Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity III

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2024 | Viewed by 3745

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences (SAFE), University of Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza, Italy
Interests: natural products; microbiology; plant pathology; antimicrobial activities; bioactive secondary metabolites
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza, Italy
Interests: plant disease; natural products; molecular diagnosis; bioactive substances; microbiology; biological control
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants, an MDPI (the pioneer in scholarly open access publishing) journal, will publish a Special Issue entitled “Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity”. Plant essential oils (PEOs), extracted from many aromatic and medicinal plants, have been used in folk medicine and often represent an important part of the traditional pharmacopoeia. They have a long history of use in folk medicine as antimicrobial agents to control several human and phyto pathogens. In the last few decades, research in this field has gained great momentum, especially that coming from research/medical institutions and pharmaceutical companies; many PEOs have been registered as effective alternatives to chemical and synthetic antimicrobials and effectively used in the food industry as antioxidants and anticarcinogens. The current Special Issue discusses the chemical composition and biological–pharmaceutical activities of several important PEOs and their single constituents. Detailed information regarding the mechanisms, possible mode of actions, and factors affecting these activities, such as their geographical origins, environmental conditions, nutritional status, and extraction methods, are of great interest.

Prof. Dr. Hazem Salaheldin Elshafie
Prof. Ippolito Camele
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • essential oils
  • antimicrobial activity
  • cytotoxicity
  • phytotoxicity
  • antioxidant
  • phytopathogens

