Special Issue "Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (22 September 2021) | Viewed by 47215

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Special Issue Editors

Dr. Emiliana Giacomello
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medicine, Surgery and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, 34149 Trieste, Italy
Interests: aging; skeletal muscle plasticity; sarcopenia; calorie restriction; cellular traffic
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Luana Toniolo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
Interests: muscle contractility; muscle plasticity; single muscle fibers; sarcopenia; aging and disuse
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the last 100 years, the numerous advances in science, the improved sanitary conditions and a decline in poverty have led to an increase in life expectancy. As a result, in the coming years, the number of over-65s will triple, and the over-80s will be the fastest growing portion of the population.

However, an increased lifespan is associated with an increase in chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, sarcopenia, and degenerative disorders. Therefore, ideally, increased lifespan should be associated to a better healthspan, which is the period one individual is living in good health.

Based on evidence that aging is a multifaceted phenomenon, resulting from one or more failures at the molecular, cellular, physiologic, and functional levels, age-related diseases are difficult therapeutic targets.

Data on the correlation between the quality of one’s diet and life expectancy, and the application of calorie restriction regimens, or of micronutrients, antioxidants and functional foods in the diet make nutrition, together with exercise, a natural weapon to combat age-related diseases and improve healthspan.

The aim of this Special Issue is to update knowledge on the mechanisms responsible for aging and the nutritional strategies to overcome age-related diseases.

Dr. Emiliana Giacomello
Dr. Luana Toniolo
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Aging
  • Lifespan
  • Healthspan
  • Diet
  • Caloric Restriction
  • Geroprotectors
  • Functional Foods
  • Antioxidants
  • Exercise

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010190 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
The current increase in life expectancy is confirmed by data from different sources (i.e.,The World Population Prospects 2019 issued by the United Nations; https://population.un.org/wpp/ (accessed on 20 December 2021)), which predict that, in the near future, individ-uals who are over 65 and over [...] Read more.
The current increase in life expectancy is confirmed by data from different sources (i.e.,The World Population Prospects 2019 issued by the United Nations; https://population.un.org/wpp/ (accessed on 20 December 2021)), which predict that, in the near future, individ-uals who are over 65 and over 80 will be the fastest-growing portion of the population [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Article
Dietary Pattern Accompanied with a High Food Variety Score Is Negatively Associated with Frailty in Older Adults
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3164; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093164 - 10 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
Proper nutrition is a modifiable factor in preventing frailty. This study was conducted to identify the association between dietary patterns and frailty in the older adult population. The cross-sectional analysis was performed on 4632 subjects aged ≥65 years enrolled in the Korea National [...] Read more.
Proper nutrition is a modifiable factor in preventing frailty. This study was conducted to identify the association between dietary patterns and frailty in the older adult population. The cross-sectional analysis was performed on 4632 subjects aged ≥65 years enrolled in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2014–2018. Food variety score (FVS) was defined as the number of foods items consumed over a day. Three dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis: “white rice and salted vegetables,” “vegetables, oils, and fish,” and “noodles and meat.” The higher “white rice and salted vegetables” pattern score was related to significantly lower FVS, whereas higher “vegetables, oils, and fish” and “noodles and meat” pattern scores were associated with a higher FVS. Participants with higher FVS showed a low risk of frailty (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval, CI) = 0.44 (0.31–0.61), p-trend = 0.0001) than those with lower FVS. Moreover, the “vegetables, oils, and fish” pattern score was significantly associated with a low risk of frailty (OR (95% CI) = 0.55 (0.40–0.75), p-trend = 0.0002). These results suggested that consuming a dietary pattern based on vegetables, oils, and fish with high FVS might ameliorate frailty in older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging)
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Article
Caloric Restriction Prevents Metabolic Dysfunction and the Changes in Hypothalamic Neuropeptides Associated with Obesity Independently of Dietary Fat Content in Rats
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2128; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072128 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1381
Abstract
Energy restriction is a first therapy in the treatment of obesity, but the underlying biological mechanisms have not been completely clarified. We analyzed the effects of restriction of high-fat diet (HFD) on weight loss, circulating gut hormone levels and expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides. [...] Read more.
Energy restriction is a first therapy in the treatment of obesity, but the underlying biological mechanisms have not been completely clarified. We analyzed the effects of restriction of high-fat diet (HFD) on weight loss, circulating gut hormone levels and expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides. Ten-week-old male Wistar rats (n = 40) were randomly distributed into four groups: two fed ad libitum a normal diet (ND) (N group) or a HFD (H group) and two subjected to a 25% caloric restriction of ND (NR group) or HFD (HR group) for 9 weeks. A 25% restriction of HFD over 9 weeks leads to a 36% weight loss with regard to the group fed HFD ad libitum accompanied by normal values in adiposity index and food efficiency ratio (FER). This restriction also carried the normalization of NPY, AgRP and POMC hypothalamic mRNA expression, without changes in CART. Caloric restriction did not succeed in improving glucose homeostasis but reduced HFD-induced hyperinsulinemia. In conclusion, 25% restriction of HFD reduced adiposity and improved metabolism in experimental obesity, without changes in glycemia. Restriction of the HFD triggered the normalization of hypothalamic NPY, AgRP and POMC expression, as well as ghrelin and leptin levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging)
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Article
Dietary Diversity and Healthy Aging: A Prospective Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1787; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061787 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2661
Abstract
Population aging is a global phenomenon. The present study determined the effects of dietary diversity score (DDS) and food consumption on healthy aging. A subset of the data of the China Health and Nutrition Survey was utilized in this study. DDSs were calculated [...] Read more.
Population aging is a global phenomenon. The present study determined the effects of dietary diversity score (DDS) and food consumption on healthy aging. A subset of the data of the China Health and Nutrition Survey was utilized in this study. DDSs were calculated using the dietary data collected in the years 2009 and 2011. A healthy aging score (HAS) was calculated by summing the standardized scores on physical functional limitation, comorbidity, cognitive function, and psychological stress based on the data collected in the year 2015, with a lower HAS indicating a healthier aging process. Life quality was self-reported in the year 2015. This study found that DDS was inversely associated with HAS (T3 vs. T1: β −0.16, 95%CI −0.20 to −0.11, p-trend <0.001). The consumption of meat and poultry, aquatic products, and fruits was inversely associated with HAS, and participants in the highest tertile of staple foods consumption had a higher HAS than those in the lowest tertile. HAS was inversely associated with good self-reported life quality and positively associated with bad life quality. In conclusion, food consumption may influence the aging process, and adherence to a diverse diet is associated with a healthier aging process in elderly people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging)
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Article
Malnutrition Risk among Older Mexican Adults in the Mexican Health and Aging Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1615; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051615 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1032
Abstract
Few studies assess the malnutrition risk of older Mexican adults because most studies do not assess nutritional status. This study proposes a modified version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) to assess the risk of malnutrition among older Mexicans adults in the Mexican [...] Read more.
Few studies assess the malnutrition risk of older Mexican adults because most studies do not assess nutritional status. This study proposes a modified version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) to assess the risk of malnutrition among older Mexicans adults in the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). Data comes from the 2012, 2015, and 2018 waves of the MHAS, a nationally representative study of Mexicans aged 50 and older. The sample included 13,338 participants and a subsample of 1911 with biomarker values. ROC analysis was used to calculate the cut point for malnutrition risk. This cut point was compared to the definition of malnutrition from the ESPEN criteria, BMI, low hemoglobin, or low cholesterol. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of malnutrition risk. A score of 10 was the optimal cut point for malnutrition risk in the modified MNA. This cut point had high concordance to identify malnutrition risk compared to the ESPEN criteria (97.7%) and had moderate concordance compared to BMI only (78.6%), and the biomarkers of low hemoglobin (56.1%) and low cholesterol (54.1%). Women, those older than 70, those with Seguro Popular health insurance, and those with fair/poor health were more likely to be malnourished. The modified MNA is an important tool to assess malnutrition risk in future studies using MHAS data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging)
Article
Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Telomere Length in a Random Sample of 5448 U.S. Adults
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1415; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051415 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2471
Abstract
The relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and telomere length was examined using a cross-sectional design and an NHANES random sample of 5448 U.S. adults. Fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption was assessed using a 24 h recall, and telomere length, an index of [...] Read more.
The relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and telomere length was examined using a cross-sectional design and an NHANES random sample of 5448 U.S. adults. Fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption was assessed using a 24 h recall, and telomere length, an index of cellular aging, was measured using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. Telomere length was linearly related to F&V intake when combined (F = 22.7, p < 0.0001) and also when separated as fruit (F = 7.2, p < 0.0121) or vegetables (F = 15.4, p < 0.0005), after adjusting for covariates. Specifically, telomeres were 27.8 base pairs longer for each 100 g (3.5 ounces) of F&V consumed. Because each additional year of chronological age was associated with telomeres that were 14.9 base pairs shorter, when women and men were analyzed together, results indicated that a 100 g (3.5 oz) per day increment in F&V corresponded with 1.9 years less biological aging. When the 75th percentile of F&V intake was compared to the 25th, the difference was 4.4 years of cellular aging. When separated by sex, fruits and vegetables were both related to telomere length in women, but only vegetable intake was predictive of telomere length in men. In conclusion, evidence based on a random sample of U.S. adults indicates that the more the servings of F&V, the longer telomeres tend to be. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging)
Article
Diet–Cognition Associations Differ in Mild Cognitive Impairment Subtypes
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041341 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1275
Abstract
Cognitive function is not generally associated with diet, and there is debate over that association. Moreover, little is known about such associations with the specific cognitive domains and subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We analyzed data of 4309 Chinese adults aged 55 [...] Read more.
Cognitive function is not generally associated with diet, and there is debate over that association. Moreover, little is known about such associations with the specific cognitive domains and subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We analyzed data of 4309 Chinese adults aged 55 and over from the Community-based Cohort Study on Nervous System Diseases from 2018–2019. Dietary habits were assessed at inclusion using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Cognitive function of the participants was measured by using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Analyses were performed using multiple logistic regression and quantile regression with adjustment for socio-demographic, lifestyle, and health-related factors. Compared with normal cognition participants, those with a worse cognition state were characterized as being an older age and lower economic level. After adjustment for potential factors, participants with higher consumption of rice, legumes, fresh vegetables, fresh fruit, pork, poultry, fish, and nuts tended to have higher scores of global cognitive function and domains, and to have lower odds of MCI, while those with higher consumption levels of wheat and eggs had worse cognition, compared with the corresponding bottom consumption level of each food. Participants with a medium consumption level of beef or mutton had 57% (OR: 1.57, 95%CI: 1.07–2.32) higher odds of aMCI-SD, whereas they had 50% (OR: 0.50, 95%CI: 0.34–0.73) lower odds of naMCI-MD. Similarly, the highest consumption level of dairy was positively associated with the odds of aMCI-SD (OR:1.51, 95%CI:1.00–2.29), but inversely linked to the odds of naMCI-SD (OR: 0.60, 95%CI: 0.38–0.93) and naMCI-MD (OR: 0.49, 95%CI: 0.29–0.82). Most diet global cognitive benefits were observed to be associated with the preexisting higher consumption of rice, legumes, fresh vegetables, fresh fruit, meat, and nuts. In addition, the heterogeneity of associations between the consumption of certain foods and MCI subtypes was observed among Chinese adults aged over 55 years. These cross-sectional observations require validation in prospective studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging)
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Article
Dietary Annatto-Extracted Tocotrienol Reduces Inflammation and Oxidative Stress, and Improves Macronutrient Metabolism in Obese Mice: A Metabolic Profiling Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041267 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1216
Abstract
Obesity and its related complications are a world-wide health problem. Dietary tocotrienols (TT) have been shown to improve obesity-associated metabolic disorders, such as hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, and gut dysbiosis. This study examined the hypothesis that the antioxidant capacity of TT alters metabolites of oxidative [...] Read more.
Obesity and its related complications are a world-wide health problem. Dietary tocotrienols (TT) have been shown to improve obesity-associated metabolic disorders, such as hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, and gut dysbiosis. This study examined the hypothesis that the antioxidant capacity of TT alters metabolites of oxidative stress and improves systemic metabolism. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD control) or HFD supplemented with 800 mg annatto-extracted TT/kg (HFD+TT800) for 14 weeks. Sera from obese mice were examined by non-targeted metabolite analysis using UHPLC/MS. Compared to the HFD group, the HFD+TT800 group had higher levels of serum metabolites, essential amino acids (lysine and methionine), sphingomyelins, phosphatidylcholine, lysophospholipids, and vitamins (pantothenate, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal, and retinol). TT-treated mice had lowered levels of serum metabolites, dicarboxylic fatty acids, and inflammatory/oxidative stress markers (trimethylamine N-oxide, kynurenate, 12,13-DiHOME, and 13-HODE + 9-HODE) compared to the control. The results suggest that TT supplementation lowered inflammation and oxidative stress (oxidized glutathione and GSH/GSSH) and improved macronutrient metabolism (carbohydrates) in obese mice. Thus, TT actions on metabolites were beneficial in reducing obesity-associated hypercholesterolemia/hyperglycemia. The effects of a non-toxic dose of TT in mice support the potential for clinical applications in obesity and metabolic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging)
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Article
Functional Frailty, Dietary Intake, and Risk of Malnutrition. Are Nutrients Involved in Muscle Synthesis the Key for Frailty Prevention?
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041231 - 08 Apr 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1717
Abstract
Frailty is a reversible condition, which is strongly related to physical function and nutritional status. Different scales are used to screened older adults and their risk of being frail, however, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) may be more adequate than others to measure [...] Read more.
Frailty is a reversible condition, which is strongly related to physical function and nutritional status. Different scales are used to screened older adults and their risk of being frail, however, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) may be more adequate than others to measure physical function in exercise interventions and has been less studied. Thus, the main aims of our study were: (1) to describe differences in nutritional intakes by SPPB groups (robust, pre-frail and frail); (2) to study the relationship between being at risk of malnourishment and frailty; and (3) to describe differences in nutrient intake between those at risk of malnourishment and those without risk in the no-frail individuals. One hundred one participants (80.4 ± 6.0 year old) were included in this cross-sectional study. A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to determine food intake and Mini Nutritional Assessment to determine malnutrition. Results revealed differences for the intake of carbohydrates, n-3 fatty acids (n3), and saturated fatty acids for frail, pre-frail, and robust individuals and differences in vitamin D intake between frail and robust (all p < 0.05). Those at risk of malnutrition were approximately 8 times more likely to be frail than those with no risk. Significant differences in nutrient intake were found between those at risk of malnourishment and those without risk, specifically in: protein, PUFA n-3, retinol, ascorbic acid, niacin equivalents, folic acid, magnesium, and potassium, respectively. Moreover, differences in alcohol were also observed showing higher intake for those at risk of malnourishment (all p < 0.05). In conclusion, nutrients related to muscle metabolism showed to have different intakes across SPPB physical function groups. The intake of these specific nutrients related with risk of malnourishment need to be promoted in order to prevent frailty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging)
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Article
Association of Adherence to the Mediterranean-Style Diet with Lower Frailty Index in Older Adults
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041129 - 30 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1235
Abstract
Identifying modifying protective factors to promote healthy aging is of utmost public health importance. The frailty index (FI) reflects the accumulation of health deficits and is one widely used method to assess health trajectories in aging. Adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet (MTD) has [...] Read more.
Identifying modifying protective factors to promote healthy aging is of utmost public health importance. The frailty index (FI) reflects the accumulation of health deficits and is one widely used method to assess health trajectories in aging. Adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet (MTD) has been associated with favorable health trajectories. Therefore, this study explored whether adherence to a MTD is negatively associated with FI in the InCHIANTI study. Participants (n = 485) included individuals over 65 years of age at baseline with complete data over a follow-up period of 10 years. MTD was computed on a scale of 0–9 and categorized based on these scores into three groups of low (≤3), medium (4–5), and high (≥6) adherence. Being in a high or medium adherence group was associated with 0.03 and 0.013 unit lower FI scores over the follow-up period, compared to the low adherence group. In participants with a low FI at baseline, being in a high or medium MTD-adherence group had 0.004 and 0.005 unit/year slower progression of FI compared to the low adherence group. These study results support adherence to a MTD as a protective strategy to maintain a lower FI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging)
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Article
Dietary Patterns and Frailty in Older Korean Adults: Results from the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020601 - 12 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
There are few studies on dietary patterns and frailty in Asians, and the results are controversial. Therefore, this study examined the association between dietary patterns and frailty in older Korean adults using the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study (KFACS). The sample consisted [...] Read more.
There are few studies on dietary patterns and frailty in Asians, and the results are controversial. Therefore, this study examined the association between dietary patterns and frailty in older Korean adults using the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study (KFACS). The sample consisted of 511 subjects, aged 70–84 years, community-dwelling older people from the KFACS. Dietary data were obtained from the baseline study (2016–2017) using two nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls, and dietary patterns were extracted using reduced rank regression. Frailty was measured by a modified version of the Fried Frailty Phenotype (FFP) in both the baseline (2016) and the first follow-up study (2018). A logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between dietary patterns and frailty status in 2018. The “meat, fish, and vegetables” pattern was inversely associated with pre-frailty (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.21–0.81, p for trend = 0.009) and exhaustion (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.20–0.85, p for trend = 0.020). The “milk” pattern was not significantly associated with frailty status or the FFP components. In conclusion, a dietary pattern with a high consumption of meat, fish, and vegetables was associated with a lower likelihood of pre-frailty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging)
Article
Effects of Nutrient Intake on Diagnostic Measures of Sarcopenia among Arab Men: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010114 - 30 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1450
Abstract
Sarcopenia is a major public health condition and is, therefore, of great clinical interest. However, the role of nutrient intake in sarcopenia is unclear. We examined the associations between nutrient intake and diagnostic measures of sarcopenia, including low muscle mass (appendicular lean mass [...] Read more.
Sarcopenia is a major public health condition and is, therefore, of great clinical interest. However, the role of nutrient intake in sarcopenia is unclear. We examined the associations between nutrient intake and diagnostic measures of sarcopenia, including low muscle mass (appendicular lean mass (ALM) divided by height squared, ALM/h2) and strength (hand-grip strength, HGS) among Arab men. This cross-sectional study included 441 men aged 46.8 ± 15.98 years. Habitual nutrient intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Participants were classified according to different ALM/h2 and HGS reference values. Participants with normal muscle mass, defined by an ALM/h2 cutoff of <8.68 kg/m2 (−1 standard deviation (SD) <reference values Arab men), had greater daily energy, protein and fat intake, and percentage of energy from protein and fat (p < 0.01). Conversely, normal muscle mass was associated with a lower percentage of energy from carbohydrates (CHO) (p < 0.001). Regarding muscle strength, participants with HGS above 42 kg (median HGS of Arab men) had higher daily energy and protein and fat intake, but a lower percentage of energy from CHO and a lower intake of total omega-3 fatty acids (p < 0.05). Individuals with normal muscle mass and high HGS have greater daily energy, protein, and fat intake and a lower percentage of energy from CHO compared to sarcopenic individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging)
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Article
Association between Intake of Energy and Macronutrients and Memory Impairment Severity in US Older Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2014
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3559; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113559 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1962
Abstract
Without a cure, dementia affects about 50 million people worldwide. Understanding the effects of dietary habits, a key lifestyle behavior, on memory impairment is critical to inform early behavioral modification to delay further memory loss and progression to dementia. We examined the associations [...] Read more.
Without a cure, dementia affects about 50 million people worldwide. Understanding the effects of dietary habits, a key lifestyle behavior, on memory impairment is critical to inform early behavioral modification to delay further memory loss and progression to dementia. We examined the associations of total energy intake and energy intake from macronutrients with memory impairment among older US adults using data from the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey study 2011–2014. A total of 3623 participants aged ≥60 years were analyzed. Comparing to those with low total energy intake, individuals with high intake were more likely to have severe memory impairment (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.15 to 2.02; ptrend = 0.005). Specifically, higher energy intake from carbohydrate (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.26) and sugar (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.16) were both significantly associated with the presence of memory impairment. Additionally, higher energy intake from fat, carbohydrate and sugar were significantly associated with more server memory impairment (fat: ptrend = 0.04; carbohydrate: ptrend = 0.03; sugar: ptrend = 0.02). High energy intake, either total or from carbohydrates, fat or sugar, is associated with memory impairment severity in the older US population. No such association was found in energy intake from protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging)
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Article
Effect of Anthocyanin-Rich Extract of Sour Cherry for Hyperglycemia-Induced Inflammatory Response and Impaired Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3373; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113373 - 02 Nov 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1380
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM)-related morbidity and mortality are steadily rising worldwide, affecting about half a billion people worldwide. A significant proportion of diabetic cases are in the elderly, which is concerning given the increasing aging population. Proper nutrition is an important component in the [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus (DM)-related morbidity and mortality are steadily rising worldwide, affecting about half a billion people worldwide. A significant proportion of diabetic cases are in the elderly, which is concerning given the increasing aging population. Proper nutrition is an important component in the effective management of diabetes in the elderly. A plethora of active substances of plant origin exhibit potency to target the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. The nutraceutical and pharmaceutical effects of anthocyanins have been extensively studied. In this study, the effect of Hungarian sour cherry, which is rich in anthocyanins, on hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction was tested using human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were maintained under both normoglycemic (5 mM) and hyperglycemic (30 mM) conditions with or without two concentrations (1.50 ng/µL) of anthocyanin-rich sour cherry extract. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response and damaged vasorelaxation processes were investigated by evaluating the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and gene expression of four proinflammatory cytokines, namely, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and interleukin-1α (IL-1α), as well as the gene expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1). It was found that hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress was significantly suppressed by anthocyanin-rich sour cherry extract in a concentration-dependent manner. The gene expression of the tested proinflammatory cytokines increased under hyperglycemic conditions but was significantly reduced by both 1 and 50 ng/µL anthocyanin-rich sour cherry extract. Further, although increased ET-1 and ECE-1 expression due to hyperglycemia was reduced by anthocyanin-rich sour cherry extract, NOS expression was increased by the extract. Collectively, these data suggest that anthocyanin-rich sour cherry extract could alleviate hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and vasorelaxant effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging)
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Article
Frailty Intervention through Nutrition Education and Exercise (FINE). A Health Promotion Intervention to Prevent Frailty and Improve Frailty Status among Pre-Frail Elderly—A Study Protocol of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2758; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092758 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2157
Abstract
The ageing process has been associated with various geriatric issues including frailty. Without early prevention, frailty may cause multiple adverse outcomes. However, it potentially may be reversed with appropriate interventions. The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness of nutritional education [...] Read more.
The ageing process has been associated with various geriatric issues including frailty. Without early prevention, frailty may cause multiple adverse outcomes. However, it potentially may be reversed with appropriate interventions. The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness of nutritional education and exercise intervention to prevent frailty among the elderly. A 3-month, single-blind, two-armed, cluster randomized controlled trial of the frailty intervention program among Malaysian pre-frail elderly will be conducted. A minimum of total 60 eligible respondents from 8 clusters (flats) of Program Perumahan Rakyat (PPR) flats will be recruited and randomized to the intervention and control arm. The intervention group will receive a nutritional education and a low to moderate multi-component exercise program. To date, this is the first intervention study that specifically targets both the degree of frailty and an improvement in the outcomes of frailty using both nutritional education and exercise interventions among Malaysian pre-frail elderly. If the study is shown to be effective, there are major potential benefits to older population in terms of preventing transition to frailty. The findings from this trial will potentially provide valuable evidence and serve as a model for similar future interventions designed for elderly Malaysians in the community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging)
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Review

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Review
Using Nature to Nurture: Breast Milk Analysis and Fortification to Improve Growth and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Preterm Infants
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4307; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124307 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1285
Abstract
Premature infants are born prior to a critical window of rapid placental nutrient transfer and fetal growth—particularly brain development—that occurs during the third trimester of pregnancy. Subsequently, a large proportion of preterm neonates experience extrauterine growth failure and associated neurodevelopmental impairments. Human milk [...] Read more.
Premature infants are born prior to a critical window of rapid placental nutrient transfer and fetal growth—particularly brain development—that occurs during the third trimester of pregnancy. Subsequently, a large proportion of preterm neonates experience extrauterine growth failure and associated neurodevelopmental impairments. Human milk (maternal or donor breast milk) is the recommended source of enteral nutrition for preterm infants, but requires additional fortification of macronutrient, micronutrient, and energy content to meet the nutritional demands of the preterm infant in attempts at replicating in utero nutrient accretion and growth rates. Traditional standardized fortification practices that add a fixed amount of multicomponent fortifier based on assumed breast milk composition do not take into account the considerable variations in breast milk content or individual neonatal metabolism. Emerging methods of individualized fortification—including targeted and adjusted fortification—show promise in improving postnatal growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging)
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Review
Potential Role of Probiotics for Inflammaging: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 2919; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13092919 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1452
Abstract
Background and aims: Inflammaging, a chronic, low-grade inflammation (LGI), is one of the mechanisms of adaptation of an organism to aging. Alterations in the composition of gut microbiota and gut permeability are among the main sources of LGI. They may be modulated by [...] Read more.
Background and aims: Inflammaging, a chronic, low-grade inflammation (LGI), is one of the mechanisms of adaptation of an organism to aging. Alterations in the composition of gut microbiota and gut permeability are among the main sources of LGI. They may be modulated by supplementation with live microorganisms, i.e. probiotics. This narrative review was performed with the aim to critically examine the current evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on the effects of probiotics on pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP) in healthy older subjects. Methodology: RCTs on the effects of probiotics on inflammatory parameters in subjects older than 65 years published in English and Italian from 1990 to October 2020 were searched in PubMed. Studies that were not RCTs, those using probiotics together with prebiotics (synbiotics), and studies performed in subjects with acute or chronic diseases were excluded. The findings of RCTs were reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Results: A total of nine RCTs met the eligibility criteria and were included in this narrative review. Four articles reported that probiotic supplementation significantly affected inflammatory parameters, respectively, by reducing TGF-β1 concentrations, IL-8, increasing IL-5 and Il-10, and IFN-γ and IL-12. Conclusions: Based on this narrative review, probiotic supplementation showed a limited effect on inflammatory markers in healthy individuals older than 65 years. Besides being few, the studies analyzed have methodological limitations, are heterogeneous, and provide results which are incomparable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging)
Review
The Potential of Calorie Restriction and Calorie Restriction Mimetics in Delaying Aging: Focus on Experimental Models
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2346; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072346 - 09 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 17551
Abstract
Aging is a biological process determined by multiple cellular mechanisms, such as genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication, that ultimately concur in the functional decline of [...] Read more.
Aging is a biological process determined by multiple cellular mechanisms, such as genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication, that ultimately concur in the functional decline of the individual. The evidence that the old population is steadily increasing and will triplicate in the next 50 years, together with the fact the elderlies are more prone to develop pathologies such as cancer, diabetes, and degenerative disorders, stimulates an important effort in finding specific countermeasures. Calorie restriction (CR) has been demonstrated to modulate nutrient sensing mechanisms, inducing a better metabolic profile, enhanced stress resistance, reduced oxidative stress, and improved inflammatory response. Therefore, CR and CR-mimetics have been suggested as powerful means to slow aging and extend healthy life-span in experimental models and humans. Taking into consideration the difficulties and ethical issues in performing aging research and testing anti-aging interventions in humans, researchers initially need to work with experimental models. The present review reports the major experimental models utilized in the study of CR and CR-mimetics, highlighting their application in the laboratory routine, and their translation to human research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging)
Review
Seafood Intake as a Method of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) Prevention in Adults
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051422 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
Seafood (fish in particular) is one of the main food groups in nutrition models with proven health benefits. Seafood has long been considered a very valuable dietary component, mainly due to presence of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) but [...] Read more.
Seafood (fish in particular) is one of the main food groups in nutrition models with proven health benefits. Seafood has long been considered a very valuable dietary component, mainly due to presence of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) but it is also an important source of protein (including collagen), anserine, taurine, iodine, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin K, vitamin D, tocopherols, B vitamins and astaxanthin. Considering the beneficial effects of these ingredients on blood pressure, lipid profile and the inflammatory process, seafood should be an essential component of the diet. Non-communicable diseases (NCD) such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes and mental disorder, chronic respiratory diseases are common diseases associated with advanced age. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle (including proper nutritional behavior) and prevention of diseases are the most effective and efficient ways to decrease premature mortality from NCD and to maintain mental health and well-being. This review article shows the potential preventive and therapeutic effects of seafood with an emphasis on fish. Our narrative review presents the results of systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Healthy Aging)
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