Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity II

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2023) | Viewed by 38582

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School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences (SAFE), University of Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza, PZ, Italy
Interests: natural products; microbiology; plant pathology; antimicrobial activities; bioactive secondary metabolites
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Guest Editor
School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza, Italy
Interests: plant disease; natural products; molecular diagnosis; bioactive substances; microbiology; biological control
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Department of European and Mediterranean Cultures, Architecture, Environment and Cultural Heritage (DiCEM), University of Basilicata, Via Lanera, 20, 75100 Matera, Italy
Interests: agricultural and environmental chemistry; environmental botany; soil ecology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The journal and MDPI (the pioneer in scholarly open access publishing) will publish a Special Issue on “Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity”. Plant essential oils (PEOs), extracted from many aromatic and medicinal plants, have been used in folk medicine and often represent an important part of the traditional pharmacopoeia: they have a long history of use, in folk medicine, as antimicrobial agents, to control several human and phyto-pathogens. In recent decades, research in this field has gained great momentum, especially from research/medical institutions and pharmaceutical companies: many PEOs have been registered as effective alternatives to chemical and synthetic antimicrobials as well as have been used effectively in the food industry as antioxidants and anticarcinogens. The current Special Issue discusses the chemical composition and biological-pharmaceutical activities of some important PEOs and their single constituents. Detailed information regarding the mechanisms, possible mode of actions, and factors affecting these activities, such as geographical origins, environmental conditions, nutritional status, and extraction methods, are of great interest.

Prof. Dr. Hazem Salaheldin Elshafie
Prof. Dr. Ippolito Camele
Prof. Dr. Adriano Sofo
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • essential oils
  • antimicrobial activity
  • cytotoxicity
  • phytotoxicity
  • antioxidant
  • phytopathogens

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Published Papers (18 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 208 KiB  
Editorial
Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity (II)
by Hazem S. Elshafie and Ippolito Camele
Plants 2023, 12(20), 3616; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12203616 - 19 Oct 2023
Viewed by 839
Abstract
Essential oils (EOs) are concentrated hydrophobic liquids that originate from plants and contain different bioactive chemicals and volatile substances. Several plant essential oils (PEOs) are obtained from a variety of medicinal plants and have been utilized in folk medicine and traditional pharmacopoeia. They [...] Read more.
Essential oils (EOs) are concentrated hydrophobic liquids that originate from plants and contain different bioactive chemicals and volatile substances. Several plant essential oils (PEOs) are obtained from a variety of medicinal plants and have been utilized in folk medicine and traditional pharmacopoeia. They have a long history of usage as antibacterial medicines to treat various human, animal, and plant diseases. The extraction of essential oils frequently involves fractional distillation with a variety of organic solvents. EOs can be used successfully in the food and cosmetics industries in addition to their traditional use as antimicrobial agents. This Special Issue covers various significant PEOs and their individual chemical constituents and biological-pharmaceutical functions. Further information focused on the chemical characterizations, modes of action, and biopharmaceutical properties of PEOs. This Special Issue includes seventeen research papers from different geographical zones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity II)

Research

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17 pages, 2119 KiB  
Article
Chemical Profiling and Biological Properties of Essential Oils of Lavandula stoechas L. Collected from Three Moroccan Sites: In Vitro and In Silico Investigations
by Taoufiq Benali, Ahmed Lemhadri, Kaoutar Harboul, Houda Chtibi, Abdelmajid Khabbach, Si Mohamed Jadouali, Luisa Quesada-Romero, Said Louahlia, Khalil Hammani, Adib Ghaleb, Learn-Han Lee, Abdelhakim Bouyahya, Marius Emil Rusu and Mohamed Akhazzane
Plants 2023, 12(6), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12061413 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2362
Abstract
The aim of this study was the determination of the chemical compounds of Lavandula stoechas essential oil from Aknol (LSEOA), Khenifra (LSEOK), and Beni Mellal (LSEOB), and the in vitro investigation of their antibacterial, anticandidal, and antioxidant [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was the determination of the chemical compounds of Lavandula stoechas essential oil from Aknol (LSEOA), Khenifra (LSEOK), and Beni Mellal (LSEOB), and the in vitro investigation of their antibacterial, anticandidal, and antioxidant effects, and in silico anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. The chemical profile of LSEO was determined using GC-MS-MS analysis, the results of which showed a qualitative and quantitative variation in the chemical composition of volatile compounds including L-fenchone, cubebol, camphor, bornyl acetate, and τ-muurolol; indicating that the biosynthesis of essential oils of Lavandula stoechas (LSEO) varied depending on the site of growth. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the ABTS and FRAP methods, our results showed that this tested oil is endowed with an ABTS inhibitory effect and an important reducing power which varies between 4.82 ± 1.52 and 15.73 ± 3.26 mg EAA/g extract. The results of antibacterial activity of LSEOA, LSEOK and LSEOB, tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, revealed that B. subtilis (20.66 ± 1.15–25 ± 4.35 mm), P. mirabilis (18.66 ± 1.15–18.66 ± 1.15 mm), and P. aeruginosa (13.33 ± 1.15–19 ± 1.00 mm) are the most susceptible strains to LSEOA, LSEOK and LSEOB of which LSEOB exhibits bactericidal effect against P. mirabilis. furthermore The LSEO exhibited varying degrees of anticandidal activity with an inhibition zones of 25.33 ± 0.5, 22.66 ± 2.51, and 19 ± 1 mm for LSEOK, LSEOB, and LSEOA, respectively. Additionally, the in silico molecular docking process, performed using Chimera Vina and Surflex-Dock programs, indicated that LSEO could inhibit SARS-CoV-2. These important biological properties of LSEO qualify this plant as an interesting source of natural bioactive compounds with medicinal actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity II)
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24 pages, 5823 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oils from Origanum vulgare Genotypes Belonging to the Carvacrol and Thymol Chemotypes
by Paola Zinno, Barbara Guantario, Gabriele Lombardi, Giulia Ranaldi, Alberto Finamore, Sofia Allegra, Michele Massimo Mammano, Giancarlo Fascella, Antonio Raffo and Marianna Roselli
Plants 2023, 12(6), 1344; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12061344 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2342
Abstract
The remarkable biological activities of oregano essential oils (EOs) have recently prompted a host of studies aimed at exploring their potential innovative applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The chemical composition and biological activities of EOs from two Origanum vulgare genotypes, widely [...] Read more.
