually. The extensive use of synthetic and chemical fungicides has environmental risks and health problems. Recent studies [...] Read more.
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is important food in daily human diets. Root rot disease by Fusarium oxysporum caused huge losses in tomato quality and yield annually. The extensive use of synthetic and chemical fungicides has environmental risks and health problems. Recent studies have pointed out the use of medicinal plant essential oils (EOs) and extracts for controlling fungal diseases. In the current research, Mentha spicata and Mentha longifolia EOs were used in different concentrations to control F. oxysporum. Many active compounds are present in these two EOs such as: thymol, adapic acid, menthol and menthyl acetate. These compounds possess antifungal effect through malformation and degradation of the fungal cell wall. The relative expression levels of distinctly upregulated defense-related WRKY genes (WRKY1, WRKY4, WRKY33 and WRKY53) in seedling root were evaluated as a plant-specific transcription factor (TF) group in different response pathways of abiotic stress. Results showed significant expression levels of WRKY, WRKY53, WRKY33, WRKY1 and WRKY4 genes. An upregulation was observed in defense-related genes such as chitinase and defensin in roots by application EOs under pathogen condition. In conclusion, M. spicata and M. longifolia EOs can be used effectively to control this plant pathogen as sustainable and eco-friendly botanical fungicides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 4147 KiB  
Article
Insight into Analysis of Essential Oil from Anisosciadium lanatum Boiss.—Chemical Composition, Molecular Docking, and Mitigation of Hepg2 Cancer Cells through Apoptotic Markers
by Hany Ezzat Khalil, Hairul-Islam Mohamed Ibrahim, Hossam M. Darrag and Katsuyoshi Matsunami
Plants 2022, 11(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010066 - 26 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3624
Abstract
Essential oils have been used in various traditional healing systems since ancient times worldwide, due to their diverse biological activities. Several studies have demonstrated their plethora of biological activities—including anti-cancer activity—in a number of cell lines. Anisosciadium lanatum Boiss. is a perennial aromatic [...] Read more.
Essential oils have been used in various traditional healing systems since ancient times worldwide, due to their diverse biological activities. Several studies have demonstrated their plethora of biological activities—including anti-cancer activity—in a number of cell lines. Anisosciadium lanatum Boiss. is a perennial aromatic herb. Traditionally, it is an edible safe herb with few studies exploring its importance. The current study aims to investigate the chemical composition of essential oil isolated from Anisosciadium lanatum using GC-MS, as well as report its anti-cancer potential and its mechanistic effect on HepG2 liver cancer cell lines, and conduct molecular docking studies. To achieve this, the essential oil was isolated using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed using GC-MS. The cell viability of HepG2 liver cancer and normal fibroblast NIH-3T3 cell lines was assessed by MTT cytotoxicity assay. The effects of the essential oil on cell migration and invasion were assessed using wound healing and matrigel assays, respectively. The effect of the essential oil on migration and apoptotic-regulating mRNA and proteins was quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot techniques, respectively. Finally, computational docking tools were used to analyze in silico binding of major constituents from the essential oil against apoptotic and migration markers. A total of 38 components were identified and quantified. The essential oil demonstrated regulation of cell proliferation and cell viability in HepG2 liver cancer cells at a sub-lethal dose of 10 to 25 μg/mL, and expressed reductions of migration and invasion. The treatment with essential oil indicated mitigation of cancer activity by aborting the mRNA of pro-apoptotic markers such as BCL-2, CASPASE-3, CYP-1A1, and NFκB. The algorithm-based binding studies demonstrated that eucalyptol, nerol, camphor, and linalool have potent binding towards the anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2. On the other hand, camphor and eucalyptol showed potent binding towards the pro-apoptotic protein CASPASE-3. These findings highlight the effectiveness of the essential oil isolated from Anisosciadium lanatum to drive alleviation of HepG2 cancer cell progression by modulating apoptotic markers. Our findings suggest that Anisosciadium lanatum could be used as a phytotherapeutic anti-cancer agent, acting through the regulation of apoptotic markers. More well-designed in vivo trials are needed in order to verify the obtained results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 4795 KiB  
Article
Vapour Application of Sage Essential Oil Maintain Tomato Fruit Quality in Breaker and Red Ripening Stages
by Antonios Chrysargyris, Charalampos Rousos, Panayiota Xylia and Nikolaos Tzortzakis
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2645; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122645 - 1 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2081
Abstract
Consumers seek safe, high-nutritional-value products, and therefore maintaining fresh produce quality is a fundamental goal in the food industry. In an effort to eliminate chemical-based sanitizing agents, there has been a shift in recent decades toward the usage of eco-friendly, natural solutions (e.g., [...] Read more.
