Special Issue "Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Micronutrients and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 April 2022) | Viewed by 31521

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Giovanni Passeri
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università di Parma, Via Gramsci 14, I-43126 Parma, Italy
Interests: metabolic bone diseases; vitamin D; bone implants; nutrition and bone; osteoporosis in the elderly
Prof. Dr. Sandro Giannini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Clinica Medica 1, Department of Medicine, University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy
Interests: osteoporosis; organ transplantation; Vitamin D

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vitamin D is a micronutrient and an endogenous metabolite, able to regulate several different metabolisms. If, from one side, a pivotal role in the maintenance of bone and muscular health and immunitary function has been evidenced, then the effects of its insufficiency in extra-skeletal diseases become an object of debate in the literature. Many studies on vitamin D are either preclinical or observational, and therefore unable to demonstrate a definitive cause–effect relationship. In fact, too many variables seem to influence its metabolism, i.e. sunlight availability and exposition, low amount and only in certain foods, etc., leading to vitamin D insufficiency. To reach adequate levels, its supplementation seems to be an issue worth considering by public health authorities. However, many recent original contributions and meta-analyses on the effects of  vitamin D supplementation in different clinical settings have forwarded elusive data due to the diffuse bias of supplementing subjects without adequate monitoring of their vitamin D levels. This might compromise dietary recommendations for vitamin D, a hormone acting as a nutrient with effects evident mainly by reversing its deficiency status. Moreover, the recent COVID-19 pandemic has brought to our attention an additional reason for maintaining vitamin D physiological levels in the general population for its immuno-modulatory properties. The aim of this Special Issue is to provide new insights on vitamin D mechanism and function, and to deepen the role of vitamin D in maintaining optimal health and in disease prevention. The Guest Editors welcome original contributions, epidemiological studies, narrative and systematic reviews, as well as meta-analyses.

Prof. Dr. Giovanni Passeri
Prof. Dr. Sandro Giannini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • vitamin D
  • bone health
  • osteoporosis
  • COVID-19
  • immune function

Published Papers (24 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Article
Vitamin D Status among Women in a Rural District of Nepal: Determinants and Association with Metabolic Profile—A Population-Based Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2309; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112309 - 31 May 2022
Viewed by 573
Abstract
Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent worldwide, and especially in South-Asia. According to the Institute of Medicine (IOM), 25(OH)D levels below 30 nmol/L are defined as vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and levels between 30–50 nmol/L as insufficiency (VDI). Besides its role in calcium homeostasis, it [...] Read more.
Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent worldwide, and especially in South-Asia. According to the Institute of Medicine (IOM), 25(OH)D levels below 30 nmol/L are defined as vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and levels between 30–50 nmol/L as insufficiency (VDI). Besides its role in calcium homeostasis, it has been postulated that vitamin D is involved in metabolic syndrome. Given the scarcity of data on vitamin D status in Nepal, we aimed to examine the prevalence of VDD and VDI, as well as the determinants and association with metabolic parameters (lipids, HbA1c), in a cohort of women in rural Nepal. Altogether, 733 women 48.5 ± 11.7 years of age were included. VDD and VDI were observed in 6.3 and 42.4% of the participants, respectively, and the prevalence increased by age. Women reporting intake of milk and eggs > 2 times weekly had higher 25(OH)D levels than those reporting intake < 2 times weekly. Women with vitamin D levels < 50 nmol/L displayed higher levels of cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and HbA1c. Additionally, a regression analysis showed a significant association between hypovitaminosis D, dyslipidemia, and HbA1c elevation. In conclusion, VDI was prevalent and increased with age. Milk and egg intake > 2 times weekly seemed to decrease the risk of VDI. Moreover, hypovitaminosis D was associated with an adverse metabolic profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Oral Cholecalciferol Supplementation in Sahara Black People with Chronic Kidney Disease Modulates Cytokine Storm, Oxidative Stress Damage and Athero-Thromboembolic Risk
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2285; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112285 - 29 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 662
Abstract
The 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) deficiency in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with immune system dysfunction (pro-inflammatory cytokines storm) through macrophages renal infiltration, oxidative stress (OxS) damage and athero-thromboembolic risk. Conversely, cholecalciferol supplementation (25OHD-S) prevents kidney fibrosis by inhibition of [...] Read more.