The remarkable biological activities of oregano essential oils (EOs) have recently prompted a host of studies aimed at exploring their potential innovative applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The chemical composition and biological activities of EOs from two Origanum vulgare genotypes, widely cultivated in Sicily and not previously studied for their biological properties, were characterized. Plants of the two genotypes, belonging to the carvacrol (CAR) and thymol (THY) chemotypes and grown in different cultivation environments, were considered for this study. The chemical profiles, including the determination of enantiomeric distribution, of the EOs, obtained by hydrodistillation from dried leaves and flowers, were investigated by GC–MS. Biological activity was evaluated as antimicrobial properties against different pathogen indicator strains, while intestinal barrier integrity, reduction in pathogen adhesion and anti-inflammatory actions were assayed in the intestinal Caco-2 cell line. The chemical profile of the CAR genotype was less complex and characterized by higher levels of the most active compound, i.e., carvacrol, when compared to the THY genotype. The enantiomeric distribution of chiral constituents did not vary across genotypes, while being markedly different from that observed in Origanum vulgare genotypes from other geographical origins. In general, all EOs showed high antimicrobial activity, both in vitro and in a food matrix challenge test. Representative EOs from the two genotypes resulted not altering epithelial monolayer sealing only for concentrations lower than 0.02%, were able to reduce the adhesion of selected pathogens, but did not exert relevant anti-inflammatory effects. These results suggest their potential use as control agents against a wide spectrum of foodborne pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity II)
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13 pages, 1511 KiB  
Article
Chemical Diversity of Artemisia rutifolia Essential Oil, Antimicrobial and Antiradical Activity
by Elena P. Dylenova, Svetlana V. Zhigzhitzhapova, Elena A. Emelyanova, Zhargal A. Tykheev, Daba G. Chimitov, Danaya B. Goncharova and Vasiliy V. Taraskin
Plants 2023, 12(6), 1289; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12061289 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1358
Abstract
This paper presents the results of the study of the composition of the essential oil (EO) of Artemisia rutifolia by the GC/MS method as well as its antimicrobial and antiradical activities. According to the PCA-analysis, these EOs can be conditionally divided into “Tajik” [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of the study of the composition of the essential oil (EO) of Artemisia rutifolia by the GC/MS method as well as its antimicrobial and antiradical activities. According to the PCA-analysis, these EOs can be conditionally divided into “Tajik” and “Buryat-Mongol” chemotypes. The first chemotype is characterized by the prevalence of α- and β-thujone, and the second chemotype by the prevalence of 4-phenyl-2-butanone, camphor. The greatest antimicrobial activity of A. rutifolia EO was observed against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. The EO showed high antiradical activity with an IC50 value of 17.55 μL/mL. The presented first data on the composition and activity of the EO of A. rutifolia of the Russian flora indicate the prospects of the species as a raw material for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity II)
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22 pages, 3129 KiB  
Article
Biological Activity of Cupressus sempervirens Essential Oil
by Lucia Galovičová, Natália Čmiková, Marianna Schwarzová, Milena D. Vukic, Nenad L. Vukovic, Przemysław Łukasz Kowalczewski, Ladislav Bakay, Maciej Ireneusz Kluz, Czeslaw Puchalski, Ana D. Obradovic, Miloš M. Matić and Miroslava Kačániová
Plants 2023, 12(5), 1097; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12051097 - 1 Mar 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2201
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, antibiofilm, antimicrobial (in situ and in vitro), insecticidal, and antiproliferative activity of Cupressus sempervirens essential oil (CSEO) obtained from the plant leaf. The identification of the constituents contained in CSEO was also intended [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, antibiofilm, antimicrobial (in situ and in vitro), insecticidal, and antiproliferative activity of Cupressus sempervirens essential oil (CSEO) obtained from the plant leaf. The identification of the constituents contained in CSEO was also intended by using GC and GC/MS analysis. The chemical composition revealed that this sample was dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons α-pinene, and δ-3-carene. Free radical scavenging ability, performed by using DPPH and ABTS assays, was evaluated as strong. Higher antibacterial efficacy was demonstrated for the agar diffusion method compared to the disk diffusion method. The antifungal activity of CSEO was moderate. When the minimum inhibitory concentrations of filamentous