Consumers seek safe, high-nutritional-value products, and therefore maintaining fresh produce quality is a fundamental goal in the food industry. In an effort to eliminate chemical-based sanitizing agents, there has been a shift in recent decades toward the usage of eco-friendly, natural solutions (e.g., essential oils-EOs). In the present study, tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Dafni) at breaker and red ripening stage were exposed to sage essential oils (EO: 50 μL L−1 or 500 μL L−1) for 2, 7 and 14 days, at 11 °C and 90% relative humidity (RH). Quality-related attributes were examined during (sustain effect—SE) and following (vapour-induced memory effect—ME; seven days vapours + seven days storage) vapour treatment. In breaker tomatoes, EO-enrichment (sustained effect) retained fruit firmness, respiration rates, and ethylene emission in low EO levels (50 μL L−1). In contrast, breaker fruit metabolism sped up in high EO levels of 500 μL L−1, with decreased firmness, increased rates of respiration and ethylene, and effects on antioxidant metabolism. The effects were more pronounced during the storage period of 14 days, comparing to the fruit exposed to common storage-transit practice. In red fruits, the EOs impacts were evidenced earlier (at two and seven days of storage) with increased rates of respiration and ethylene, increased β-carotene, and decreased lycopene content. In both breaker and red ripening fruit, EO application decreased weight losses. Considering the fruits pre-exposed to EOs, quality attributes were more affected in green fruits and affected to a lesser level in the red ones. Furthermore, based on appearance, color, and texture evaluations, organoleptic trials demonstrated an overwhelming preference for EO-treated red fruit during choice tests. EOs had lower effects on total phenolics, acidity, total soluble solids, and fruit chroma, with no specific trend for both breaker and red tomatoes. Natural volatiles may aid to retain fruit quality in parallel with their antimicrobial protection offered during storage and transportation of fresh produce. These effects may persist after the EO is removed from the storage conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2709 KiB  
Article
Yield and In Vitro Antioxidant Potential of Essential Oil from Aerva javanica (Burm. f.) Juss. ex Schul. Flower with Special Emphasis on Seasonal Changes
by Suzan Marwan Shahin, Abdul Jaleel and Mohammed Abdul Muhsen Alyafei
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2618; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122618 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1863
Abstract
The essential oil (EO) of the desert cotton (Aerva javanica (Burm. f.) Juss. ex Schul.) was extracted by hydrodistillation, from A. javanica flowers growing in the sandy soils of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) wild desert. The influence of seasonal variation [...] Read more.
The essential oil (EO) of the desert cotton (Aerva javanica (Burm. f.) Juss. ex Schul.) was extracted by hydrodistillation, from A. javanica flowers growing in the sandy soils of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) wild desert. The influence of seasonal variation on flowers’ EO yield was studied. The flowers’ EO yield obtained from spring samples (0.011%) was significantly the highest followed by early summer (0.009%), winter (0.007%), and autumn samples (0.006%), respectively. The flowers’ EO antioxidant analysis were tested by DPPH, FRAP and ABTS assays (in vitro). Results proved that A. javanica flowers’ EO, isolated during the four seasons, is a good source of natural bioactive antioxidants. Based on the three tested assays, the highest antioxidant activity was recorded in the spring. Testing of the chemical composition of the flowers’ EO was conducted for the season with the highest yield and the best antioxidant performance, recorded in spring, by a combination of gas chromatograph (GC) and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). This led to the identification of 29 volatile components, in which the flowers’ oil was characterized by angustione as a major compound. Photos by scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed prominent availability of star-shaped trichomes in the epidermis of the flowers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 1519 KiB  
Article
Comparative Chemical Profiles and Phytotoxic Activity of Essential Oils of Two Ecospecies of Pulicaria undulata (L.) C.A.Mey
by Ahmed M. Abd-ELGawad, Saud L. Al-Rowaily, Abdulaziz M. Assaeed, Yasser A. EI-Amier, Abd El-Nasser G. El Gendy, Elsayed Omer, Dakhil H. Al-Dosari, Giuliano Bonanomi, Hazem S. Kassem and Abdelsamed I. Elshamy
Plants 2021, 10(11), 2366; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112366 - 3 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2500
Abstract
The Asteraceae (Compositae) family is one of the largest angiosperm families that has a large number of aromatic species. Pulicaria undulata is a well-known medicinal plant that is used in the treatment of various diseases due to its essential oil (EO). The EO [...] Read more.