The 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) deficiency in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with immune system dysfunction (pro-inflammatory cytokines storm) through macrophages renal infiltration, oxidative stress (OxS) damage and athero-thromboembolic risk. Conversely, cholecalciferol supplementation (25OHD-S) prevents kidney fibrosis by inhibition of vascular calcification and nephrotic apoptosis (nephrons reduction). The objective of this study was to investigate the pleiotropic effects of 25OHD-S on immunomodulation, antioxidant status and in protecting against thromboembolic events in deficiency CKD Black and White individuals living in the Southern Sahara (SS). The oral 25OHD-S was evaluated in 60,000 IU/month/36 weeks versus in 2000 IU/day/24 weeks in Black (n = 156) and White (n = 150). Total serum vitamin D was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All biomarkers of pro-inflammatory cytokines (PIC) were assessed by ELISA tests. OxS markers were assessed by Randox kits. Homocysteine and lipoproteine (a) were evaluated by biochemical methods as biomarkers of atherothromboembolic risk. All statistical analyses were performed with Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA. The Pearson test was used to calculate the correlation coefficient. The means will be significantly different at a level of p value < 0.05. Multiple logistic regressions were performed using Epi-info and Statview software. Vitamin D deficiency alters the PIC profile, OxS damage and atherothrombogenic biomarkers in both SS groups in the same manner; however, these disorders are more acute in Black compared to White SS individuals. The results showed that the serum 25OHD3 concentrations became normal (>75 nmol/L or >30 ng/mL) in the two groups. We have shown that the dose and duration of 25OHD-S treatment are not similar in Black SS residents compared to White SS subjects, whilst the same inhabit the south Sahara environment. It appears that a high dose intermittent over a long period (D60: 36 weeks) was more efficient in Black people; while a lower dose for a short time is sufficient (D2: 24 weeks) in their White counterparts. The oral 25OHD-S attenuates PIC overproduction and OxS damage, but does not reduce athero-thromboembolic risk, particularly in Black SS residents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Plasma Myostatin Increases with Age in Male Youth and Negatively Correlates with Vitamin D in Severe Pediatric Obesity
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2133; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14102133 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Obesity already causes non-communicable diseases during childhood, but the mechanisms of disease development are insufficiently understood. Myokines such as myostatin and irisin are muscle-derived factors possibly involved in obesity-associated diseases. This explorative study aims to investigate whether myostatin and irisin are associated with [...] Read more.
Obesity already causes non-communicable diseases during childhood, but the mechanisms of disease development are insufficiently understood. Myokines such as myostatin and irisin are muscle-derived factors possibly involved in obesity-associated diseases. This explorative study aims to investigate whether myostatin and irisin are associated with metabolic parameters, including the vitamin D status in pediatric patients with severe obesity. Clinical, anthropometric and laboratory data from 108 patients with severe obesity (>97th percentile) aged between 9 and 19 years were assessed. Myostatin, its antagonist follistatin, and irisin, were measured from plasma by ELISA. Myostatin concentrations, particularly in males, positively correlated with age and pubertal stage, as well as metabolic parameters such as insulin resistance. Irisin concentrations correlated positively with HDL and negatively with LDL cholesterol values. For follistatin, the associations with age and pubertal stage were inverse. Strikingly, a negative correlation of myostatin with serum vitamin D levels was observed that remained significant after adjusting for age and pubertal stage. In conclusion, there is an independent association of low vitamin D and elevated myostatin levels. Further research may focus on investigating means to prevent increased myostatin levels in interventional studies, which might open several venues to putative options to treat and prevent obesity-associated diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Bariatric Surgery Induced Changes in Blood Cholesterol Are Modulated by Vitamin D Status
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14102000 - 10 May 2022
Viewed by 567
Abstract
The effect of metabolically active bariatric surgery treatment on lipid metabolism is inconclusive. The authors of this study presume that initial vitamin D status may play a regulating role in influencing the beneficial post-effects of bariatric surgery, especially the lipid profile. The biochemical [...] Read more.
The effect of metabolically active bariatric surgery treatment on lipid metabolism is inconclusive. The authors of this study presume that initial vitamin D status may play a regulating role in influencing the beneficial post-effects of bariatric surgery, especially the lipid profile. The biochemical data obtained from 24 patients who had undergone laparoscopic one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) at baseline, 3 months before the surgery, at the time of surgery, and 6 months later, demonstrate that vitamin D status influenced the postoperative lipid profile. The baseline established the partition line which divided patients into two groups according to the stated calcidiol initial concentration level of 32 ng/mL. The data shows that OAGB induces a decrease in TG and hsCRP while increasing HDL. Conversely, in patients whose 25(OH)D3 was below 32 ng/mL TC significantly increased while those above this concentration remained in the normal physiological range. The changes induced by OAGB in TG, glucose, and hsCRP were similar in both groups. Unexpectedly, the surgery did not affect vitamin D metabolites. In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that a higher concentration of serum 25(OH)D3 may enhance the protective effects of OAGB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Article
The Potential Impact of Inducing a Restriction in Reimbursement Criteria on Vitamin D Supplementation in Osteoporotic Patients with or without Fractures
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1877; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091877 - 29 Apr 2022
Viewed by 598
Abstract
In October 2019, the Italian Drug Agency (AIFA) restricted reimbursement criteria for vitamin D (VD) use outside the osteoporosis setting (Note 96). However, whether this restriction could also have involved patients at risk for or with osteoporotic fractures has not yet been investigated. [...] Read more.
In October 2019, the Italian Drug Agency (AIFA) restricted reimbursement criteria for vitamin D (VD) use outside the osteoporosis setting (Note 96). However, whether this restriction could also have involved patients at risk for or with osteoporotic fractures has not yet been investigated. We retrospectively analyzed databases from five Italian Local Health Units. Patients aged ≥50 years with either at least one prescription for osteoporosis treatment or with fragility fractures and evidence of osteoporosis from 2011 to 2020 were included. The proportion of subjects with an interruption in VD treatment before and after the introduction of the new reimbursement criteria and predictors of this interruption were analyzed. A total of 94,505 patients (aged 69.4 years) were included. Following the introduction of Note 96, a 2-fold (OR 1.98, 95% CI: 1.92–2.04) increased risk of VD discontinuation was observed. These findings were independent of seasonal variation, osteoporosis treatment patterns, as well as other confounding variables. However, a higher rate of interruption was observed in patients without vertebral/femur fracture (37.8%) vs. those with fracture (32.9%). Rheumatoid arthritis, dyslipidemia and previous fracture were associated with a lower risk of VD interruption, while stroke increased the risk of VD interruption. Our results highlight that a possible misinterpretation of newly introduced criteria for reimbursement restrictions in VD outside of osteoporosis have resulted in an inadequate level of VD supplementation in patients with osteoporosis. This undertreatment could reduce the effect of osteoporosis therapies leading to increased risk of negative outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Development of a Short Questionnaire for the Screening for Vitamin D Deficiency in Italian Adults: The EVIDENCe-Q Project
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1772; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091772 - 23 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 699
Abstract
Background: To develop and validate a questionnaire for the screening of Vitamin D in Italian adults (Evaluation Vitamin D dEficieNCy Questionnaire, EVIDENCe-Q). Methods: 150 participants, attending the 11Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Operative Unit, Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri IRCCS, of [...] Read more.
Background: To develop and validate a questionnaire for the screening of Vitamin D in Italian adults (Evaluation Vitamin D dEficieNCy Questionnaire, EVIDENCe-Q). Methods: 150 participants, attending the 11Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Operative Unit, Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri IRCCS, of Pavia were enrolled. Demographic variables and serum levels of vitamin D were recorded. The EVIDENCe-Q included information regarding factors affecting the production, intake, absorption and metabolism of Vitamin D. The EVIDENCe-Q score ranged from 0 (the best status) to 36 (the worst status). Results: Participants showed an inadequate status of Vitamin D, according to the current Italian reference values. A significant difference (p < 0.0001) in the EVIDENCe-Q score was found among the three classes of vitamin D status (severe deficiency, deficiency and adequate), being the mean score higher in severe deficiency and lower in the adequate one. A threshold value for EVIDENCe-Q score of 23 for severe deficiency, a threshold value of 21 for deficiency and a threshold value of 20 for insufficiency were identified. According to these thresholds, the prevalence of severe deficiency, deficiency and insufficiency was 22%, 35.3% and 43.3% of the study population, respectively. Finally, participants with EVIDENCe-Q scores <20 had adequate levels of vitamin D. Conclusions: EVIDENCe-Q can be a useful and easy screening tool for clinicians in their daily practice at a reasonable cost, to identify subjects potentially at risk of vitamin D deficiency and to avoid unwarranted supplementation and/or costly blood testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Vitamin D and COVID-19 Severity in Hospitalized Older Patients: Potential Benefit of Prehospital Vitamin D Supplementation
Nutrients 2022, 14(8), 1641; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14081641 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1609
Abstract
Studies involving the associations between vitamin D supplementation taken before the onset of COVID-19 infection and the clinical outcomes are still scarce and this issue remains controversial. This study aimed to assess the relationships between vitamin D (VitD) status and supplementation and coronavirus [...] Read more.
Studies involving the associations between vitamin D supplementation taken before the onset of COVID-19 infection and the clinical outcomes are still scarce and this issue remains controversial. This study aimed to assess the relationships between vitamin D (VitD) status and supplementation and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity in older adults (average age of 78 years) hospitalized for COVID-19. We conducted an observational retrospective cohort study with 228 older hospitalized patients during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The outcomes were in-hospital mortality secondary to COVID-19 or critically severe COVID-19. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to test whether pre-hospital VitD supplementation was independently associated with severity. In this study, 46% of patients developed a severe form and the overall in-hospital mortality was 15%. Sixty-six (29%) patients received a VitD supplement during the 3 months preceding the infection onset. Additionally, a VitD supplement was associated with fewer severe COVID-19 forms (OR = 0.426, p = 0.0135) and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions (OR = 0.341, p = 0.0076). As expected, age > 70 years, male gender and BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 were independent risk factors for severe forms of COVID-19. No relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and the severity of the COVID-19 was identified. VitD supplementation taken during the 3 months preceding the infection onset may have a protective effect on the development of severe COVID-19 forms in older adults. Randomized controlled trials and large-scale cohort studies are necessary to strengthen this observation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Diet, Sun, Physical Activity and Vitamin D Status in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051029 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 849
Abstract
In the course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) malabsorption may lead to a vitamin D deficiency and calcium–phosphate misbalance. However, the reports on the vitamin D status in children with IBD are few and ambiguous. Here, we are presenting complex analyses of multiple [...] Read more.
In the course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) malabsorption may lead to a vitamin D deficiency and calcium–phosphate misbalance. However, the reports on the vitamin D status in children with IBD are few and ambiguous. Here, we are presenting complex analyses of multiple factors influencing 25OHD levels in IBD children (N = 62; Crohn’s disease n = 34, ulcerative colitis n = 28, mean age 14.4 ± 3.01 years, F/M 23/39) and controls (n = 47, mean age 13.97 ± 2.57, F/M 23/24). Additionally, calcium–phosphate balance parameters and inflammatory markers were obtained. In children with IBD disease, activity and location were defined. Information about therapy, presence of fractures and abdominal surgery were obtained from medical records. All subjects were surveyed on the frequency and extent of exposure to sunlight (forearms, partially legs for at least 30 min a day), physical activity (at least 30 min a day) and diet (3 days diary was analyzed with the program DIETA 5). The mean 25OHD level was higher in IBD patients compared to controls (18.1 ng/mL vs. 15.5 ng/mL; p = 0.03). Only 9.7% of IBD patients and 4.25% of controls had the optimal vitamin D level (30–50 ng/mL). Despite the higher level of 25OHD, young IBD patients showed lower calcium levels in comparison to healthy controls. There was no correlation between the vitamin D level and disease activity or location of gastrointestinal tract lesions. Steroid therapy didn’t have much influence on the vitamin D level while vitamin D was supplemented. Regular sun exposure was significantly more common in the control group compared to the IBD group. We found the highest concentration of vitamin D (24.55 ng/mL) with daily sun exposure. There was no significant correlation between the vitamin D level and frequency of physical activity. The analysis of dietary diaries showed low daily intake of vitamin D in both the IBD and the control group (79.63 vs. 85.14 IU/day). Pediatric patients, both IBD and healthy individuals, require regular monitoring of serum vitamin D level and its adequate supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Interaction between Dietary Fat Intake and Metabolic Genetic Risk Score on 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in a Turkish Adult Population
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020382 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 806
Abstract
Previous studies have pointed out a link between vitamin D status and metabolic traits, however, consistent evidence has not been provided yet. This cross-sectional study has used a nutrigenetic approach to investigate the interaction between metabolic-genetic risk score (GRS) and dietary intake on [...] Read more.
Previous studies have pointed out a link between vitamin D status and metabolic traits, however, consistent evidence has not been provided yet. This cross-sectional study has used a nutrigenetic approach to investigate the interaction between metabolic-genetic risk score (GRS) and dietary intake on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in 396 unrelated Turkish adults, aged 24–50 years. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was significantly lower in those with a metabolic-GRS ≥ 1 risk allele than those with a metabolic-GRS < 1 risk allele (p = 0.020). A significant interaction between metabolic-GRS and dietary fat intake (energy%) on serum 25(OH)D levels was identified (Pinteraction = 0.040). Participants carrying a metabolic-GRS ≥ 1 risk allele and consuming a high fat diet (≥38% of energy = 122.3 ± 52.51 g/day) had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D concentration (p = 0.006) in comparison to those consuming a low-fat diet (<38% of energy = 82.5 ± 37.36 g/d). In conclusion, our study suggests a novel interaction between metabolic-GRS and dietary fat intake on serum 25(OH)D level, which emphasises that following the current dietary fat intake recommendation (<35% total fat) could be important in reducing the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in this Turkish population. Nevertheless, further larger studies are needed to verify this interaction, before implementing personalized dietary recommendations for the maintenance of optimal vitamin D status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effects of Vitamin D3 Supplementation and Resistance Training on 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status and Functional Performance of Older Adults: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010086 - 26 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
Vitamin D status is associated with muscle strength and performance in older adults. To examine the additive effects of vitamin D3 supplementation during resistance training, 100 seniors (65–85 years) participated in a 16-week intervention. Besides a daily dose of 400 mg of calcium, [...] Read more.
Vitamin D status is associated with muscle strength and performance in older adults. To examine the additive effects of vitamin D3 supplementation during resistance training, 100 seniors (65–85 years) participated in a 16-week intervention. Besides a daily dose of 400 mg of calcium, participants received either 800 IU vitamin D3 per day (VDD), 50,000 IU vitamin D3 per month (VDM) or nothing (CON). After the initial loading phase of four weeks, all groups started a 10-week resistance training program. Assessments of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status, muscle strength endurance (30-s chair stand and arm curl tests), aerobic capacity (6-min walk test) and functional mobility (gait speed and timed up and go test) were undertaken at baseline, after four weeks and at the end of the study. 25(OH)D status significantly improved in VDD and VDM, but not in CON (time x group: p = 0.021), as 15.2% of CON, 40.0% of VDD and 61.1% of VDM reached vitamin D sufficiency (>30 ng/mL; p = 0.004). Chair stand test, arm curl test, 6-min walk test, gait speed and timed up and go test improved over the whole intervention period (p < 0.05), however only chair stand and arm curl test were selectively affected by resistance training (p < 0.001). Neither muscle strength endurance, nor functional mobility or aerobic capacity were modulated by vitamin D supplementation. Therefore, the mere amelioration of 25(OH)D status of older adults does not lead to an additive effect on muscular performance during RT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Maternal Vitamin D Status and Gestational Weight Gain as Correlates of Neonatal Bone Mass in Healthy Term Breastfed Young Infants from Montreal, Canada
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4189; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124189 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 710
Abstract
The implications of maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) and vitamin D status to neonatal bone health are unclear. We tested whether maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and GWG relate to neonatal bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). Healthy term appropriate for [...] Read more.
The implications of maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) and vitamin D status to neonatal bone health are unclear. We tested whether maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and GWG relate to neonatal bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). Healthy term appropriate for gestational age breastfed neonates (n = 142) and their mothers were recruited 24–36 h after delivery and followed at 1.0 ± 0.5 month. At birth, obstetric data were collected and newborn serum 25(OH)D was measured. At 1 month, neonatal whole-body (WB) BMC, WB BMC relative to body weight (WB BMC/kg), lumbar spine BMC and BMD, maternal and neonatal 25(OH)D concentrations, and anthropometry were measured. Infant BMC and BMD between maternal 25(OH)D (<50, ≥50 nmol/L) and GWG (insufficient, adequate, and excessive) categories were compared. Maternal 25(OH)D was not related to infant whole-body BMC, BMC/kg, lumbar spine BMC, and BMD. Infants in the excessive maternal GWG category had greater (p = 0.0003) whole-body BMC and BMC/kg and lumbar spine BMC and BMD than inadequate GWG, and greater (p = 0.0063) whole-body BMC/kg and lumbar spine BMC and BMD than adequate GWG. These results suggest that maternal GWG, but not vitamin D status, modestly relates to bone mass in neonates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Vitamin D Receptor Protects against Radiation-Induced Intestinal Injury in Mice via Inhibition of Intestinal Crypt Stem/Progenitor Cell Apoptosis
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 2910; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13092910 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1010
Abstract
It is urgent to seek new potential targets for the prevention or relief of gastrointestinal syndrome in clinical radiation therapy for cancers. Vitamin D, mediated through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), has been identified as a protective nutrient against ionizing radiation (IR)-induced damage. [...] Read more.
It is urgent to seek new potential targets for the prevention or relief of gastrointestinal syndrome in clinical radiation therapy for cancers. Vitamin D, mediated through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), has been identified as a protective nutrient against ionizing radiation (IR)-induced damage. This study investigated whether VDR could inhibit IR-induced intestinal injury and explored underlying mechanism. We first found that vitamin D induced VDR expression and inhibited IR-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in vitro. VDR was highly expressed in intestinal crypts and was critical for crypt stem/progenitor cell proliferation under physiological conditions. Next, VDR-deficient mice exposed to IR significantly increased DNA damage and crypt stem/progenitor cell apoptosis, leading to impaired intestinal regeneration as well as shorter survival time. Furthermore, VDR deficiency activated the Pmaip1-mediated apoptotic pathway of intestinal crypt stem/progenitor cells in IR-treated mice, whereas inhibition of Pmaip1 expression by siRNA transfection protected against IR-induced cell apoptosis. Therefore, VDR protects against IR-induced intestinal injury through inhibition of crypt stem/progenitor cell apoptosis via the Pmaip1-mediated pathway. Our results reveal the importance of VDR level in clinical radiation therapy, and targeting VDR may be a useful strategy for treatment of gastrointestinal syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Growth, Dietary Intake, and Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) Promoter Genotype in Indonesian School-Age Children
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 2904; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13092904 - 24 Aug 2021
Viewed by 919
Abstract
Nutrition has been known as a predominant factor associated with stunting. However, some studies have discovered a genetic contribution in calcium absorption that will affect growth, known as the VDR gene. The aim of this study was to assess the association between VDR [...] Read more.
Nutrition has been known as a predominant factor associated with stunting. However, some studies have discovered a genetic contribution in calcium absorption that will affect growth, known as the VDR gene. The aim of this study was to assess the association between VDR gene polymorphism and dietary intake towards height-for-age z-score (HAZ) of elementary school children in Malang District, East Java. This study analyzed the baseline of a randomized trial in East Java, Indonesia. School children aged 8–10 years old (n = 142) were included in this study. Energy, protein, calcium, and vitamin D intakes were obtained using 4-day 24-h dietary recalls. Two SNPs located in the promoter region of VDR gene were selected (rs11568820 and rs4516035) and analyzed using Real-Time PCR. The result showed a significant correlation between energy and protein intake with HAZ of the children (p = 0.030 and p = 0.016, respectively). The association between VDR gene and HAZ was not found (p > 0.05). Adjusted by other factors, protein intake was significantly correlated with HAZ (β = 0.034, 95% CI 0.015–0.052, p < 0.001, adj. R2 = 0.089). The children in our study had a favorable VDR gene genotype, however the effect of VDR gene promoter activity might not be revealed due to very low vitamin D and calcium intake to stimulate intestinal calcium absorption which in turn affects HAZ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Association between Predictors of Vitamin D Serum Levels and Risk of Retinoblastoma in Children: A Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2510; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082510 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
Background: vitamin D (VD) may be a protective factor for retinoblastoma, though no temporal association has been reported during pregnancy or the child’s first year of life. Serum VD concentrations are determined by both distal (DF) and proximal factors (PF). Objective: To identify [...] Read more.
Background: vitamin D (VD) may be a protective factor for retinoblastoma, though no temporal association has been reported during pregnancy or the child’s first year of life. Serum VD concentrations are determined by both distal (DF) and proximal factors (PF). Objective: To identify if DF and PF can predict VD insufficiency (VDI) and VD deficiency (VDD) in women of childbearing age; and to test whether maternal exposure to DF and PF during pregnancy and a child’s exposure during the first 11.9 months postpartum are associated with sporadic retinoblastoma (SRb) in children. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from the Epidemiology of SRb in Mexico (EpiRbMx) study and the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2018–2019 (ENSANUT 2018–2019, for its acronym in Spanish). The association of DF and PF with VDD or VDI was estimated using ENSANUT 2018–2019, and the association of DF and PF with SRb using EpiRbMx. All were estimated using logistic regression, with comparable samples selected from ENSANUT 2018–2019 and EpiRbMx. Results: Altitude, latitude and obesity predicted VDI and VDD in ENSANUT women. In EpiRbMx, residence in a rural location during pregnancy increased the risk of SRb. For children, rural residence and latitude increased the risk of SRb, while the number of days exposed to the spring–summer season during months 6 to 11.9 of life was protective. Conclusions: risk of VDI and VDD in women (ENSANUT 2018–2019) increased with altitude, urban dwelling, overweight and obesity. The child and mother’s place of residence, including altitude, latitude and rural classification were important predictors of SRb in EpiRbMx. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Musculoskeletal Health in Active Ambulatory Men with Cerebral Palsy and the Impact of Vitamin D
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2481; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072481 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1425
Abstract
Purpose: (1) To determine the contribution of diet, time spent outdoors, and habitual physical activity (PA) on vitamin D status in men with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to physical activity matched controls (TDC) without neurological impairment; (2) to determine the role of vitamin [...] Read more.
Purpose: (1) To determine the contribution of diet, time spent outdoors, and habitual physical activity (PA) on vitamin D status in men with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to physical activity matched controls (TDC) without neurological impairment; (2) to determine the role of vitamin D on musculoskeletal health, morphology, and function in men with CP compared to TDC. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional comparison study where 24 active, ambulant men with CP aged 21.0 ± 1.4 years (Gross Motor Function Classification Score (I–II) and 24 healthy TDC aged 25.3 ± 3.1 years completed in vivo assessment of musculoskeletal health, including: vastus lateralis anatomical cross-sectional area (VL ACSA), isometric knee extension maximal voluntary contraction (KE iMVC), 10 m sprint, vertical jumps (VJ), and radius and tibia bone ultrasound (US) Tus and Zus scores. Assessments of vitamin D status through venous samples of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and parathyroid hormone, dietary vitamin D intake from food diary, and total sun exposure via questionnaire were also taken. Results: Men with CP had 40.5% weaker KE iMVC, 23.7% smaller VL ACSA, 22.2% lower VJ, 14.6% lower KE iMVC/VL ACSA ratio, 22.4% lower KE iMVC/body mass (BM) ratio, and 25.1% lower KE iMVC/lean body mass (LBM) ratio (all p < 0.05). Radius Tus and Zus scores were 1.75 and 1.57 standard deviations lower than TDC, respectively (p < 0.05), whereas neither tibia Tus nor Zus scores showed any difference compared to TDC (p > 0.05). The 25(OH)D was not different between groups, and 90.9% of men with CP and 91.7% of TDC had low 25(OH)D levels when compared to current UK recommendations. The 25(OH)D was positively associated with KE iMVC/LBM ratio in men with CP (r = 0.500, p = 0.020) but not in TDC (r = 0.281, p = 0.104). Conclusion: Musculoskeletal outcomes in men with CP were lower than TDC, and despite there being no difference in levels of 25(OH)D between the groups, 25 (OH)D was associated with strength (KE iMVC/LBM) in the CP group but not TDC. The findings suggest that vitamin D deficiency can accentuate some of the condition-specific impairments to musculoskeletal outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Serum and Dietary Vitamin D in Individuals with Class II and III Obesity: Prevalence and Association with Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2138; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072138 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1284
Abstract
The association between vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome (MS) in severe obesity is unclear and controversial. We analyzed serum and dietary vitamin D and their association with MS in 150 adults with class II and III obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 [...] Read more.
The association between vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome (MS) in severe obesity is unclear and controversial. We analyzed serum and dietary vitamin D and their association with MS in 150 adults with class II and III obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) from the DieTBra Trial (NCT02463435). MS parameters were high fasting blood glucose, low HDL cholesterol, high triglycerides, elevated waist circumference, and hypertension. Vitamin D deficiency was considered as a level < 20 ng/mL. We performed multivariate Poisson regression adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables. The prevalence of serum vitamin D deficiency was 13.3% (mean 29.9 ± 9.4 ng/mL) and dietary vitamin D median was 51.3 IU/day. There were no significant associations between vitamin D, serum, and diet and sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, and class of obesity. Serum vitamin D deficiency was associated with age ≥ 50 years (p = 0.034). After a fully adjusted multivariate Poisson regression, MS and its parameters were not associated with serum or dietary vitamin D, except for lower HDL, which was associated with serum vitamin D deficiency (PR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.52–0.97; p = 0.029). Severe obese individuals had a low prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, which was not associated with MS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Article
Vitamin D Deficiency Cause Gender Specific Alterations of Renal Arterial Function in a Rodent Model
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020704 - 22 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1437
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency shows positive correlation to cardiovascular risk, which might be influenced by gender specific features. Our goal was to examine the effect of Vitamin D supplementation and Vitamin D deficiency in male and female rats on an important hypertension target organ, [...] Read more.
Vitamin D deficiency shows positive correlation to cardiovascular risk, which might be influenced by gender specific features. Our goal was to examine the effect of Vitamin D supplementation and Vitamin D deficiency in male and female rats on an important hypertension target organ, the renal artery. Female and male Wistar rats were fed with Vitamin D reduced chow for eight weeks to induce hypovitaminosis. Another group of animals received normal chow with further supplementation to reach optimal serum vitamin levels. Isolated renal arteries of Vitamin D deficient female rats showed increased phenylephrine-induced contraction. In all experimental groups, both indomethacin and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition (NS398) decreased the phenylephrine-induced contraction. Angiotensin II-induced contraction was pronounced in Vitamin D supplemented males. In both Vitamin D deficient groups, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was impaired. In the female Vitamin D supplemented group NS398, in males the indomethacin caused reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation. Increased elastic fiber density was observed in Vitamin D deficient females. The intensity of eNOS immunostaining was decreased in Vitamin D deficient females. The density of AT1R staining was the highest in the male Vitamin D deficient group. Although Vitamin D deficiency induced renal vascular dysfunction in both sexes, female rats developed more extensive impairment that was accompanied by enzymatic and structural changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Analytical Performance Specifications for 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Examinations
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020431 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1329
Abstract
Currently the 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is thought to be the best estimate of the vitamin D status of an individual. Unfortunately, its measurement remains complex, despite recent technological advances. We evaluated the biological variation (BV) of 25(OH)D in order to set [...] Read more.
Currently the 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is thought to be the best estimate of the vitamin D status of an individual. Unfortunately, its measurement remains complex, despite recent technological advances. We evaluated the biological variation (BV) of 25(OH)D in order to set analytical performance specifications (APS) for measurement uncertainty (MU). Six European laboratories recruited 91 healthy participants. The 25(OH)D concentrations in K3-EDTA plasma were examined weekly for up to 10 weeks in duplicate on a Lumipulse G1200 (Fujirebio, Tokyo, Japan). The linear regression of the mean 25(OH)D concentrations at each blood collection showed that participants were not in a steady state. The dissection of the 10-sample collection into two subsets, namely collections 1–5 and 6–10, did not allow for correction of the lack of homogeneity: estimates of the within-subject BV ranged from 5.8% to 7.1% and the between-subject BV ranged from 25.0% to 39.2%. Methods that would differentiate a difference induced by 25(OH)D supplementation at p < 0.05 should have MU < 13.6%, while at p < 0.01, the MU should be <9.6%. The development of APS using BV assumes a steady state of patients. The findings in this study suggest that patients are not in steady state. Therefore, APS that are based on MU appear to be more appropriate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Review
Vitamin D and Pancreatitis: A Narrative Review of Current Evidence
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2113; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14102113 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 1045
Abstract
Emerging research indicates that vitamin D metabolic disorder plays a major role in both acute pancreatitis (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP). This has been demonstrated by studies showing that vitamin D deficiency is associated with pancreatitis and its anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects by [...] Read more.
Emerging research indicates that vitamin D metabolic disorder plays a major role in both acute pancreatitis (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP). This has been demonstrated by studies showing that vitamin D deficiency is associated with pancreatitis and its anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects by binding with the vitamin D receptor (VDR). However, the role of vitamin D assessment and its management in pancreatitis remains poorly understood. In this narrative review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in vitamin D/VDR signaling in pancreatic cells; the evidence from observational studies and clinical trials that demonstrate the connection among vitamin D, pancreatitis and pancreatitis-related complications; and the route of administration of vitamin D supplementation in clinical practice. Although further research is still required to establish the protective role of vitamin D and its application in disease, evaluation of vitamin D levels and its supplementation should be important strategies for pancreatitis management according to currently available evidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
The Immunologic Profile of Vitamin D and Its Role in Different Immune-Mediated Diseases: An Expert Opinion
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030473 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1402
Abstract
Historically, vitamin D is recognized as an essential component for the maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. The immunomodulatory role of vitamin D in health and disease has gained much interest in recent years due to the many pathologies that share underlying immunological features [...] Read more.
Historically, vitamin D is recognized as an essential component for the maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. The immunomodulatory role of vitamin D in health and disease has gained much interest in recent years due to the many pathologies that share underlying immunological features where vitamin D has been shown to exert a potential role. Evidence from pre-clinical studies show that vitamin D elicits biological effects on both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Furthermore, in vivo studies have shown that administration of vitamin D can lead to changes in or the development of a range of immune-related diseases. This encourages the hypothesis that data derived from clinical and epidemiological studies connect vitamin D with the incidence and severity of many immune-mediated disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, and infectious diseases. Since some other immune-mediated diseases share similar features to that of viral infection such as COVID-19, in this review, we examined these other areas and the role of vitamin D in these diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Review
The Role of Vitamin D Supplementation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010026 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2028
Abstract
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) present with persistent deficits in both social communication and interactions, along with the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors, resulting in significant impairment in significant areas of functioning. Children with ASD consistently reported significantly lower vitamin D [...] Read more.
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) present with persistent deficits in both social communication and interactions, along with the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors, resulting in significant impairment in significant areas of functioning. Children with ASD consistently reported significantly lower vitamin D levels than typically developing children. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency was found to be strongly correlated with ASD severity. Theoretically, vitamin D can affect neurodevelopment in children with ASD through its anti-inflammatory properties, stimulating the production of neurotrophins, decreasing the risk of seizures, and regulating glutathione and serotonin levels. A Title/Abstract specific search for publications on Vitamin D supplementation trials up to June 2021 was performed using two databases: PubMed and Cochrane Library. Twelve experimental studies were included in the synthesis of this review. Children with ASD reported a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. In general, it was observed that improved vitamin D status significantly reduced the ASD severity, however, this effect was not consistently different between the treatment and control groups. The variations in vitamin D dose protocols and the presence of concurrent interventions might provide an explanation for the variability of results. The age of the child for introducing vitamin D intervention was identified as a possible factor determining the effectiveness of the treatment. Common limitations included a small number of participants and a short duration of follow-ups in the selected studies. Long-term, well-designed randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm the effect of vitamin D on severity in children with ASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Glycemic Control in Prediabetes: A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4464; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124464 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1585
Abstract
Clinical research results of vitamin D supplementation in the improvement of prediabetes remain controversial. Accordingly, a literature search was conducted of PubMed, Embase (Ovid), and Web of Science prior to 9 November 2021. Randomized controlled studies reported that the following indicators were included: [...] Read more.
Clinical research results of vitamin D supplementation in the improvement of prediabetes remain controversial. Accordingly, a literature search was conducted of PubMed, Embase (Ovid), and Web of Science prior to 9 November 2021. Randomized controlled studies reported that the following indicators were included: body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2 h oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose (2h-PG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-B), and fasting insulin (FINS). Twenty-nine articles (N = 3792) were included in the present meta-analysis. Intriguingly, vitamin D supplementation resulted in a vast improvement in FBG (standardized mean difference (SMD) = −0.38; 95%CI: −0.59, −0.16), HbA1c (SMD = −0.14; 95%CI: −0.22, −0.06) and FINS (SMD = 0.18; 95%CI: −0.26, −0.09), but not in other outcomes. However, preferred changes were observed in subgroups, as follows: Asia (SMD2h-PG = −0.25, 95%CI: −0.45, −0.04), study duration ≥1 year (SMDHOMA-IR = −0.44, 95%CI: −0.81, −0.06) (SMDHOMA-B = 0.34, 95%CI: 0.01, 0.66), baseline 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L (SMD2h-PG = −0.23, 95%CI: −0.39, −0.06), and baseline 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L (SMDHOMA-IR = −0.50, 95%CI: −0.96, −0.03). In conclusion, oral supplementation of vitamin D has shown better effects in improving FBG, HbA1c, and FINS compared with controls among prediabetics; long-term vitamin D supplementation could have additional effects in participants with vitamin D deficiency for 2h-PG, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Vitamin D: Mechanism of Action and Biological Effects in Uterine Fibroids
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020597 - 11 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1964
Abstract
Uterine fibroids (UFs) are the most common benign gynecological tumors. It was estimated that fifty percent of women presenting with UFs has symptomatology that negatively influences their quality of life. Pharmacological and/or surgical treatments are frequently required, depending on the woman’s desire to [...] Read more.
Uterine fibroids (UFs) are the most common benign gynecological tumors. It was estimated that fifty percent of women presenting with UFs has symptomatology that negatively influences their quality of life. Pharmacological and/or surgical treatments are frequently required, depending on the woman’s desire to preserve fertility, with a high impact on healthcare costs. Generally, the use of currently available pharmacological treatments may lead to side effects. Therefore, there is a growing interest in a natural and safe approach for UFs. In recent years, epidemiological studies reported a vitamin D deficiency in patients with UFs raised interest in the potential biological effects of vitamin D supplementation. In vitro studies proved vitamin D efficacy in inhibiting UFs growth by targeting pathways involved in the regulation of various biological processes, including proliferation, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, DNA repair, signaling and apoptosis. However, clinical studies supported only in part the beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation in reducing UFs growth and tumor volume. Randomized controlled trials and large population studies are mandatory as the potential clinical benefits are likely to be substantial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Systematic Review
The Influence of Vitamin D Intake and Status on Mental Health in Children: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030952 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3859
Abstract
A potential role of vitamin D in some components of mental health is currently suggested, but the analyses are conducted mainly for adults, while for young individuals mental health is especially important, due to its lifelong effects. The aim of the study was [...] Read more.
A potential role of vitamin D in some components of mental health is currently suggested, but the analyses are conducted mainly for adults, while for young individuals mental health is especially important, due to its lifelong effects. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between vitamin D intake or status and mental health in children within a systematic review of literature, including both intervention and observational studies. The literature search was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines and it covered peer-reviewed studies included in databases of PubMed and Web of Science until October 2019. The studies presenting either vitamin D intake, or vitamin D status in human subjects were allowed (excluding subjects with intellectual disabilities, eating disorders and neurological disorders), while for mental health the various methods of assessment and wide scope of factors were included. The bias was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS). The review was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42020155779). A number of 7613 studies after duplicate removing were extracted by two independent researchers, followed by screening and assessment for eligibility, conducted by two independent researchers in two steps (based on title and abstract). Afterwards, the full texts were obtained and after reviewing, a number of 24 studies were included. The synthetic description of the results was prepared, structured around exposure (vitamin D supplementation/status) and outcome (components of mental health). The included studies were conducted either in groups of healthy individuals, or individuals with mental health problems, and they assessed following issues: behavior problems, violence behaviors, anxiety, depressive symptoms/depression, aggressive disorder, psychotic features, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, suicidal incident, as well as general patterns, as follows: mental health, level of distress, quality of life, well-being, mood, sleep patterns. The vast majority of assessed studies, including the most prominent ones (based on the NOS score) supported potential positive influence of vitamin D on mental health in children. As a limitation of the analysis, it should be indicated that studies conducted so far presented various studied groups, outcomes and psychological measures, so more studies are necessary to facilitate comparisons and deepen the observations. Nevertheless, vitamin D intake within a properly balanced diet or as a supplementation, except for a safe sun exposure, should be indicated as an element supporting mental health in children, so it should be recommended to meet the required 25(OH)cholecalciferol blood level in order to prevent or alleviate mental health problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop