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Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 September 2017) | Viewed by 102469

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, Maastricht, The Netherlands
Interests: obesity; physiology; metabolism; nutrition; exercise
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain”, welcomes the submission of manuscripts either describing original research or reviewing the scientific literature, preferably in the form of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Manuscripts should focus on nutritional strategies to prevent weight regain in overweight and obese individuals that have lost weight, with special attention for optimization of the cardiometabolic risk factor profile. Manuscripts that address potential gender- and age-related differences and individual factors that may predict weight maintenance success are especially welcome. 

Potential topics may include, but are not limited to:

  • advantages and disadvantages of increasing protein intake
  • advantages and disadvantages of lowering fat intake
  • advantages and disadvantages of lowering sugar intake
  • differences between healthy dietary patterns
  • isocaloric vs. ad libitum diets
  • age- and gender-related differences
  • interactions with other lifestyle factors (e.g., physical activity)
  • individual predictors of weight maintenance success

Prof. Marleen van Baak
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • weight regain
  • macronutrients
  • cardiometabolic risk
  • weight maintenance success
  • dietary patterns
  • gender

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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266 KiB  
Article
Dietary Intake of Protein from Different Sources and Weight Regain, Changes in Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors after Weight Loss: The DIOGenes Study
by Marleen A. Van Baak, Thomas M. Larsen, Susan A. Jebb, Alfredo Martinez, Wim H. M. Saris, Teodora Handjieva-Darlenska, Anthony Kafatos, Andreas F. H. Pfeiffer, Marie Kunešová and Arne Astrup
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121326 - 6 Dec 2017
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 7172
Abstract
An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance [...] Read more.
An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance period while following an energy-restricted diet. 489 overweight or obese participants of the DIOGenes trial from eight European countries were included. They successfully lost >8% of body weight and subsequently completed a six month weight maintenance period, in which they consumed an ad libitum diet varying in protein content and glycemic index. Dietary intake was estimated from three-day food diaries. A higher plant protein intake with a proportional decrease in animal protein intake did not affect body weight maintenance or cardiometabolic risk factors. A higher plant protein intake from non-cereal products instead of cereal products was associated with benefits for body weight maintenance and blood pressure. Substituting meat protein for protein from other animal sources increased insulin and HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance). This analysis suggests that not only the amount of dietary proteins, but also the source may be important for weight and cardiometabolic risk management. However, randomized trials are needed to test the causality of these associations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain)
615 KiB  
Article
Dietary Intake after Weight Loss and the Risk of Weight Regain: Macronutrient Composition and Inflammatory Properties of the Diet
by Harry Freitag Luglio Muhammad, Roel G. Vink, Nadia J. T. Roumans, Laura A. J. Arkenbosch, Edwin C. Mariman and Marleen A. Van Baak
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1205; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111205 - 2 Nov 2017
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 9712
Abstract
Weight regain after successful weight loss is a big problem in obesity management. This study aimed to investigate whether weight regain after a weight loss period is correlated with the macronutrient composition and/or the inflammatory index of the diet during that period. Sixty [...] Read more.
Weight regain after successful weight loss is a big problem in obesity management. This study aimed to investigate whether weight regain after a weight loss period is correlated with the macronutrient composition and/or the inflammatory index of the diet during that period. Sixty one overweight and obese adults participated in this experimental study. Subjects lost approximately 10% of their initial weight by means of very low-calorie diet for five weeks, or a low calorie diet for 12 weeks. After that, subjects in both groups followed a strict weight maintenance diet based on individual needs for four weeks, which was followed by a nine-month weight maintenance period without dietary counseling. Anthropometrics and dietary intake data were recorded before weight loss (baseline) and during the weight maintenance period. On average, participants regained approximately half of their lost weight. We found no evidence that macronutrient composition during the weight maintenance period was associated with weight regain. The dietary inflammatory index (r = 0.304, p = 0.032) was positively correlated with weight regain and remained significant after correction for physical activity (r = 0.287, p = 0.045). Our data suggest that the inflammatory properties of diet play a role in weight regain after weight loss in overweight and obese adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain)
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1735 KiB  
Article
Body Weight Cycling with Identical Diet Composition Does Not Affect Energy Balance and Has No Adverse Effect on Metabolic Health Parameters
by Inge F. Palm, Rianne G. A. E. Schram, Hans J. M. Swarts, Evert M. Van Schothorst and Jaap Keijer
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101149 - 20 Oct 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5977
Abstract
Background: Body weight (BW) cycling, the yo-yo effect, is generally thought to have adverse effects on human metabolic health. However, human and animal experiments are limited in number and do not provide clear answers, partly due to large variations in experimental design, parameters [...] Read more.
Background: Body weight (BW) cycling, the yo-yo effect, is generally thought to have adverse effects on human metabolic health. However, human and animal experiments are limited in number and do not provide clear answers, partly due to large variations in experimental design, parameters measured, and definitions of BW cycling. Here, we examined the effect of repetitive BW cycling versus single- and non-cycling control groups, without alterations in diet composition, on steady state BW and metabolic parameters. Methods: We induced well-defined BW cycles on a semi-purified high fat diet in C57BL/6J mice, a well-described animal model for diet-induced obesity, and measured energy expenditure and relevant metabolic parameters. Results: Our setup indeed resulted in the intended BW changes and always reached a stage of energy balance. A history of weight cycling did not result in increased BW or fat mass compared with the control group, nor in deteriorated serum concentrations of glucose, adipokines and serum triglyceride and free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. If anything, BW tended to be reduced, presumably because of a reduced overall energy intake in BW cycling animals. Conclusion: Repeated cycling in BW without changes in diet composition does not lead to impaired metabolic health nor increased BW (gain). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain)
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1449 KiB  
Article
Effects of Popular Diets without Specific Calorie Targets on Weight Loss Outcomes: Systematic Review of Findings from Clinical Trials
by Stephen D. Anton, Azumi Hida, Kacey Heekin, Kristen Sowalsky, Christy Karabetian, Heather Mutchie, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Todd M. Manini and Tracey E. Barnett
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080822 - 31 Jul 2017
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 35748
Abstract
The present review examined the evidence base for current popular diets, as listed in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report, on short-term (≤six months) and long-term (≥one year) weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese adults. For the present review, all diets [...] Read more.
The present review examined the evidence base for current popular diets, as listed in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report, on short-term (≤six months) and long-term (≥one year) weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese adults. For the present review, all diets in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report Rankings for “Best Weight-Loss Diets”, which did not involve specific calorie targets, meal replacements, supplementation with commercial products, and/or were not categorized as “low-calorie” diets were examined. Of the 38 popular diets listed in the U.S. News & World Report, 20 met our pre-defined criteria. Literature searches were conducted through PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science using preset key terms to identify all relevant clinical trials for these 20 diets. A total of 16 articles were identified which reported findings of clinical trials for seven of these 20 diets: (1) Atkins; (2) Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH); (3) Glycemic-Index; (4) Mediterranean; (5) Ornish; (6) Paleolithic; and (7) Zone. Of the diets evaluated, the Atkins Diet showed the most evidence in producing clinically meaningful short-term (≤six months) and long-term (≥one-year) weight loss. Other popular diets may be equally or even more effective at producing weight loss, but this is unknown at the present time since there is a paucity of studies on these diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain)
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Review

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630 KiB  
Review
Effect of Grazing Behavior on Weight Regain Post-Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review
by Nathalia Pizato, Patrícia B. Botelho, Vivian S. S. Gonçalves, Eliane S. Dutra and Kênia M. B. De Carvalho
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1322; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121322 - 5 Dec 2017
Cited by 59 | Viewed by 6266
Abstract
Grazing, a type of maladaptive eating behavior, has been associated with poor weight outcomes in bariatric patients. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the association between grazing behavior and weight regain post-bariatric surgery. Literature searches, study selection, [...] Read more.
Grazing, a type of maladaptive eating behavior, has been associated with poor weight outcomes in bariatric patients. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the association between grazing behavior and weight regain post-bariatric surgery. Literature searches, study selection, design of the method, and quality appraisal were carried out by two independent authors. The search strategy was performed until October 2017 in Medline, Embase, Cochrane, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ProQuest Dissertation & Theses, and Open Grey. Of a total of 3764 articles, five papers met the inclusion criteria (four original articles and one thesis), comprising 994 subjects, mostly women. The prevalence of grazing behavior ranged from 16.6 to 46.6%, and the highest prevalence of significant weight regain was 47%. The association between grazing and weight regain was observed in four of the five evaluated studies. Our findings support an association between grazing behavior and weight regain after bariatric surgery, regardless of surgery type and contextual concept of grazing. Further studies are needed to confirm the clarity of the real prevalence and interfering factors related to grazing behavior and weight outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain)
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1778 KiB  
Review
Neural and Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Controlling the Quality of Feeding Behavior: Diet Selection and Feeding Patterns
by Tsutomu Sasaki
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1151; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101151 - 20 Oct 2017
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 10957
Abstract
We are what we eat. There are three aspects of feeding: what, when, and how much. These aspects represent the quantity (how much) and quality (what and when) of feeding. The quantitative aspect of feeding has been studied extensively, because weight is primarily [...] Read more.
We are what we eat. There are three aspects of feeding: what, when, and how much. These aspects represent the quantity (how much) and quality (what and when) of feeding. The quantitative aspect of feeding has been studied extensively, because weight is primarily determined by the balance between caloric intake and expenditure. In contrast, less is known about the mechanisms that regulate the qualitative aspects of feeding, although they also significantly impact the control of weight and health. However, two aspects of feeding quality relevant to weight loss and weight regain are discussed in this review: macronutrient-based diet selection (what) and feeding pattern (when). This review covers the importance of these two factors in controlling weight and health, and the central mechanisms that regulate them. The relatively limited and fragmented knowledge on these topics indicates that we lack an integrated understanding of the qualitative aspects of feeding behavior. To promote better understanding of weight control, research efforts must focus more on the mechanisms that control the quality and quantity of feeding behavior. This understanding will contribute to improving dietary interventions for achieving weight control and for preventing weight regain following weight loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain)
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701 KiB  
Review
Attenuating the Biologic Drive for Weight Regain Following Weight Loss: Must What Goes Down Always Go Back Up?
by Christopher L. Melby, Hunter L. Paris, Rebecca M. Foright and James Peth
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9050468 - 6 May 2017
Cited by 85 | Viewed by 25897
Abstract
Metabolic adaptations occur with weight loss that result in increased hunger with discordant simultaneous reductions in energy requirements—producing the so-called energy gap in which more energy is desired than is required. The increased hunger is associated with elevation of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin [...] Read more.
Metabolic adaptations occur with weight loss that result in increased hunger with discordant simultaneous reductions in energy requirements—producing the so-called energy gap in which more energy is desired than is required. The increased hunger is associated with elevation of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin and decrements in anorexigenic hormones. The lower total daily energy expenditure with diet-induced weight loss results from (1) a disproportionately greater decrease in circulating leptin and resting metabolic rate (RMR) than would be predicted based on the decline in body mass, (2) decreased thermic effect of food (TEF), and (3) increased energy efficiency at work intensities characteristic of activities of daily living. These metabolic adaptations can readily promote weight regain. While more experimental research is needed to identify effective strategies to narrow the energy gap and attenuate weight regain, some factors contributing to long-term weight loss maintenance have been identified. Less hunger and greater satiation have been associated with higher intakes of protein and dietary fiber, and lower glycemic load diets. High levels of physical activity are characteristic of most successful weight maintainers. A high energy flux state characterized by high daily energy expenditure and matching energy intake may attenuate the declines in RMR and TEF, and may also result in more accurate regulation of energy intake to match daily energy expenditure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain)
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