The Asteraceae (Compositae) family is one of the largest angiosperm families that has a large number of aromatic species. Pulicaria undulata is a well-known medicinal plant that is used in the treatment of various diseases due to its essential oil (EO). The EO of both Saudi and Egyptian ecospecies were extracted via hydrodistillation, and the chemical compounds were identified by GC–MS analysis. The composition of the EOs of Saudi and Egyptian ecospecies, as well as other reported ecospecies, were chemometrically analyzed. Additionally, the phytotoxic activity of the extracted EOs was tested against the weeds Dactyloctenium aegyptium and Bidens pilosa. In total, 80 compounds were identified from both ecospecies, of which 61 were Saudi ecospecies, with a preponderance of β-pinene, isoshyobunone, 6-epi-shyobunol, α-pinene, and α-terpinolene. However, the Egyptian ecospecies attained a lower number (34 compounds), with spathulenol, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone, α-bisabolol, and τ--cadinol as the main compounds. The chemometric analysis revealed that the studied ecospecies and other reported species were different in their composition. This variation could be attributed to the difference in the environmental and climatic conditions. The EO of the Egyptian ecospecies showed more phytotoxic activity against D. aegyptium and B. pilosa than the Saudi ecospecies. This variation might be ascribed to the difference in their major constituents. Therefore, further study is recommended for the characterization of authentic materials of these compounds as allelochemicals against various weeds, either singular or in combination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 781 KiB  
Article
A New Sesquiterpene Essential Oil from the Native Andean Species Jungia rugosa Less (Asteraceae): Chemical Analysis, Enantiomeric Evaluation, and Cholinergic Activity
by Karyna Calvopiña, Omar Malagón, Francesca Capetti, Barbara Sgorbini, Verónica Verdugo and Gianluca Gilardoni
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2102; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102102 - 4 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2276
Abstract
As part of a project devoted to the phytochemical study of Ecuadorian biodiversity, new essential oils are systematically distilled and analysed. In the present work, Jungia rugosa Less (Asteraceae) has been selected and some wild specimens collected to investigate the volatile fraction. The [...] Read more.
As part of a project devoted to the phytochemical study of Ecuadorian biodiversity, new essential oils are systematically distilled and analysed. In the present work, Jungia rugosa Less (Asteraceae) has been selected and some wild specimens collected to investigate the volatile fraction. The essential oil, obtained from fresh leaves, was analysed for the first time in the present study. The chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography, coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for qualitative analysis, and to flame ionization detector (GC-FID) for quantitation. The calculation of relative response factors (RRF), based on combustion enthalpy, was carried out for each quantified component. Fifty-six compounds were identified and quantified in a 5% phenyl-polydimethylsiloxane non-polar column and 53 compounds in a polyethylene glycol polar column, including four undetermined compounds. The main feature of this essential oil was the exclusive sesquiterpenes content, both hydrocarbons (74.7% and 80.4%) and oxygenated (8.3% and 9.6%). Major constituents were: γ-curcumene (47.1% and 49.7%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (17.0% and 17.9%), together with two abundant undetermined oxygenated sesquiterpenes, whose abundance was 6.7–7.2% and 4.7–3.3%, respectively. In addition, the essential oil was submitted to enantioselective evaluation in two β-cyclodextrin-based enantioselective columns, determining the enantiomeric purity of a minor component (1S,2R,6R,7R,8R)-(+)-α-copaene. Finally, the AChE inhibition activity of the EO was evaluated in vitro. In conclusion, this volatile fraction is suitable for further investigation, according to two main lines: (a) the purification and structure elucidation of the major undetermined compounds, (b) a bio-guided fractionation, intended to investigate the presence of new sesquiterpene AChE inhibitors among the minor components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1401 KiB  
Article
Persicaria lapathifolia Essential Oil: Chemical Constituents, Antioxidant Activity, and Allelopathic Effect on the Weed Echinochloa colona
by Ahmed M. Abd-ElGawad, Giuliano Bonanomi, Sarah A. Al-Rashed and Abdelsamed I. Elshamy
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1798; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091798 - 29 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3032
Abstract
The exploration of new green, ecofriendly bioactive compounds has attracted the attention of researchers and scientists worldwide to avoid the harmful effects of chemically synthesized compounds. Persicaria lapathifolia has been reported to have various bioactive compounds, while its essential oil (EO) has not [...] Read more.
