Special Issue "Nutrition in Chronic Conditions"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 March 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Omorogieva Ojo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Education, Health and Human Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of Greenwich, Avery Hill Campus, Avery Hill Road, London SE9 2UG, UK
Interests: diabetes; glycaemic index of foods; enteral nutrition; multi-morbidity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Amanda Adegboye
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Nursing, Midwifery and Health, Coventry University, Coventry, UK
Interests: nutrition and chronic conditions; behaviour change interventions; women’s health; maternal and child health; oral health; health inequalities and migrant health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The effects of nutrition on chronic conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia and stroke, continue to generate interest among researchers. This is based on the fact that diet is a modifiable risk factor for these diseases, which manifest either as single entities or in co-morbid states in individuals and populations around the world. In particular, the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease is on the increase, especially in developed countries, but also in developing economies, partly due to lifestyle changes, including diet. For example, ischaemic heart disease is the leading cause of death globally. When combined with stroke, they accounted for 15 million deaths in 2015 and are the world’s greatest killers (WHO, 2017). Furthermore, WHO (2016) reported that there were an estimated 422 million adults living with diabetes in 2014. This is significantly higher than the 108 million in 1980, representing a rise in worldwide diabetes prevalence from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014 among the adult population.

These chronic conditions and their associated complications have significant implications for morbidity and mortality, not to mention huge costs to the health services around the world. The composition of the diet, the proportion and types of macronutrients and micronutrients present in the diet are major contributors to these diseases. In addition, the beneficial effects of nutritional interventions have been well documented although differences remain among researchers with respect to their overall impact. The evaluation of the role of nutrition in chronic conditions draws on its effect on body weight and body composition, glycaemic and insulin excursions and vascular remodelling. The effect of the diet in modulating gut microbiota dysbiosis is also an evolving area of research.

Therefore, this Special Issue on “Nutrition and Chronic Conditions” is aimed at examining the effect of nutrition in the development, care and management of chronic conditions. The primary conditions of interests are diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, stroke and inflammatory bowel disease.

Dr. Omorogieva Ojo
Prof. Dr. Amanda Adegboye
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nutrition and co-morbidities
  • gut microbiota
  • glycaemic index, glycaemic load and diabetes
  • nutrition and diabetes
  • nutrition and dementia
  • nutrition and cardiovascular disease
  • nutrition and stroke
  • nutrition and inflammatory bowel disease
  • pathogenesis of diabetes and other chronic conditions

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Coffee Restores Expression of lncRNAs Involved in Steatosis and Fibrosis in a Mouse Model of NAFLD
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 2952; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13092952 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 822
Abstract
Background and aim: Coffee intake exerts protective effects against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), although without fully cleared mechanisms. In this study we aimed to assess whether coffee consumption may influence the expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the liver. Methods: C57BL/6J [...] Read more.
Background and aim: Coffee intake exerts protective effects against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), although without fully cleared mechanisms. In this study we aimed to assess whether coffee consumption may influence the expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the liver. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were fed a 12-week standard diet (SD), high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD plus decaffeinated coffee solution (HFD + coffee). Expression of specific lncRNAs involved in NAFLD was analyzed by real-time PCR. For the most differentially expressed lncRNAs, the analysis was also extended to their mRNA targets. Results: Decaffeinated coffee intake reduced body weight gain, prevented NAFLD, lowered hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia. NAFLD was associated with lower hepatic expression of Gm16551, a lncRNA inhibiting de novo lipogenesis, and higher expression of H19, a lncRNA promoting fibrogenesis. Coffee intake restored Gm16551 to levels observed in lean mice and downregulated gene expression of its targets acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase 1 and stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1. Furthermore, coffee consumption markedly decreased hepatic expression of H19 and of its target gene collagen alpha-1(I) chain; consistently, in mice fed HFD + coffee liver expression of αSMA protein returned to levels of mice fed SD. Expression of lncRNA involved in circadian clock such as fatty liver-related lncRNA 1 (FLRL1) and fatty liver-related lncRNA 2 (FLRL2) were upregulated by HFD and were also modulated by coffee intake. Conclusion. Hepatoprotective effects of coffee may be depending on the modulation of lncRNAs involved in key pathways of NAFLD onset and progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Chronic Conditions)
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Review

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Review
The Effects of Almonds on Gut Microbiota, Glycometabolism, and Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3377; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103377 - 26 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1191
Abstract
The use of nutritional interventions for managing diabetes is one of the effective strategies aimed at reducing the global prevalence of the condition, which is on the rise. Almonds are the most consumed tree nut and they are known to be rich sources [...] Read more.
The use of nutritional interventions for managing diabetes is one of the effective strategies aimed at reducing the global prevalence of the condition, which is on the rise. Almonds are the most consumed tree nut and they are known to be rich sources of protein, monounsaturated fatty acids, essential minerals, and dietary fibre. Therefore, the aim of this review was to evaluate the effects of almonds on gut microbiota, glycometabolism, and inflammatory parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out according to the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA). EBSCOhost, which encompasses the Health Sciences Research Databases; Google Scholar; EMBASE; and the reference lists of articles were searched based on population, intervention, control, outcome, and study (PICOS) framework. Searches were carried out from database inception until 1 August 2021 based on medical subject headings (MesH) and synonyms. The meta-analysis was carried out with the Review Manager (RevMan) 5.3 software. Results: Nine randomised studies were included in the systematic review and eight were used for the meta-analysis. The results would suggest that almond-based diets have significant effects in promoting the growth of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing gut microbiota. Furthermore, the meta-analysis showed that almond-based diets were effective in significantly lowering (p < 0.05) glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and body mass index (BMI) in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, it was also found that the effects of almonds were not significant (p > 0.05) in relation to fasting blood glucose, 2 h postprandial blood glucose, inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and Tumour necrosis factor α, TNF-α), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA–IR), and fasting insulin. The biological mechanisms responsible for the outcomes observed in this review in relation to reduction in HbA1c and BMI may be based on the nutrient composition of almonds and the biological effects, including the high fibre content and the low glycaemic index profile. Conclusion: The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis have shown that almond-based diets may be effective in promoting short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria and lowering glycated haemoglobin and body mass index in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with control. However, the effects of almonds were not significant (p > 0.05) with respect to fasting blood glucose, 2 h postprandial blood glucose, inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and TNF-α), GLP-1, HOMA–IR, and fasting insulin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Chronic Conditions)
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Review
Chronic Kidney Disease: Role of Diet for a Reduction in the Severity of the Disease
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3277; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093277 - 19 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1750
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease affects ~37 million adults in the US, and it is often undiagnosed due to a lack of apparent symptoms in early stages. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) interferes with the body’s physiological and biological mechanisms, such as fluid electrolyte and pH [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease affects ~37 million adults in the US, and it is often undiagnosed due to a lack of apparent symptoms in early stages. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) interferes with the body’s physiological and biological mechanisms, such as fluid electrolyte and pH balance, blood pressure regulation, excretion of toxins and waste, vitamin D metabolism, and hormonal regulation. Many CKD patients are at risk of hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, chronic metabolic acidosis, bone deterioration, blood pressure abnormalities, and edema. These risks may be minimized, and the disease’s progression may be slowed through careful monitoring of protein, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and calcium, relieving symptoms experienced by CKD patients. In this review, the current Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) recommendations are highlighted, reflecting the 2020 update, including explanations for the pathophysiology behind the recommendations. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, the Mediterranean diet, and the whole foods plant-based diet are currently being examined for their potential role in delaying CKD progression. Biological explanations for why the whole foods plant-based diet may benefit CKD patients compared to diets that include animal products are examined. Strong evidence continues to support the importance of diet meeting the daily requirement in the prevention and progression of kidney disease, and medical nutrition therapy with a registered dietitian is a critical aspect in medical intervention for CKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Chronic Conditions)
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Review
Metabolic Syndrome: Is It Time to Add the Central Nervous System?
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072254 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1326
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a set of cardio-metabolic risk factors that includes central obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemias. The syndrome affects 25% of adults worldwide. The definition of MS has evolved over the last 80 years, with various classification systems and criteria, whose [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a set of cardio-metabolic risk factors that includes central obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemias. The syndrome affects 25% of adults worldwide. The definition of MS has evolved over the last 80 years, with various classification systems and criteria, whose limitations and benefits are currently the subject of some controversy. Likewise, hypotheses regarding the etiology of MS add more confusion from clinical and epidemiological points of view. The leading suggestion for the pathophysiology of MS is insulin resistance (IR). IR can affect multiple tissues and organs, from the classic “triumvirate” (myocyte, adipocyte, and hepatocyte) to possible effects on organs considered more recently, such as the central nervous system (CNS). Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) may be clinical expressions of CNS involvement. However, the association between MCI and MS is not understood. The bidirectional relationship that seems to exist between these factors raises the questions of which phenomenon occurs first and whether MCI can be a precursor of MS. This review explores shared pathophysiological mechanisms between MCI and MS and establishes a hypothesis of a possible MCI role in the development of IR and the appearance of MS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Chronic Conditions)
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