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Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 1634 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Antioxidant and Antifungal Activities of Four Essential Oils and Their Major Compounds against Post-Harvest Fungi Associated with Chickpea in Storage
by Lamyae Et-tazy, Abdeslam Lamiri, Laila Satia, Mohamed Essahli and Sanae Krimi Bencheqroun
Plants 2023, 12(20), 3587; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12203587 - 16 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
The antifungal and antioxidant properties of essential oils (EOs) derived from four plants were assessed in vitro: Rosmarinus officinalis, Myrtus communis, Origanum compactum, and Eugenia aromatica. These plants are renowned for their diverse biological activities. Antioxidant activities were evaluated [...] Read more.
The antifungal and antioxidant properties of essential oils (EOs) derived from four plants were assessed in vitro: Rosmarinus officinalis, Myrtus communis, Origanum compactum, and Eugenia aromatica. These plants are renowned for their diverse biological activities. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using DPPH, ABTS, and TAC tests. Antifungal activity was tested against four postharvest pathogens associated with chickpea in storage: Fusarium culmorum, Rhizopus oryzae, Penicillium italicum, and Aspergillus niger, using the broth microdilution technique. Additionally, the efficacy of several major compounds against fungi found in the EOs 1,8-cineole, carvacrol, and eugenol was evaluated. Furthermore, this study explored the potential synergy of combining eugenol and carvacrol in various ratios. Based on the results, E. aromatica EO exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, as evidenced by its lowest IC50 values for a DPPH of 0.006 mg/mL. This EO also demonstrated the best antifungal activity, with MIC values ranging from 0.098 to 0.13 μL/mL. The high concentration of eugenol in this oil was identified as a contributing factor to its potent antifungal effects. The individual application of eugenol displayed significant antifungal efficacy, which was further enhanced by incorporating carvacrol at a 1:3 ratio. This synergistic combination presents promising potential for the development of specific formulations aimed at optimizing grain protection during storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity III)
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21 pages, 2561 KiB  
Article
Essential Oils of Artemisia frigida Plants (Asteraceae): Conservatism and Lability of the Composition
by Svetlana V. Zhigzhitzhapova, Elena P. Dylenova, Bato V. Zhigzhitzhapov, Danaya B. Goncharova, Zhargal A. Tykheev, Vasiliy V. Taraskin and Oleg A. Anenkhonov
Plants 2023, 12(19), 3422; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12193422 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 685
Abstract
Plants of arid regions have adapted to harsh environments during the long span of their evolution and have developed a set of features necessary for their survival in water-limited conditions. Artemisia frigida Willd. (Asteraceae) is a widely distributed species possessing significant cenotic value [...] Read more.
Plants of arid regions have adapted to harsh environments during the long span of their evolution and have developed a set of features necessary for their survival in water-limited conditions. Artemisia frigida Willd. (Asteraceae) is a widely distributed species possessing significant cenotic value in steppe ecosystems due to its high frequency and abundance. This study examines different patterns of formation of essential oil composition in A. frigida plants under the influence of heterogeneous factors, including climate and its integral characteristics (HTC, Cextr, SPEI and others). The work is based on the results of our research conducted in Russia (Republic of Buryatia, Irkutsk region), Mongolia, and China, from 1998 to 2021. A total of 32 constant compounds have been identified in the essential oil of A. frigida throughout its habitat range in Eurasia, from Kazakhstan to Qinghai Province, China. Among them, camphor, 1,8-cineol and bornyl acetate are the dominant components, contained in 93–95% of the samples. Among the sesquiterpenoids, germacrene D is the dominant component in 67% of the samples. The largest variability within the composition of the essential oils of A. frigida is associated with significant differences in the climatic parameters when plants grow in high-altitude and extrazonal conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity III)
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13 pages, 516 KiB  
Article
A Study of the Essential Oil Isolated from Ageratina dendroides (Spreng.) R.M. King & H. Rob.: Chemical Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution, and Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities
by Eduardo Valarezo, Emmily Jaramillo-Jaramillo, Ana Carrión-Campoverde, Vladimir Morocho, Ximena Jaramillo-Fierro, Luis Cartuche and Miguel Angel Meneses
Plants 2023, 12(15), 2796; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12152796 - 28 Jul 2023
Viewed by 701
Abstract
Ageratina dendroides is an aromatic species native to Ecuador. In this study, the chemical composition, enantiomeric distribution, and antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of the essential oil isolated from aerial parts of Ageratina dendroides were determined. The quantitative chemical composition was determined [...] Read more.