The exploration of new green, ecofriendly bioactive compounds has attracted the attention of researchers and scientists worldwide to avoid the harmful effects of chemically synthesized compounds. Persicaria lapathifolia has been reported to have various bioactive compounds, while its essential oil (EO) has not been determined yet. The current work dealt with the first description of the chemical composition of the EO from the aerial parts of P. lapathifolia, along with studying its free radical scavenging activity and herbicidal effect on the weed Echinochloa colona. Twenty-one volatile compounds were identified via GC–MS analysis. Nonterpenoids were the main components, with a relative concentration of 58.69%, in addition to terpenoids (37.86%) and carotenoid-derived compounds (1.75%). n-dodecanal (22.61%), α-humulene (11.29%), 2,4-dimethylicosane (8.97%), 2E-hexenoic acid (8.04%), γ-nonalactone (3.51%), and limonene (3.09%) were characterized as main compounds. The extracted EO exhibited substantial allelopathic activity against the germination, seedling root, and shoot growth of the weed E. colona in a dose-dependent manner, showing IC50 values of 77.27, 60.84, and 33.80 mg L−1, respectively. In addition, the P. lapathifolia EO showed substantial antioxidant activity compared to ascorbic acid as a standard antioxidant. The EO attained IC50 values of 159.69 and 230.43 mg L−1, for DPPH and ABTS, respectively, while ascorbic acid exhibited IC50 values 47.49 and 56.68 mg L−1, respectively. The present results showed that the emergent leafy stems of aquatic plants such as P. lapathifolia have considerably low content of the EO, which exhibited substantial activities such as antioxidant and allelopathic activities. Further study is recommended to evaluate the effects of various environmental and climatic conditions on the production and composition of the EOs of P. lapathifolia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 759 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Properties of Mentha × piperita cv. ‘Kristinka’ Essential Oil
by Ippolito Camele, Daniela Gruľová and Hazem S. Elshafie
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1567; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081567 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 4751
Abstract
Several economically important crops, fruits and vegetables are susceptible to infection by pathogenic fungi and/or bacteria postharvest or in field. Recently, plant essential oils (EOs) extracted from different medicinal and officinal plants have had promising antimicrobial effects against phytopathogens. In the present study, [...] Read more.