microscopic fungi were determined, we observed the efficacy depending on the concentration used, except for B. cinerea where the efficacy of lower concentration was more pronounced. The vapor phase effect was more pronounced at lower concentrations in most cases. Antibiofilm effect against Salmonella enterica was demonstrated. The relatively strong insecticidal activity was demonstrated with an LC50 value of 21.07% and an LC90 value of 78.21%, making CSEO potentially adequate in the control of agricultural insect pests. Results of cell viability testing showed no effects on the normal MRC-5 cell line, and antiproliferative effects towards MDA-MB-231, HCT-116, JEG-3, and K562 cells, whereas K562 cells were the most sensitive. Based on our results, CSEO could be a suitable alternative against different types of microorganisms as well as suitable for the control of biofilms. Due to its insecticidal properties, it could be used in the control of agricultural insect pests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity II)
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17 pages, 1722 KiB  
Article
Diversity of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad Seeds Extracts: Detailed Chemical Profiling and Evaluation of Their Medicinal Properties
by Merajuddin Khan, Mujeeb Khan, Khaleel Al-hamoud, Syed Farooq Adil, Mohammed Rafi Shaik and Hamad Z. Alkhathlan
Plants 2023, 12(3), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12030567 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2415
Abstract
Seeds and fruits of Citrullus colocynthis have been reported to possess huge potential for the development of phytopharmaceuticals with a wide range of biological activities. Thus, in the current study, we are reporting the potential antimicrobial and anticancer properties of C. colocynthis seeds [...] Read more.
Seeds and fruits of Citrullus colocynthis have been reported to possess huge potential for the development of phytopharmaceuticals with a wide range of biological activities. Thus, in the current study, we are reporting the potential antimicrobial and anticancer properties of C. colocynthis seeds extracted with solvents of different polarities, including methanol (M.E.), hexane (H.E.), and chloroform (C.E.). Antimicrobial properties of C. colocynthis seeds extracts were evaluated on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, whereas, anticancer properties were tested on four different cell lines, including HepG2, DU145, Hela, and A549. All the extracts have demonstrated noteworthy antimicrobial activities with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 0.9–62.5 µg/mL against Klebsiella planticola and Staphylococcus aureus; meanwhile, they were found to be moderately active (MIC 62.5–250 µg/mL) against Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus strains. Hexane extracts have demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity against K. planticola with an MIC value of 0.9 µg/mL, equivalent to that of the standard drug ciprofloxacin used as positive control in this study. For anticancer activity, all the extracts of C. colocynthis seeds were found to be active against all the tested cell lines (IC50 48.49–197.96 µg/mL) except for the chloroform extracts, which were found to be inactive against the HepG2 cell line. The hexane extract was found to possess the most prominent anticancer activity when compared to other extracts and has demonstrated the highest anticancer activity against the DU145 cell line with an IC50 value of 48.49 µg/mL. Furthermore, a detailed phytoconstituents analysis of all the extracts of C. colocynthis seeds were performed using GC–MS and GC–FID techniques. Altogether, 43 phytoconstituents were identified from the extracts of C. colocynthis seeds, among which 21, 12, and 16 components were identified from the H.E., C.E., and M.E. extracts, respectively. Monoterpenes (40.4%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (41.1%) were the most dominating chemical class of compounds from the hexane and chloroform extracts, respectively; whereas, in the methanolic extract, oxygenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (77.2%) were found to be the most dominating chemical class of compounds. To the best of our knowledge, all the phytoconstituents identified in this study are being reported for the first time from the C. colocynthis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity II)
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14 pages, 2549 KiB  
Article
Composition, Antibacterial Efficacy, and Anticancer Activity of Essential Oil Extracted from Psidium guajava (L.) Leaves
by Aftab Alam, Talha Jawaid, Saud M. Alsanad, Mehnaz Kamal and Mohamed F. Balaha
Plants 2023, 12(2), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12020246 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3463
Abstract
Essential oils (EO) are used as a natural remedy to treat various chronic diseases, although clinical evidence is lacking. In this context, we have endeavored to measure the percentage of chemical composition and biological efficacy of Psidium guajava (guava) leaf essential oil in [...] Read more.
Essential oils (EO) are used as a natural remedy to treat various chronic diseases, although clinical evidence is lacking. In this context, we have endeavored to measure the percentage of chemical composition and biological efficacy of Psidium guajava (guava) leaf essential oil in treating oral infections and oral cancer. The essential oil obtained from hydrodistillation of P. guajava L. leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The activities of selected oral pathogens Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutants) were studied in vitro and in silico. MTT assay was used to test for anticancer activity against human oral epidermal carcinoma (KB). GC–MS showed that the main components of PGLEO were limonene (38.01%) and β-caryophyllene (27.98%). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.05–0.1% were demonstrated against C. albicans and S. mutans. Antimicrobial activity against C. albicans and S. mutans, as shown by molecular linkage analysis, revealed that the main metabolites, limonene and β-caryophyllene, potentially inhibited the receptors of C. albicans and S. mutans. PGLEO showed significant (p < 0.001) anticancer activity (45.89%) at 200 µg/mL compared to doxorubicin (47.87%) with an IC50 value of 188.98 µg/mL. The outcomes of the present study suggest that PGLEO has promising antimicrobial and anticancer activities and could be a useful source for developing a natural therapeutic agent for oral infections and oral cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity II)
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13 pages, 4423 KiB  
Article
Volatile Oils Discrepancy between Male and Female Ochradenus arabicus and Their Allelopathic Activity on Dactyloctenium aegyptium
by Ahmed M. Abd-ElGawad, Abdulaziz M. Assaeed, Abd El-Nasser G. El Gendy, Basharat A. Dar and Abdelsamed I. Elshamy
Plants 2023, 12(1), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12010110 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1431
Abstract
Volatile oils (VOs) composition of plants is affected by several exogenous and endogenous factors. Male and female plants of the dioecious species exhibit variation in the bioactive constituents’ allocation. The chemical variation in the VOs between male and female plants is not well [...] Read more.
Volatile oils (VOs) composition of plants is affected by several exogenous and endogenous factors. Male and female plants of the dioecious species exhibit variation in the bioactive constituents’ allocation. The chemical variation in the VOs between male and female plants is not well studied. In the present study, the chemical characterization of the VOs extracted from aerial parts of male and female ecospecies of Ochradenus arabicus was documented. Additionally, the extracted VOs were tested for their allelopathic activity against the weed Dactyloctenium aegyptium. Via GC-MS analysis, a total of 53 compounds were identified in both male and female plants. Among them, 49 compounds were identified from male plants, and 47 compounds were characterized in female plants. Isothiocyanates (47.50% in male and 84.32% in female) and terpenes (48.05% in male and 13.22% in female) were the main components of VOs, in addition to traces of carotenoid-derived compounds and hydrocarbons. The major identified compounds of male and female plants are m-tolyl isothiocyanate, benzyl isothiocyanate, butyl isothiocyanate, isobutyl isothiocyanate, carvone, and α-bisabolol, where they showed variation in the concentration between male and female plants. The O. arabicus VOs of the male plants attained IC50 values of 51.1, 58.1, and 41.9 μL L−1 for the seed germination, seedling shoot growth, and seedling root growth of the weed (D. aegyptium), respectively, while the females showed IC50 values of 56.7, 63.9, and 40.7 μL L−1, respectively. The present data revealed that VOs composition and bioactivity varied significantly with respect to the plant gender, either qualitatively or quantitatively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity II)
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22 pages, 4434 KiB  
Article
Comparative Metabolic Study of Tamarindus indica L.’s Various Organs Based on GC/MS Analysis, In Silico and In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory and Wound Healing Activities
by Shaza H. Aly, Mahmoud A. El-Hassab, Sameh S. Elhady and Haidy A. Gad
Plants 2023, 12(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12010087 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3197
Abstract
The chemical composition of the n-hexane extract of Tamarindus indica’s various organs—bark, leaves, seeds, and fruits (TIB, TIL, TIS, TIF)—was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. A total of 113 metabolites were identified, accounting for 93.07, 83.17, 84.05, and 85.08 % [...] Read more.
The chemical composition of the n-hexane extract of Tamarindus indica’s various organs—bark, leaves, seeds, and fruits (TIB, TIL, TIS, TIF)—was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. A total of 113 metabolites were identified, accounting for 93.07, 83.17, 84.05, and 85.08 % of the total identified components in TIB, TIL, TIS, and TIF, respectively. Lupeol was the most predominant component in TIB and TIL, accounting for 23.61 and 22.78%, respectively. However, n-Docosanoic acid (10.49%) and methyl tricosanoate (7.09%) were present in a high percentage in TIS. However, α-terpinyl acetate (7.36%) and α-muurolene (7.52%) were the major components of TIF n-hexane extract. By applying a principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchal cluster analysis (HCA) to GC/MS-based metabolites, a clear differentiation of Tamarindus indica organs was achieved. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in vitro on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, the wound healing potential for the n-hexane extract of various plant organs was assessed using the in-vitro wound scratch assay using Human Skin Fibroblast cells. The tested extracts showed considerable anti-inflammatory and wound-healing activities. At a concentration of 10 µg/mL, TIL showed the highest nitric oxide (NO) inhibition by 53.97 ± 5.89%. Regarding the wound healing potential, after 24 h, TIB, TIL, TIS, and TIF n-hexane extracts at 10 g/mL reduced the wound width to 1.09 ± 0.04, 1.12 ± 0.18, 1.09 ± 0.28, and 1.41 ± 0.35 mm, respectively, as compared to the control cells (1.37 ± 0.15 mm). These findings showed that the n-hexane extract of T. indica enhanced wound healing by promoting fibroblast migration. Additionally, a docking study was conducted to assess the major identified phytoconstituents’ affinity for binding to glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK3-β), matrix metalloproteinases-8 (MMP-8), and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Lupeol showed the most favourable binding affinity to GSK3-β and iNOS, equal to −12.5 and −13.7 Kcal/mol, respectively, while methyl tricosanoate showed the highest binding affinity with MMP-8 equal to −13.1 Kcal/mol. Accordingly, the n-hexane extract of T. indica’s various organs can be considered a good candidate for the management of wound healing and inflammatory conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity II)
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15 pages, 2783 KiB  
Article
Citrus reticulata Leaves Essential Oil as an Antiaging Agent: A Comparative Study between Different Cultivars and Correlation with Their Chemical Compositions
by Nouran M. Fahmy, Sameh S. Elhady, Douha F. Bannan, Rania T. Malatani and Haidy A. Gad
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3335; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233335 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1953
Abstract
The mass-based metabolomic approach was implemented using GC-MS coupled with chemometric analysis to discriminate between the essential oil compositions of six cultivars of Citrus reticulata. The antiaging capability of the essential oils were investigated through measurement of their ability to inhibit the [...] Read more.
The mass-based metabolomic approach was implemented using GC-MS coupled with chemometric analysis to discriminate between the essential oil compositions of six cultivars of Citrus reticulata. The antiaging capability of the essential oils were investigated through measurement of their ability to inhibit the major enzymes hyaluronidase, collagenase, and amylase involved in aging. GC-MS analysis resulted in the identification of thirty-nine compounds including β-pinene, d-limonene, γ-terpinene, linalool, and dimethyl anthranilate as the main components. Multivariate analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchal cluster analysis (HCA) successfully discriminated the cultivars into five main groups. In vitro antiaging activity showed that Kishu mandarin (Km) (2.19 ± 0.10, 465.9 ± 23.7, 0.31 ± 0.01 µg/mL), Cara mandarin (Cm) (3.22 ± 0.14, 592.1 ± 30.1, 0.66 ± 0.03 µg/mL), and Wm (8.43 ± 0.38, 695.2 ± 35.4, 0.79 ± 0.04%) had the highest inhibitory activity against hyaluronidase, collagenase, and amylase, respectively. Molecular docking studies on the major compounds validated the activities of the essential oils and suggested their possible mechanisms of action. Based on our result, certain cultivars of Citrus reticulata can be proposed as a promising candidate in antiaging skin care products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity II)
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17 pages, 2599 KiB  
Article
Green Synthesized of Thymus vulgaris Chitosan Nanoparticles Induce Relative WRKY-Genes Expression in Solanum lycopersicum against Fusarium solani, the Causal Agent of Root Rot Disease
by Sawsan Abd-Ellatif, Amira A. Ibrahim, Fatmah A. Safhi, Elsayed S. Abdel Razik, Sanaa S. A. Kabeil, Salman Aloufi, Amal A. Alyamani, Mostafa M. Basuoni, Salha Mesfer ALshamrani and Hazem S. Elshafie
Plants 2022, 11(22), 3129; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11223129 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1844
Abstract
Fusarium solani is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes tomato root rot disease and yield losses in tomato production. The current study’s main goal is testing the antibacterial efficacy of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with Thyme vulgaris essential oil (ThE-CsNPs) against F. solani in [...] Read more.
Fusarium solani is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes tomato root rot disease and yield losses in tomato production. The current study’s main goal is testing the antibacterial efficacy of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with Thyme vulgaris essential oil (ThE-CsNPs) against F. solani in vitro and in vivo. GC-MS analysis was used to determine the chemical constituents of thyme EO. ThE-CsNPs were investigated using transmission electron microscopy before being physicochemically characterized using FT-IR. ThE-CsNPs were tested for antifungal activity against F. solani mycelial growth in vitro. A pot trial was conducted to determine the most effective dose of ThE-CsNPs on the morph/physiological characteristics of Solanum lycopersicum, as well as the severity of fusarium root rot. The relative gene expression of WRKY transcript factors and defense-associated genes were quantified in root tissues under all treatment conditions. In vitro results revealed that ThE-CsNPs (1%) had potent antifungal efficacy against F. solani radial mycelium growth. The expression of three WRKY transcription factors and three tomato defense-related genes was upregulated. Total phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant enzyme activity were all increased. The outfindings of this study strongly suggested the use of ThE-CsNPs in controlling fusarium root rot on tomatoes; however, other experiments remain necessary before they are recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity II)
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13 pages, 1599 KiB  
Article
Characterization and In Vivo Anti-Inflammatory Efficacy of Copal (Dacryodes peruviana (Loes.) H.J. Lam) Essential Oil
by Lupe Carolina Espinoza, Eduardo Valarezo, María José Fábrega, María José Rodríguez-Lagunas, Lilian Sosa, Ana Cristina Calpena and Mireia Mallandrich
Plants 2022, 11(22), 3104; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11223104 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1417
Abstract
Essential oils are natural aromatic substances that contain complex mixtures of many volatile compounds frequently used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Dacryodes peruviana (Loes.) H.J. Lam is a native species from Ecuador whose anti-inflammatory activity has not been previously reported, thus the aim [...] Read more.
Essential oils are natural aromatic substances that contain complex mixtures of many volatile compounds frequently used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Dacryodes peruviana (Loes.) H.J. Lam is a native species from Ecuador whose anti-inflammatory activity has not been previously reported, thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of D. peruviana essential oil. To that end, essential oil from D. peruviana fruits was isolated by hydrodistillation and characterized physically and chemically. The tolerance of the essential oil was analyzed by cytotoxicity studies using human keratinocytes. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by an arachidonic acid-induced edema model in mouse ear. The predominant compounds in D. peruviana essential oil were α-phellandrene, limonene, and α-pinene, with the three compounds reaching approximately 83% of the total composition. Tolerance studies showed high biocompatibility of this essential oil with human keratinocytes. In vivo studies demonstrated a moisturizing effect and an alleviation of several events occurred during the inflammatory process after topical treatment with D. peruviana essential oil such as decline in skin edema; reduction in leukocytic infiltrate; and decrease in inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-8, IL-17A, and IL-23. Therefore, this essential oil could be an attractive treatment for skin inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity II)
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15 pages, 2450 KiB  
Article
Effect of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown Essential Oil on the Human Umbilical Artery
by Alex S. Borges, Carla M. S. Bastos, Debora M. Dantas, Cícera G. B. Milfont, Guilherme M. H. Brito, Luís Pereira-de-Morais, Gyllyandeson A. Delmondes, Renata E. R. da Silva, Emanuel Kennedy-Feitosa, Francisco P. A. Maia, Clara M. G. Lima, Talha Bin Emran, Henrique Douglas M. Coutinho, Irwin Rose A. Menezes, Marta R. Kerntopf, Gianluca Caruso and Roseli Barbosa
Plants 2022, 11(21), 3002; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11213002 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1759
Abstract
Lippia alba is popularly known as lemon balm, with its essential oil (EO) cited for displaying antimicrobial, sedative, and vasorelaxant effects. Yet, its action on isolated human vessels has not been described in the literature. Thus, we evaluated the vasorelaxant effect of essential [...] Read more.
Lippia alba is popularly known as lemon balm, with its essential oil (EO) cited for displaying antimicrobial, sedative, and vasorelaxant effects. Yet, its action on isolated human vessels has not been described in the literature. Thus, we evaluated the vasorelaxant effect of essential oil of L. alba (EOLa) on human umbilical arteries (HUA) isolated in organ baths. HUA rings were isolated, subjected to contractions induced by potassium chloride (KCl), serotonin (5-HT), or histamine (HIST) to record the isometric tension, and then treated with EOLa (30–1000 µg/mL). The EOLa showed a more prominent inhibitory effect on the pharmacomechanical coupling contraction via HIST with an EC50 value of 277.1 ± 8.5 µg/mL and maximum relaxant effect at 600 µg/mL. The addition of tetraethylammonium (TEA) or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in HUA preparations did not inhibit EOLa total relaxant effect at 1000 µg/mL. In the presence of gliblenclamide (GLI), the oil relaxed the HUA rings by 90.8% at maximum concentration. The EOLa was also investigated for its effects on voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs), where the HUA preincubation with this oil at 1000 μg/mL inhibited BaCl2 (0.1–30 mM)-induced contractions. This study demonstrates for the first time that EOla has a vasorelaxant effect on HUA and its particular blockade of VOCCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity II)
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18 pages, 2306 KiB  
Article
Antiviral Potentialities of Chemical Characterized Essential Oils of Acacia nilotica Bark and Fruits against Hepatitis A and Herpes Simplex Viruses: In Vitro, In Silico, and Molecular Dynamics Studies
by Abd El-Nasser G. El Gendy, Ahmed F. Essa, Ahmed A. El-Rashedy, Abdelbaset M. Elgamal, Doaa D. Khalaf, Emad M. Hassan, Ahmed M. Abd-ElGawad, Abdallah M. Elgorban, Nouf S. Zaghloul, Salman F. Alamery and Abdelsamed I. Elshamy
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2889; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212889 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1910
Abstract
Acacia nilotica (synonym: Vachellia nilotica (L.) P.J.H.Hurter and Mabb.) is considered an important plant of the family Fabaceae that is used in traditional medicine in many countries all over the world. In this work, the antiviral potentialities of the chemically characterized essential oils [...] Read more.
Acacia nilotica (synonym: Vachellia nilotica (L.) P.J.H.Hurter and Mabb.) is considered an important plant of the family Fabaceae that is used in traditional medicine in many countries all over the world. In this work, the antiviral potentialities of the chemically characterized essential oils (EOs) obtained from the bark and fruits of A. nilotica were assessed in vitro against HAV, HSV1, and HSV2. Additionally, the in silico evaluation of the main compounds in both EOs was carried out against the two proteins, 3C protease of HAV and thymidine kinase (TK) of HSV. The chemical profiling of the bark EOs revealed the identification of 32 compounds with an abundance of di- (54.60%) and sesquiterpenes (39.81%). Stachene (48.34%), caryophyllene oxide (19.11%), and spathulenol (4.74%) represented the main identified constituents of bark EO. However, 26 components from fruit EO were assigned, with the majority of mono- (63.32%) and sesquiterpenes (34.91%), where trans-caryophyllene (36.95%), Z-anethole (22.87%), and γ-terpinene (7.35%) represented the majors. The maximum non-toxic concentration (MNTC) of the bark and fruits EOs was found at 500 and 1000 µg/mL, respectively. Using the MTT assay, the bark EO exhibited moderate antiviral activity with effects of 47.26% and 35.98% and a selectivity index (SI) of 2.3 and 1.6 against HAV and HSV1, respectively. However, weak activity was observed via the fruits EO with respective SI values of 3.8, 5.7, and 1.6 against HAV, HSV1, and HSV2. The in silico results exhibited that caryophyllene oxide and spathulenol (the main bark EO constituents) showed the best affinities (ΔG = −5.62, −5.33, −6.90, and −6.76 kcal/mol) for 3C protease and TK, respectively. While caryophyllene (the major fruit EO component) revealed promising binding capabilities against both proteins (ΔG = −5.31, −6.58 kcal/mol, respectively). The molecular dynamics simulation results revealed that caryophyllene oxide has the most positive van der Waals energy interaction with 3C protease and TK with significant binding free energies. Although these findings supported the antiviral potentialities of the EOs, especially bark EO, the in vivo assessment should be tested in the intraoral examination for these EOs and/or their main constituents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity II)
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11 pages, 481 KiB  
Article
Chemical and Biological Activity Profiling of Hedyosmum strigosum Todzia Essential Oil, an Aromatic Native Shrub from Southern Ecuador
by Luis Cartuche, James Calva, Eduardo Valarezo, Nayeli Chuchuca and Vladimir Morocho
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2832; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212832 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1498
Abstract
The present study aimed to determine the chemical composition, enantiomeric distribution and the biological profile of Hedyosmum strigosum essential oil (EO). The antioxidant properties and anticholinesterase effect were measured by spectroscopic methods and antimicrobial potency assessed against 8 bacteria and two fungi. H. [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to determine the chemical composition, enantiomeric distribution and the biological profile of Hedyosmum strigosum essential oil (EO). The antioxidant properties and anticholinesterase effect were measured by spectroscopic methods and antimicrobial potency assessed against 8 bacteria and two fungi. H. strigosum is a native shrub, particularly found in Ecuador and Colombia at 2000 to 3500 m a.s.l. Chemical composition was determined by GC-MS and GC-FID. A total of 44 compounds were detected, representing more than 92% of the EO composition. The main compounds were thymol (24.35, 22.48%), α-phellandrene (12.15, 13.93%), thymol acetate (6.59, 9.39%) and linalool (8.73, 5.82%), accounting for more than 51% of the EO. The enantioselective analysis revealed the presence of 5 pure enantiomers and 3 more as a racemic mixture. The EO exerted a strong antioxidant capacity, determined by ABTS assay, with a SC50 of 25.53 µg/mL and a strong and specific antimicrobial effect against Campylobacter jejuni with a MIC value of 125 µg/mL. A moderate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect was also observed with an IC50 value of 137.6 µg/mL. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of the chemical composition and biological profile of H. strigosum EO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity II)
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16 pages, 3204 KiB  
Article
Deverra triradiata Hochst. ex Boiss. from the Northern Region of Saudi Arabia: Essential Oil Profiling, Plant Extracts and Biological Activities
by Arbi Guetat, Abdelrahman T. Abdelwahab, Yassine Yahia, Wafa Rhimi, A. Khuzaim Alzahrani, Abdennacer Boulila, Claudia Cafarchia and Mohamed Boussaid
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1543; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121543 - 9 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2106
Abstract
Devrra triradiata Hochst. ex Boiss is an occasional plant species in the Northern region of Saudi Arabia. The shrub is favored on sandy desert wadis, gypsaceous substrate, and sandy gravel desert. In folk medicine, the plant is used for many purposes; to relieve [...] Read more.
Devrra triradiata Hochst. ex Boiss is an occasional plant species in the Northern region of Saudi Arabia. The shrub is favored on sandy desert wadis, gypsaceous substrate, and sandy gravel desert. In folk medicine, the plant is used for many purposes; to relieve stomach pains, against intestinal parasites, and for the regulation of menstruation. The present study describes the chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) of different plant parts of D. triradiata. In vivo and in vitro biological activities of plant extracts and essential oils were also studied. Phenylpropanoids, elemicin (flowers: 100%), dillapiole (Stems: 82.33%; and seeds: 82.61%), and apiol (roots: 72.16%) were identified as the major compounds. The highest antioxidant activity was recorded for the EOs of roots and stems (IC50 = 0.282 µg/mL and 0.706 µg/mL, respectively). For plant extracts, ethyl acetate showed the highest antioxidant activities (IC50 = 2.47 and 3.18 µg/mL). EOs showed high antifungal activity against yeasts with low azole susceptibilities (i.e., Malassezia spp. and Candida krusei). The MIC values of EOs ranged between 3.4 mg/mL and 56.4 mg/mL. The obtained results also showed phytotoxic potential of plant extracts both on the germination features of Triticum aestivum seeds and the vegetative growth of seedlings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity II)
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18 pages, 3676 KiB  
Article
GC/MS Analyses of the Essential Oils Obtained from Different Jatropha Species, Their Discrimination Using Chemometric Analysis and Assessment of Their Antibacterial and Anti-Biofilm Activities
by Mariam I. Gamal El-Din, Fadia S. Youssef, Ahmed E. Altyar and Mohamed L. Ashour
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091268 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2334
Abstract
The essential oils of Jatropha intigrimma, J. roseae and J. gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae) were analyzed employing GC/MS (Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry) analyses. A total of 95 volatile constituents were identified from J. intigrimma, J. gossypifolia and J. roseae essential oils, accounting [...] Read more.
The essential oils of Jatropha intigrimma, J. roseae and J. gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae) were analyzed employing GC/MS (Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry) analyses. A total of 95 volatile constituents were identified from J. intigrimma, J. gossypifolia and J. roseae essential oils, accounting for 91.61, 90.12, and 86.24%, respectively. Chemometric analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) based on the obtained GC data revealed the formation of three discriminant clusters due to the placement of the three Jatropha species in three different quadrants, highlighting the dissimilarity between them. Heneicosane, phytol, nonacosane, silphiperfol-6-ene, copaborneol, hexatriacontane, octadecamethyl-cyclononasiloxane, 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester and methyl linoleate constitute the key markers for their differentiation. In vitro antibacterial activities of the essential oils were investigated at doses of 10 mg/mL against the Gram-negative anaerobe Escherichia coli using the agar well diffusion method and broth microdilution test. J. gossypifolia essential oil showed the most potent antimicrobial activity, demonstrating the largest inhibition zone (11.90 mm) and the least minimum inhibitory concentration (2.50 mg/mL), followed by the essential oil of J. intigrimma. The essential oils were evaluated for their anti-adhesion properties against the Gram-negative E. coli biofilm using a modified method of biofilm inhibition spectrophotometric assay. J. intigrimma essential oil showed the most potent biofilm inhibitory activity, demonstrating the least minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of 31.25 µg/mL. In silico molecular docking performed within the active center of E. coli adhesion protein FimH showed that heneicosane, followed by cubebol and methyl linoleate, displayed the best fitting score. Thus, it can be concluded that the essential oils of J. gossypifolia and J. intigrimma leaves represent promising sources for antibacterial drugs with antibiofilm potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity II)
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12 pages, 533 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution and Anticholinesterase and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil of Diplosthephium juniperinum
by Melissa Salinas, James Calva, Luis Cartuche, Eduardo Valarezo and Chabaco Armijos
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1188; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091188 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2314
Abstract
The aim of this study was to extract and identify the chemical compounds of Diplosthephium juniperinum essential oil (EO) from Ecuador and to assess its anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties. The EO chemical composition was determined by GC–MS. A total of 74 constituents of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to extract and identify the chemical compounds of Diplosthephium juniperinum essential oil (EO) from Ecuador and to assess its anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties. The EO chemical composition was determined by GC–MS. A total of 74 constituents of EO were identified, representing 97.27% in DB-5ms and 96.06% in HP-INNOWax of the total EO. The major constituents (>4.50%) identified were: α-pinene (21.52, 22.04%), geranyl acetate (10.54, 7.78%), silphiper-fol-5-ene (8.67, 7.38%), α-copaene (8.26, 8.18%), 7-epi-silphiperfol-5-ene (4.93, 5.95%), and germacrene D (4.91, 6.00%). Enantioselective analysis of the volatile fraction of D. juniperinum showed: (+)-α-pinene as a pure enantiomer and 5 pairs of enantiomeric compounds. Among them, (−)-β-Pinene and (−)-Germacrene D presented a high enantiomeric excess of 93.23 and 84.62%, respectively, while (−)-α-Thujene, (−)-Sabinene and (S)-4-Terpineol with a lower enantiomeric excess of 56.34, 47.84 and 43.11%, respectively. A moderate inhibitory effect was observed for Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) enzymes with IC50 values of 67.20 ± 7.10 and 89.00 ± 9.90 µg/mL, respectively. A lower antioxidant potential was observed for the EO measured through DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays with SC50 values of 127.03 and >1000 µg/mL, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the chemical composition, enantiomeric distribution and, anticholinesterase and antioxidant potential of the EO of D. juniperinum. As future perspective, further in-vivo studies could be conducted to confirm the anticholinesterase potential of the EO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity II)
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