Ageratina dendroides is an aromatic species native to Ecuador. In this study, the chemical composition, enantiomeric distribution, and antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of the essential oil isolated from aerial parts of Ageratina dendroides were determined. The quantitative chemical composition was determined using gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector. The qualitative chemical composition was determined using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The enantiomeric distribution was determined using an enantioselective chromatographic column. A broth microdilution method was used to determine the antibacterial activity. This antibacterial activity was tested against three Gram-negative bacilli bacteria and three Gram-positive cocci bacteria. The antifungal activity was tested against two fungi, a fungus, and a yeast. The antioxidant activity was determined using the ABTS (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) method and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method. The anticholinesterase activity was analyzed using the spectrophotometric method. Sixty-eight volatile compounds were identified in the essential oil. These compounds represent 99.49% of the total composition. In terms of the number of compounds and their relative abundance, the most representative group was sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, with thirty-four compounds and an abundance of 49.22%. The main constituents were found to be andro encecalinol (14.41 ± 1.26%), germacrene D (8.86 ± 1.06%), amorpha-4,9-dien-14-al (7.68 ± 0.70%), β-sesquiphellandrene (7.01 ± 1.49%), α-muurolol (5.89 ± 0.93%), and 7-epi-α-selinene (5.68 ± 0.53%). Five pairs of enantiomers were identified in the essential oil of Ageratina dendroides. The essential oil did not report antimicrobial activity at the maximum concentration tested (MIC > 4000 µg/mL) against any of the microorganisms tested. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was strong in the ABTS method, with an SC50 of 33.2 ± 1.4 µg/mL. Additionally, the Ageratina dendroides essential oil reported moderate anticholinesterase activity, with an IC50 of 297.8 ± 1.03 µg/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity III)
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12 pages, 2395 KiB  
Article
Constituents and Selective BuChE Inhibitory Activity of the Essential Oil from Hypericum aciculare Kunth
by James Calva, Carlos Ludeña, Nicole Bec, Christian Larroque, Melissa Salinas, Giovanni Vidari and Chabaco Armijos
Plants 2023, 12(14), 2621; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12142621 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 836
Abstract
A potential source of new inhibitors of cholinesterase enzymes are certain compounds of natural plant origin; therefore, in the study described herein we have determined the chemical composition and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitory activities of the essential oil (EO) steam [...] Read more.
A potential source of new inhibitors of cholinesterase enzymes are certain compounds of natural plant origin; therefore, in the study described herein we have determined the chemical composition and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitory activities of the essential oil (EO) steam distilled from aerial parts of Hypericum aciculare, which was collected in southern Ecuador. The oil qualitative and quantitative composition was determined by GC-FID and GC-MS using a non-polar and a polar chromatographic column. A total of fifty-three constituents were identified, that accounted for about 98% of the EO content. The hydrocarbon n-nonane (16.4–28.7%) and the aldehyde n-decanal (20.7–23.1%) were the predominant oil constituents. In addition, the EO showed significant inhibition of BuChE (IC50 = 28.3 ± 2.7 μg/mL) and moderate activity towards AChE (IC50 = 82.1 ± 12.1 µg/mL). Thus, the EO from H. aciculare aerial parts is an interesting candidate to investigate the mechanism of selective ChE inhibition by the two ChE enzymes with the aim to discover potential targets to control the progression of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Essential Oil with Biological Activity III)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Analysis of Chemical Composition, Anti-enzymatic, and Biofilm Inhibition of Six Eucalyptus Species
Authors: Sana Khedhri1†, Flavio Polito2†, Marwa Khammassi1, Lamia Hamrouni1, Lucia Caputo2, Florinda Fratianni3, Yassine Mabrouk4, Kochti Omayma4, Vincenzo De Feo2,3*, Ismail Amri4, Filomena Nazzaro3
Affiliation: 1 Laboratory of Management and Valorization of Forest Resources, National Institute of Research on Rural Engineering, Water, and Forests, P.B. 10, 2080, Ariana, Tunisia 2 Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Salerno), Italy 3 Institute of Food Science, ISA-CNR, Via Roma 60, 83100 Avellino (Italy) 4 Laboratory of Biotechnology and Nuclear Technology, National Center of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sidi Thabet, B.P. 72, 2020, Ariana, Tunisia † Equal contribution * Author for correspondence: [email protected]
Abstract: This current investigation was conducted to examine the chemical composition and to evaluate the anti-enzymatic and antibiofilm activity of the essential oils from six Tunisian Eucalyptus species: E. amplifolia Naudin, E. brevifolia F. Muell., E. lehmannii (Schauer) Benth., E. leptophylla F. Muell. ex Miq., E. patellaris F.Muell., and E. salubris F. Muell. The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation of dried leaves and subsequently analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Eucalyptol was the main component in all essential oil. However, the yield and the the chemical composition varied depending on the species. Anti-enzymatic activities against cholinesterases, α-amylase and α-glucosidase were evaluated using spectrophotometric assays. The essential oils from E. amplifolia, E. brevifolia, E. leptophylla, E. salubris were the most active against AChE, whereas against BChE, all essential oils showed similar IC50 values. E. salubris, E. leptophylla E. brevifolia, E. patellaris essential oils were the most active against α -amylase and α-glucosidase. Additionally, the afore mentioned species were assessed for their anti-biofilm properties against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) bacterial strains, evaluating both the inihibition of mature biofilm and the metabolism of the cells within the biofilm. different effectiveness, in terms of inhibiting the mature biofilm of such pathogens and their metabolism. The data obtained, in addition to shedding light on the chemistry of the volatile fractions of a complex genus such as Eucalyptus, can show scenarios for a possible use of Eucalyptus essential oils as a coadjutant in preventing and treating degenerative diseases and/or diabetes mellitus and/or in the treatment of human microbial infections.

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