Several economically important crops, fruits and vegetables are susceptible to infection by pathogenic fungi and/or bacteria postharvest or in field. Recently, plant essential oils (EOs) extracted from different medicinal and officinal plants have had promising antimicrobial effects against phytopathogens. In the present study, the potential microbicide activity of Mentha × piperita cv. ‘Kristinka’ (peppermint) EO and its main constituents have been evaluated against some common phytopathogens. In addition, the cell membrane permeability of the tested fungi and the minimum fungicidal concentrations were measured. The antifungal activity was tested against the following postharvest fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia fructicola, Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger, whereas antibacterial activity was evaluated against Clavibacter michiganensis, Xanthomonas campestris, Pseudomonas savastanoi and P. syringae pv. phaseolicola. The chemical analysis has been carried out using GC-MS and the main components were identified as menthol (70.08%) and menthone (14.49%) followed by limonene (4.32%), menthyl acetate (3.76%) and β-caryophyllene (2.96%). The results show that the tested EO has promising antifungal activity against all tested fungi, whereas they demonstrated only a moderate antibacterial effect against some of the tested bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 933 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition and Cosmeceutical Potential of the Essential Oil of Oncosiphon suffruticosum (L.) Källersjö
by Selena O. Adewinogo, Rajan Sharma, Charlene W. J. Africa, Jeanine L. Marnewick and Ahmed A. Hussein
Plants 2021, 10(7), 1315; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071315 - 28 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2635
Abstract
The South African medicinal plant Oncosiphon suffruticosum (L.) Källersjö is an important remedy used to treat chronic, respiratory, and skin ailments. From the essential oil (EO) extracted by the hydrodistillation, sixteen constituent components were identified with oxygenated monoterpenes: camphor (31.21%), filifolone (13.98%), chrysanthenone [...] Read more.
The South African medicinal plant Oncosiphon suffruticosum (L.) Källersjö is an important remedy used to treat chronic, respiratory, and skin ailments. From the essential oil (EO) extracted by the hydrodistillation, sixteen constituent components were identified with oxygenated monoterpenes: camphor (31.21%), filifolone (13.98%), chrysanthenone (8.72%), 1,8-cineole (7.85%), and terpinen-4-ol (7.39%) as predominant constituents. In the antibacterial activity study, the EO was found most susceptible against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with an MIC of 6.4 mg/mL; however, it showed the same activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with an MIC value of 12.8 mg/mL. The sun protecting factor (SPF) of the EO was found to be 2.299 and thus establishing it as a potentially important cosmeceutical for sunscreen applications. This is the first report investigating the essential oil of O. suffruticosum for its chemical composition and skin-related in vitro biological activities viz antibacterial, antioxidant capacity, antityrosinase, and sun protection factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 2486 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition, Allelopathic, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Sesquiterpenes Rich Essential Oil of Cleome amblyocarpa Barratte & Murb.
by Ahmed M. Abd-ElGawad, Abdelbaset M. Elgamal, Yasser A. EI-Amier, Tarik A. Mohamed, Abd El-Nasser G. El Gendy and Abdelsamed I. Elshamy
Plants 2021, 10(7), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071294 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3317
Abstract
The integration of green natural chemical resources in agricultural, industrial, and pharmaceutical applications allures researchers and scientistic worldwide. Cleome amblyocarpa has been reported as an important medicinal plant. However, its essential oil (EO) has not been well studied; therefore, the present study aimed [...] Read more.
The integration of green natural chemical resources in agricultural, industrial, and pharmaceutical applications allures researchers and scientistic worldwide. Cleome amblyocarpa has been reported as an important medicinal plant. However, its essential oil (EO) has not been well studied; therefore, the present study aimed to characterize the chemical composition of the C. amblyocarpa, collected from Egypt, and assess the allelopathic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of its EO. The EO of C. amblyocarpa was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The chemometric analysis of the EO composition of the present studied ecospecies and the other reported ecospecies was studied. The allelopathic activity of the EO was evaluated against the weed Dactyloctenium aegyptium. Additionally, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were determined. Forty-eight compounds, with a prespondence of sesquiterpenes, were recorded. The major compounds were caryophyllene oxide (36.01%), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (7.92%), alloaromadendrene epoxide (6.17%), myrtenyl acetate (5.73%), isoshyobunone (4.52%), shyobunol (4.19%), and trans-caryophyllene (3.45%). The chemometric analysis revealed inconsistency in the EO composition among various studied ecospecies, where it could be ascribed to the environmental and climatic conditions. The EO showed substantial allelopathic inhibitory activity against the germination, seedling root, and shoot growth of D. aegyptium, with IC50 values of 54.78, 57.10, and 74.07 mg L−1. Additionally, the EO showed strong antioxidant potentiality based on the IC50 values of 4.52 mg mL−1 compared to 2.11 mg mL−1 of the ascorbic acid as standard. Moreover, this oil showed significant anti-inflammation via the suppression of lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenases (COX1, and COX2), along with membrane stabilization. Further study is recommended for analysis of the activity of pure authentic materials of the major compounds either singularly or in combination, as well as for evaluation of their mechanism(s) and modes of action as antioxidants or allelochemicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

20 pages, 7439 KiB  
Article
Quality Attributes and Storage of Tomato Fruits as Affected by an Eco-Friendly, Essential Oil-Based Product
by Panayiota Xylia, Irene Ioannou, Antonios Chrysargyris, Menelaos C. Stavrinides and Nikolaos Tzortzakis
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061125 - 1 Jun 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3454
Abstract
The preservation of fresh produce quality is a major aim in the food industry since consumers demand safe and of high nutritional value products. In recent decades there has been a turn towards the use of eco-friendly, natural products (i.e., essential oils-EOs) in [...] Read more.
The preservation of fresh produce quality is a major aim in the food industry since consumers demand safe and of high nutritional value products. In recent decades there has been a turn towards the use of eco-friendly, natural products (i.e., essential oils-EOs) in an attempt to reduce chemical-based sanitizing agents (i.e., chlorine and chlorine-based agents). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an eco-friendly product (EP—based on rosemary and eucalyptus essential oils) and two different application methods (vapor and dipping) on the quality attributes of tomato fruits throughout storage at 11 °C and 90% relative humidity for 14 days. The results indicated that overall, the EP was able to maintain the quality of tomato fruits. Dipping application was found to affect less the quality attributes of tomato, such as titratable acidity, ripening index and antioxidant activity compared to the vapor application method. Vapor application of 0.4% EP increased fruit’s antioxidant activity, whereas tomatoes dipped in EP solution presented decreased damage index (hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation levels), activating enzymes antioxidant capacity (catalases and peroxidases). Moreover, higher EP concentration (up to 0.8%) resulted in a less acceptable product compared to lower concentration (0.4%). Overall, the results from the present study suggest that the investigated EP can be used for the preservation of fresh produce instead of the current commercial sanitizing agent (chlorine); however, the method of application and conditions of application must be further assessed for every commodity tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2782 KiB  
Article
Chemical Profiles, Anticancer, and Anti-Aging Activities of Essential Oils of Pluchea dioscoridis (L.) DC. and Erigeron bonariensis L.
by Abdelbaset M. Elgamal, Rania F. Ahmed, Ahmed M. Abd-ElGawad, Abd El-Nasser G. El Gendy, Abdelsamed I. Elshamy and Mahmoud I. Nassar
Plants 2021, 10(4), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040667 - 31 Mar 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 4261
Abstract
Plants belonging to the Asteraceae family are widely used as traditional medicinal herbs around the world for the treatment of numerous diseases. In this work, the chemical profiles of essential oils (EOs) of the above-ground parts of Pluchea dioscoridis (L.) DC. and Erigeron [...] Read more.
Plants belonging to the Asteraceae family are widely used as traditional medicinal herbs around the world for the treatment of numerous diseases. In this work, the chemical profiles of essential oils (EOs) of the above-ground parts of Pluchea dioscoridis (L.) DC. and Erigeron bonariensis (L.) were studied in addition to their cytotoxic and anti-aging activities. The extracted EOs from the two plants via hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GC-MS of EO of P. dioscoridis revealed the identification of 29 compounds representing 96.91% of the total oil. While 35 compounds were characterized from EO of E. bonariensis representing 98.21%. The terpenoids were found the main constituents of both plants with a relative concentration of 93.59% and 97.66%, respectively, including mainly sesquiterpenes (93.40% and 81.06%). α-Maaliene (18.84%), berkheyaradulen (13.99%), dehydro-cyclolongifolene oxide (10.35%), aromadendrene oxide-2 (8.81%), β-muurolene (8.09%), and α-eudesmol (6.79%), represented the preponderance compounds of EO of P. dioscoridis. While, trans-α-farnesene (25.03%), O-ocimene (12.58%), isolongifolene-5-ol (5.53%), α-maaliene (6.64%), berkheyaradulen (4.82%), and α-muurolene (3.99%), represented the major compounds EO of E. bonariensis. A comparative study of our results with the previously described data was constructed based upon principal component analysis (PCA) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC), where the results revealed a substantial variation of the present studied species than other reported ecospecies. EO of P. dioscoridis exhibited significant cytotoxicity against the two cancer cells, MCF-7 and A-549 with IC50 of 37.3 and 22.3 μM, respectively. While the EO of the E. bonariensis showed strong cytotoxicity against HepG2 with IC50 of 25.6 μM. The EOs of P. dioscoridis, E. bonariensis, and their mixture (1:1) exhibited significant inhibitory activity of the collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase, and tyrosinase comparing with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) as a reference. The results of anti-aging showed that the activity of mixture (1:1) > P. dioscoridis > E. bonariensis against the four enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

31 pages, 960 KiB  
Review
Curcuma longa L. Rhizome Essential Oil from Extraction to Its Agri-Food Applications. A Review
by María Dolores Ibáñez and María Amparo Blázquez
Plants 2021, 10(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10010044 - 28 Dec 2020
Cited by 58 | Viewed by 9888
Abstract
Curcuma longa L. rhizome essential oil is a valuable product in pharmaceutical industry due to its wide beneficial health effects. Novel applications in the agri-food industry where more sustainable extraction processes are required currently and safer substances are claimed for the consumer are [...] Read more.
Curcuma longa L. rhizome essential oil is a valuable product in pharmaceutical industry due to its wide beneficial health effects. Novel applications in the agri-food industry where more sustainable extraction processes are required currently and safer substances are claimed for the consumer are being investigated. This review provides information regarding the conventional and recent extraction methods of C. longa rhizome oil, their characteristics and suitability to be applied at the industrial scale. In addition, variations in the chemical composition of C. longa rhizome and leaf essential oils regarding intrinsic and extrinsic factors and extraction methods are also analysed in order to select the most proper to obtain the most efficient activity. Finally, the potential applications of C. longa rhizome oil in the agri-food industry, such as antimicrobial, weedicide and a food preservative agent, are included. Regarding the data, C. longa rhizome essential oil may play a special role in the agri-food industry; however, further research to determine the application threshold so as not to damage crops or affect the organoleptic properties of food products, as well as efficient encapsulation techniques, are necessary for its implementation in global agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 1562 KiB  
Review
Phytotoxic Effects of Plant Essential Oils: A Systematic Review and Structure-Activity Relationship Based on Chemometric Analyses
by Ahmed M. Abd-ElGawad, Abd El-Nasser G. El Gendy, Abdulaziz M. Assaeed, Saud L. Al-Rowaily, Abdullah S. Alharthi, Tarik A. Mohamed, Mahmoud I. Nassar, Yaser H. Dewir and Abdelsamed I. Elshamy
Plants 2021, 10(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10010036 - 25 Dec 2020
Cited by 70 | Viewed by 5785
Abstract
Herbicides are natural or synthetic chemicals used to control unwanted plants (weeds). To avoid the harmful effects of synthetic herbicides, considerable effort has been devoted to finding alternative products derived from natural sources. Essential oils (EOs) from aromatic plants are auspicious source of [...] Read more.
Herbicides are natural or synthetic chemicals used to control unwanted plants (weeds). To avoid the harmful effects of synthetic herbicides, considerable effort has been devoted to finding alternative products derived from natural sources. Essential oils (EOs) from aromatic plants are auspicious source of bioherbicides. This review discusses phytotoxic EOs and their chemical compositions as reported from 1972 to 2020. Using chemometric analysis, we attempt to build a structure-activity relationship between phytotoxicity and EO chemical composition. Data analysis reveals that oxygenated terpenes, and mono- and sesquiterpenes, in particular, play principal roles in the phytotoxicity of EOs. Pinene, 1,8 cineole, linalool, and carvacrol are the most effective monoterpenes, with significant phytotoxicity evident in the EOs of many plants. Caryophyllene and its derivatives, including germacrene, spathulenol, and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone, are the most effective sesquiterpenes. EOs rich in iridoids (non-terpene compounds) also exhibit allelopathic activity. Further studies are recommended to evaluate the phytotoxic activity of these compounds in pure forms, determine their activity in the field, evaluate their safety, and assess their modes of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop